(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Massorah Massoreth Massoretic RabbinicHebrewBible.C.D.Ginsburg.1865.1905.4vols.plus3vols"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at http : //books . google . com/| 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



^ 



/ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



807 



ReuchIiIN, his connection with the 

KabbaUh, 11, 12. 
KoBSi, Asariah de, his date, refutation of 

Levita's arguments for the novelty of 

the vowel-points, &o., 52, 53; his 

Meor Enajim quoted, 122. 

S 
Saba, Abraham, 12. 

Saadia, Gaon, 20; his date, and philo- 
sophical treatise, 186, 269. 
Saccxtto, Abraham, 10. 
Scribes, their name and connection with 

the Bfassorah, 185. 
Sedeb Ha-Kabbalah, 108. 
Sedeb 01am, the Chronicle, 108. 
Semleb, J. S., his connection with the 

German translation of the Maasoreth 

Ha-Ma88oreth, 42, 44. 
Sbfobno, Obadiah, 10. 
Sblvb, George de, Bishop of Lavoor, his 

literary connection with Levita, 22 ; 

encourages him to undertake the 

Massoretic Concordance, 28-25, 37. 
Shbaja, Joseph, 12. 
Simon b. Jochai, reputed author of the 

Sohar, 48. 
SiXTUS ^V^, patronises the Kabbalah, 11. 
Shimshon, the Grammarian, his date, and 

treatise on the vowel-pointa and 

accents, 257. 
Sohar, the, its view of the antiquity and 

authority of the Towel-points, 48, 121. 
Spiba, Meier, 257. 



Steinbchneider, Dr., 2, 14, 17, 126. 
Stebn, Leseange, 65. 
Stnaooque, the Great, its constitution, 
107, 108. 



Texplb, the Second, five articles wanted 
in it which were in the first Temple, 
111. 

Tbanbposition of letters, sixty -two in- 
stances of, 116. 



Valbnoia, Jacob 



V 

Perez 



de, his date. 



opinion about the yOwel-points, &c., 
47. 

VoWBL-PoiNTS, the, controversy about their 
antiquity and authority, 44 - 68 ; be- 
comes a dogma in Switzerland, 64; 
Buperlineary system of, 61 ; inter- 
lineary srstem of, 61, 62; Levita's 
opinion about their antiquity, 121 , &c. 

W 
Walton, Brian, his view of the antiquity 

of the vowel-points, 67. 
Whitfield, P., on the antiquity of the 

vowel-points, 69. 
Weight, Dr. William, 100. 



Zamoba, Alphonso de, his contributions 
to the Complutensian Polyglott, 9. 



D. IIARPLBS, PRINTEB, LIVERPOOL. 



Digitized by 



Google 



806 



Commentary on M. Kimohi's Hebrew 

Grammar, 18, 14, 36, 80-88, 92. 
Baba Buch, U. 
Baehnr, 16, 78-76, 92. 
Tables of Paradigms, 17. 
A Treatise on Componnds, 17, 18, 80, 92. 
Poetical Dissertations, 18, 19, 80, 92, 

145, 199, 202, 219. 
Concordance to tbe Massorab, 20, 28- 

86, 187. 
Aramaic Grammar, 20. ^ 
Massoreth Ha-Massoretb, 40-44. 
Treatise on the Accents, called Good 

Sense, 63-65, 114, 123, 204. 
Tisbbi, 68. 

Metbnrgeman, 69 - 72. 
Nomendatore, 78. 

German translation of the Pentateuch, 
FiTe Megillotb, and Hapbtaroth, 78. 
German version of the Psalms, 79. 
Annotations on Kimchi's Grammatical 
and Lexical works, 79. 
Landau, 2. 
Lbyi, b. Chabib, 10. 
Lbti, b. Joseph, bis Grammar entitled the 

Vine-blossom, 122. 
Liohtfoot, Dr., his view of the antiquity 
and anthority of tbe vowel-pomts, 
67, 68. 
Lettbbs, majasonlar and minnscnlar, 

alphabetical lists of, 230, 231. 
Loanz, Jacob b. Jechiel, 10; teaches 

Beucblin Hebrew, 12. 
LowTH, Bishop, his view abont the vowel- 
points, 69. 
LuLLY, Baymond, his connection with the 

Kabbalah, 11. 
LuzzATTO, Treatise on the vowel -points 

in Halichoth Kedem, 62. 
LrTHKR, Martin, his sentiments about the 
Jews, 88, 89 ; his view of the origin 
and antiquity of the vowel-points, 49. 
Ltra, Nicolas de, his date, forerunner of 
the Reformation, his opinion about 
the vowel-points, 16, 17. 



Maixonideb, his date and great phUo- 

Bophical work, 36; work on Biolical 

and Traditional Law, called Jad Ha- 

Chezaka, 114, 182. 
Mavtino, Jacob, 10, 86. 
Martin, Gregory, his opinion about tbe 

Hebrew vowel-points, controversy with 

William Fulke, &o., 61. 
Masbobah, how treated by copyists, 91; 

signification of the word, 102, 104; 

ito order of the Bible, 120, 121; 

magna, and maigmalis, 188, 139. 
Mbdioo, Elias del, or Elias Cretensis, 

teacher of Mirandola, 11. 
Mesbeb, lion, his works, 10. 
Methuboex AN, see Levita. 
Mbzuzah, the, 96. 



MiCHAELia, J. D., Anfangs-Griinde der 
Hebraischen Accentuation, 66. 

Mirandola, John Pico della, bis connec- 
tion with the Kabbalah, 11. 

MoBiNUB, John, his opinion abont tbe 
Hebrew verity and the vowel-points, 
60. 

MoBBB, Ha-Darshan, his date, and work 
on the Commandments and Prohibi- 
tions, 249, 250. 

Moses, the Punctuator, his date and 
works, 123, 124; his opinion abont 
the antiquity of the accents, ibid, 

N 
Nachxanides, Moses, his date, opinion 

abont the mystic import of the Law, 

124. 
Nathan, Isaac, author of the first Hebrew 

Concordance, 21 . 
Nathan b. Jechiel, 2. 
Naphtali, see Ben Naphtali. 
Natboni n., b. Hilai, his opinion abont 

the antiquity and authority of the 

Hebrew vowel-points, 44 
Noah, tbe seven commandments of, 99. 
Nomenclature, see Levita. 
Numerals, how expressed, 185, 186. 



OcHLA Ve-Oohla, described by Levita, 98, 

94,138. 
Owen, Dr. John, his controversy with 

Bishop Walton abont the antiquiW 

and anthority of the vowel-points, 58, 

59. 



Pratenbib, Felix, editor of the first Rab- 
binic Bible, 9, 21. 

Prebteb John, 130. 

Palestine, the seven productions of, 182. 

Pentateuch, the, a copy of deposited by 
Moses in the Ark of the Covenant, 
119. 

Perbeau, Abate Pietro, 126. 

Pfeffebkobn, his malignity against the 
Jews, 12 ; his date and works, 87, 88. 

Pinsker, Einleitung in das Babyloniscb- 
Hebraische Punktationssystem, 62. 

Pinner, Dr., Prospectus, 62. 

PiscATOB, John, his opinion of the vowel- 
points, 51. 

Plenb, 146-U8. 

Pbophiat Duran, see Ephodi. 

Purity of Language, an anonjnmous 
grammatical treatise, 126. 



Rabhi, 106. 

Raymond Martin, his opinion abont the 
Hebrew verity and vowel-points, 45, 46. 
Ricio, Paul, his Kabbalistic Labours, 9. 
Remembrance, book of, see Levita. 



Digitized by 



Google 



805 



FuBST, Dr. Julius, Geachichte det Eariier- 
thnms, 6*2. 



Galatinxjs, Petms, his work entitled On 
the Mysteries of the Catholic Trath, 
15. 

GANSf David, his historical work called 
Stder Otam^ 8 ; his date, and opinion 
about the edition of Levita's Gram- 
matical work, 75. 

Geioer, Dr. Ursohrift, 62. 

Gill, Dr. John, on the antiquity of the 
▼owel-points, 59. 

Good Sense, book of, see Lbvita. 

G&AETZ, his critique on Isaac Zarphati's 
Epistle, 7. 



Habdino, Dr. Thomas, his controversy 
with Bishop Jewel, 50. 

Hebrew, callea Sacred, language, 195. 

Heidenheim, the Laws of the Accents, 65. 

Heilprin, Jechiel, his historical work 
called Sfder Ila-Doroth, 8; opinion 
about the date of Levita's publica- 
tions, 75, 76. 

Heredla, Paul de, Eabbalist, 9. 

Hebmes, the worship of, 98. 

Hexaheueron, the work of, 98. 

Hilali, Codex, 260. 

Holmes, Dr., his article, Levita, in 
Kitto's Cydopasdia, 2, 8, 79. 

IIuTCHiNBON, J<mn, his view of the 
Hebrew verity and the vowel-points, 
60 ; his school, ibid. 



Ibn Aknin, 20. 

Ibn Al-Tabben, his date, and Grammar, 

called the Key, 259. 
Ibn Baalam, his date, and works, 123 ; his 

opinion about the antiquity of the 

accents, 128. 
Ibn Danan, Saadia, 10. 
Ibn Daud, Abraham, called Rabad, author 

of the Chronicle Seder Ha-Kabbalah, 

108. 
Ibn Ezra, his date, and Grammar, 45, 125. 
Ibn Ganach, Jonah, 20, 181. 
Ibn Jachja, David, his contributions to 

Biblical literature, 81, 82. 
Ibn Jachja, Joseph, 10. 
Ibn Verga, Jehuoah, 12. 
Isaac b. Meie^, 2. 



Jacob b. Asheri, caUed Baal Ha-Turim, 
his Masaoretic commentary, 142, 143. 

Jacob b. Chajim, editor of the Massorah, 
9, 21 ; his date and works, 38, 89 ; his 
connection with the Ochla Ve-Ochla, 
94 ; his Introduction to the Rabbinic 
Bible, 107, 109, 194, 



Jacob b. Eleazar, his date, and BeceBsion 
of the Bible, 258. 

Jehovah, the mvsteries connected with 
the name, 219. 

Jehudah Ha -Levi, his work entitled 
Khozaii, 126, 138; opinion about the 
antiquityof the vowel-points, 126, 127. 

Jekuthiel Ha-Cohen, his date and Mas- 
soretio work, 257, 258. 

Jbbemiah the prophet conceals a copy of 
the Law, 119. 

Jellinbk, Dr. Adolph, his contributkms 
to the History of the Crusades, 7. 

Jerome, St., quoted in support of the 
antiquity of the vowel-pomta, 52, 58. 

Jetzira, the book, 98. 

Jerusalem, Codex, 260. 

Jewel, John, Bishop of Salisbury, his 
controversy with Dr. Harding, 50. 

Jewish Converts diffuse Biblical know- 
ledge, 9. 

Jose, b. Chalaphta, reputed author of the 
Chronicle Seder Olam^ 108. 

Jews, persecuted at Mayence, 6 ; at Trent, 
ibtd. Earnestly solicited by Isaac 
Zarphati t > quit Germauy, and seek 
shelier under the Crescent, G, 7 ; ex- 
pelled from Spain, 7 ; from Portugal, 
8; their children forcibly baptised, 
ibid, 

JusTiNiANi, translator of the More Ne- 
buchim, 86. 

E 

Kabbalah, the, studied by Christians, 10, 

12, 15, 39. 
Ealisch, Dr., his notice of Levita in the 

Hebrew Grammar, 8 ; of Luther's and 

Calvin's opinions about the antiquity 

of the vowel-points, 49. 
Kbri and Eethiv, various opinions about 

the oiigin thereof, 108-112 ; numbers 

of in the Bibles, 115,116. 
1'hobari, see Jehudah Ha- Levi. 
KiMCHi, David, his Grammatical and 

Lexical works, 79, 107, 2d8; his 

opinion about the antiquity of the 

vowel-points, 121, 122. 
KiMCHi, Moses, the time he flouri<^hed, 18 ; 

his Hebrew Grammar, 18, 86. 



Law, Syna()'ogal Scrolls of the, 124; 
division of, for hebdomadal lessons, 
185, 170. 

Levita, sumamed Bachur, its significa- 
tion, 2; the date of his birth, ibid; 
his removal from Germany to Padua, 
7 ; his contributions to the revival of 
Hebrew learning, 10; his flight to 
Rome and interview with Cardinal 
Egidio, 14, 15 ; his journey to Fagius, 
66 ; works, in chronological order : — 



Digitized by 



Google 



804 



INDEX V. 



TOPICS AND NAMES. 



Abbao, alphabet denominated, 223. 
Abravanel, Isaac, 9, 10^ hia view of the 

Ken and Eethiv, 107. 

Samuel, 12. 

AcHA of Irak, his system of Towel-points, 

61,63. 
Adrian, Matthew, 66. 
Aloala, Alphonso de, his contributions to 

the Complntensian Polyglott, 9. 
Allehako, Jochanan, 11, 12. 
AucANZi, Guespo, 45. 
Abama, Isaac, 10. 

Moses, 10. 

Athbaoh, alphabet denominated, 190, 191. 
Athbash, alphabet denominated, 222. 

B 
Baba Bach, see Leyita. 
Bachub, see Levita. 
Babhb, on the Poetical Accents, 65. 
BAI.ME9, Abraham de, 10; hiB Hebrew 

Grammar, 17, 21, 195. 
Babuch of Beuevent, 12. 
Ben-Asheb, 45, 65, 113, 114. 
Benjamin of Rome, 81 . 
Ben-Naphtali, 45, 114. 
Bbbab, Jacob, 10. 
BiBif, the, by whom arranged and di- 

Tided, 120. 
Bibles, Rabbinic, 9. 
Black, W. H., his opinion about the 

design of the majnscnlar letters, 231. 
Blatnet, 60. 

Boxbebo, Daniel, his Hebrew publica- 
tions, 21 ; his connection with Levita, 

22. 
BOOTHBOTD, Dr., 60. 
Broughton, Hugh, his opinion of the 

Yowei-points, 61. 
Buber, Life of Levita, 3, 78. 
BuxTORF, the father, his defence of the 

antiquity of the vowel-points, 53, 54, 

55-57. 



Calyin, 48, 49. 

Capito, W. F., his date, contributions to 

Hebrew literature, &c., 66. 
Cappellus, Lewis, his controversy with 

the Buxtorfs about the antiquity of 

the vowel-points, 54-57. 



Caro, Isaae b. Joseoh, 10. 

Ghajath, Jehudah b. Jacob, 12. 

Chajuo Jehudah, 20. 

Chbonoloot, Jewish, 3. 

Clabk, Samuel, on the antiquity of the 

vowel-points, 59. 
CoacpouNDS, book on the, see Leyita. 
CoNjEOTUBAL Readings, 225-227. 
CooPEB, Joseph, on the antiquity of the 

vowel-points, 59. 
CoEBEiL, Isaac de, the author of the 

Compendium of R. Moses' work on 

the Commandments and Prohibi- 

tiona, 250. 
CoBONEL, Paul, his connection with the 

Complntensian Polyglott, 9. 
CouTHiN, Ferdinand, JBishop of Algarve, 

his description of the heart-rending 

scenes at the compulsory baptisms of 

Jewish children, 8. 
Cbbtbnsis, see Mboido. 



Dayidbon, a. B., Outlines of Hebrew 

Accentuation, 65. 
Davila, 9. 

Defeotiyes, 145-148. 
Duben, Isaac, 2. 



EoiDio, Cardinal, his interview with 
Levita, 14, 15; instigates Levita to 
write tiie Hebrew Grammar, 16; his 
connection with Levita, 96, &c. 

Ephodi, his view of the origin of the 
Keri and Kethiv, 206; Grammatical 
work, 107. 

EwALD, Jahrbucher, 62. 

EzEKiBL, the Vision of, 98. 



Fagius, Paul, his date, 66; connection 
with Levita, 67; printing establish- 
ment and contributions to Hebrew 
literature, 68-78. 

Fabissol, Abraham, his account of the 
labours of converted Jews to demon- 
strate the truth of Christianity from 
Eabbalistic works, 9; his cosmo- 
graphy, 10. 

Fbenbdobff, Dr., 4, 23, 35, 39, 94. 

Fulke, William, 51. 



Digitized by 



Google 



803 



INDEX IV. 



MASSOBETIC LISTS QUOTED IN THIS BOOK, WHICH ABE ALSO 
FOUND IN THE OCHLA VE-OOHLA. 



OOHUL 




OOHI.A 








VS-OGHI^. 


LXYITA. 


▼K-OCHLB. 




YB-OCHLA. 


LBVITA. 


Seotion. 


Page. 


Beotion. 


Page. 


Section. 


Page. 


V. . 


208 


cxi. 


118 


dii. 


186 


xi. . . . 


207 


cxii. 


118 


cliy. 


189 


XT. • 


200 


oxiii. 


179 


clxyii. 


189 


xviii. 


221, 222 


cxvii. . 


117 


clxix. 


194 


xxrvii. . 


228 


cxriii. 


117 


clxx. 


109 


zzxriii. . 


222 


oxix. 


117 


dxxxi. 


186 




178 


cxx. 


117 


OCY. 


240 


xUv. 


178 




189 


OCXT. 


. 220 


xlT. 


207 


oxxii. 


189 


ccxxi. 


236, 237 


IXTT. 


118 


oxxiiL 


189 


ccxxii. 


. 238 


Ixxxi. 


119 


cxxviii. 


183 


coxxxiv. . 


229 


Ixxxii. . 


230 


oxxx. 


L61, 183 


od. . 


223 


iTTTlit- 


230 


cxxxL 


183 


odi. 


212 


Ixxxiv. . 


281 


cxxxiv. . 


186 


cclii. 


214 




218 


OXXXT. 


187 


cdiii. 


213 


xd. . 


117 




282 


cdxi. 


217 




177 


cxxxvii. . 


188 


cclxii. 


218 


xcvii. . 


110 


cxliv. 


109 


odxx. 


236 


xcTiii 


110 


cxlv. 


184 


cclxxiii. 


214, 216 


xcix. 


198 


cxlvi. . 


184 


cdxxviii. 


241 


c. . 


193 


cxlviii. . 


171 


cdxxxyiil 


228 


cii. . 


192 


cxlix. 


170, 188 


ccclxxii. 


. 206 


ciii. 


171 


d. . 


188 


ooclxxiii. 


205 


civ. . 


172 


di. . 


190 


iv. additi( 


ms . 206 



Digitized by 



Google 



802 



INDEX m. 

MASSORETIC TEBMS AND ABBREVIATIONS EXPLAINED, 





Page. 




Pw. 




Page. 


3a3H 


. 223 


*tD!wiT 


. 260 


pn3D 


. 212-214 


ntVna nrniM . . 230 


3"3 . 


. 262 


trx) . 


. 265 


m3TDp nrniM t . 281 


"b3 . . 


. 262 


vntx> . 


. 236-239 


ra^M 


. , 190, 191 


p-D . . 


. 254 


*^ TDD 


. 260 


n"«o"H 


. 260 


"^vfr) a^ro 


110, 192 


nr© 


195, 196 


n"D« . 


. 248 


-v . . 


. 245 


M3'3y . 


. 241 


^..3H . 


. 246 


ry^ . . 


. 245 


D"» . 


. 258 


rtTM . 


. 248 


t^ . . 


. 254 


T"D , 


. 253 




. 260 


p'^ . . 


. 252 


plW) . 


. 242 


D"D« . 


. 246 


«3«b . 


. 239-241 


MpDD 


209, 210 




. 261 


YT3*T0 


. 261 


M^DDlMpOD 


. 209,210 


tnnH 


. 222 




. 191 


Ht33nD 


. 262 


rrw . 


. 228, 229 


I^EmiD 


218, 219 


fCUJD 


. 233 


rri . 


. 260 




. 269 




. 197 


o"3 . 


. 260 


]T«DO 


227, 228 


MS^*lDp 


232, 233 


M'tja . 


. 250 


pOTD - 


. 262 


]rff^p 


. 230 


a"D3 . 


. 250 


mVo 


146 -148 


VDp . . 


195, 196 


Tt'a . 


. 250 


«Vdi vho . 


. 167 


mp . . 


224, 225 


o"a . 


. 250 


n"DO 


. 249 


np . . 


180, &c. 


©aT . 


. 197, 198 


D"D . 


• 255 


wnp . . 


. 234-238 


rrm3T 


. 212 


b^sho 


204, &c. 


ITQ vhn "nip 


109, 198 


;n3i . . 


. 211, 212 


jnVo 


204, &o. 


«run . 


. 231 


|nm . 


. 232-284 


j7*DO . 


. 199 


r^ ■ . 


. 258 


yyn 


. 211 


«>"o . 


. 267 


Tfjn . 


. 256 


»w\ . 


. 231 


rmwQ 


220-224 


D'^ . 


. 264 


^T^v "ooin 


. 259,260 


M"3 . 


. 256 


rrtn . 


197, &c. 


ion . 


. 145-148 


KTfcns 


. 262 


3"a« . 


. 248 


Tom *>DrT 


. 116 


p*D3 


219, 220 


wt? . 


. 202, &c. 


v'nrr . 


. 267 


'^a . 


. 260 


WD»«? 


. 210, 211 


p«»Trr 


. 215-218 


p^aD 


. 226-227 


D"«n 


. 248 


n'D» . 


. 250 


*3T) . 


. 259 


f a»n . 


. 229 



Digitized by 



Google 



801 



3 how many timee foand in the Bible, 276. 
"tin written 80 twenty-one times in the 

text, and in the marginal reading 

mya, 109. 
DK*V3 four times, 157. 
nro twenty-nine times, 175. 

D 
D how many timet fonnd in ihe Bible, 375. 
"p3D thirty-nine instances in which the 
constniction is inverted, 214, 215. 



9 how many times fonnd in the Bible, 276, 

277. 
"XffVi three times plene, 161. 



p how many times fonnd in the Bible, 277. 

vnip thirteen times defective, 147. 

omp the oonstmct, three times defectiTe, 

147. 
tn^p ten times plene, 151. 
rro M^inp ten instances, 109. 



9 how many times fonnd in the Bible, 276. 

Dm 19 nine times, 216. 

TQ^ fourteen times defective, 168. 

yXP eight times in the sense of enemy, 240. 

^ nine times, supposed to be 1]^, 226. 

bf twice in the textual reading, but ^ in 

the marginal reading, 189. 
Dm09 eleven times defective, 155. 
G^ys five times in the Kethiv, and in the 

Ken D»^», 109. 
tr^tC^ six times in the Eethiv, and in the 

Ken on'imD, 109, 194. 



D how many timet fonnd in the Bible, 276. 
Pattach with Athnach, list of instances, 

197. 
Oinn >3D occurs twice, 189. 



n^how many times fonnd in the Bible, 277. 
crnSi rm occurs eight times, 189, 141. 



O how many times fonnd in the Bible, 277. 

Four words wiA Beah in the textual read- 
ing, and Daleth in the marginal 
reading, 189. 

crrD four times without MM, 241. 

Orfro eight times defective, 148. 

]^V twelve times construed with ^, 241. 



n how many times found in the Bible, 278. 
mS'bvn twice defective, 101. 
crr3n three times withe Jod plural, 157. 
flDn three times Milra, 205. 



S S 



Digitized by 



Google 



800 



ncm twice MUel, -206. 

k«m twelve times plene, 250. 

Wm Hiphil defective, seven times defec- 
tive, 289, 240. 

3Vn twenty-five times, 252. 

bMTTvr Vsi thirty-five times in the middle 
of the verse, 256. 

]ffdr\ nine times, 217. 

*3DVi sixteen times, 217. 

roV3l three times with Pattach under the 
Vav, and Dagesh in the Mem, 255, 256. 

-Q-im twice with Shurek, 202. 

Tnni three times, 251. 

Vovm twice with Sheva under the Vav, 
201. 

T 
I how many times found in ihe Bible, 273. 
Xnax three times definite, 148. 



n how many times found in the Bible, 273. 
Four words with Cheth in the textual 

reading, and with He in the marginal 

reading, 189. 
njnan five times, 174. 
Cmn seven times definite, 149. 
^ five times definite, 165. 
ItlVll, 113. 
rrDTT nine times with Chateph-pattach, 208. 

13 
TQ how many times found in the Bible, 273. 
on^TTO see G^rvj^- 



3 how many times found in the Bible, 274. 

Those words beginning with Kaph in the 
textual reacung, and Beth in the mar- 
ginal reading, 188. 

Twentv-one words beginning with Kaph, 
which occur twice, once Milel and 
once Milra. 

btntr 'n^ mm "vdm na twenty-five times, 
216. 

*rC33 four times Raphe, 201. 

0*3113 thirteen times defective, 155. 

Tro in fifteen instances one word, and the 
Keri two words; and in eight in- 
stances two words, and the Eeri one 
word, 198. 

np M^ rro eight instanoes, 110, 192. 

H how many times found ia the Bible, 274. 
Fifteen words beginning with two Lameds, 

220, 221. 
H^ once in four phrases, and once not, 228. 
DIM^ eleven times with Eametz under the 

Lamed, 200. 
\/rwh five times, 216. 
ywh occurs seven times, 140. 
vrh thirty-five times plene, 163. 
im^ twice Baphe, 200. 
XTvh thirty-two times with Kametz under 

the Lamed, 200. 
HDCh six times Raphe, 199. 
rM7 eighteen times defective, 149. 



> how many times it occurs in the Bible, 
273. 

Twenty-two words with Jod at the begin- 
ning in the textual reading, and with 
Vav in the marginal reading, 186. 

Fifty-five words witii Jod in the middle 
in the textual reading, and without 
Jod in the marginal reading, 183. 

Twenty-four words with Jod at the end in 
the textual reading, and Vav in the 
marginal reading, 187. 

* in seventy instances in the middle of a 
word in the textual reading, for which 
Vav ia to be found in its mai^inal 
reading. 

^3M* occurs seventy-three times, 141. 

mrr ymy four times, 216. 

VT nineteen times, 206. 

yiv twenty-three times plene, 151. 

7T7V eighteen times, 216. 

vr twice, 216. 

DVan* four times plene, 162. 

navn* ten times plene, 162. 

njBtff* occurs twice, 142. 

vrtf* twenty-one times, 206. 

no'^wrr five times, 174. 

n3^3«« four times, altered into rT33a«r, 194. 



NUIU 



O how many times found in the Bible, 276. 

V3MQ four times with Pattach, 197. 

7nm«Ol rOTpiO sixty-two instances of, 

' 116,117,191. 

rDTTiO six verses, 219. 

I'D'niO six words, 219. 

HTDHO occurs three times, 140. 

D, sixteen words without parallel, 236. 
3, twenty-one, which respectively occur 

only once in a particnl. r book, 236, 

237. 
*^, fifty-one, which always occur in a 

certain form in one book, but which 

in all other books of the Scriptures 

occur in a different form, 237, 288. 
V*]^ thirty-eight words only once Milel, 

206. 
Xrho twenty-two words only once so, 205. 
nVDl Wyo an alphabetical list of words, 

208. 
13DO in six instances supposed to be moo, 

226. 
•VDTQ three times with Sheva under the 

Ajin, 204. 
>aDO three times supposed to be njQ, 226. 
mD'n^na twenty-eight times, 174. 
^DVO precedes *npn eight times, 241 . 



Digitized by 



Google 



n in tventj instances is in the textual 
reading, bnt not in the marginal 
reading, 118. 

Thirteen vords without He at the begin- 
ning in the textual reading, but with 
it in the marginal reading, 184. 

Seven words with He at the beginning in 
the textual reading, but not in the 
marginal reading, 184. 

Five woxtLs with He in the middle in the 
textual reading, and without it in the 
marginal reading, 185. 

Twelve words with He second radical, 
whilst in all other instances it is 
Cheth, 240. 

Thirty-two words ending in He and Vav, 
223. 

Fourteen words terminating with He in 
the textual reading, and with Yav 
in the marginal readjug. 

Twenty-one words with He at the end 
after Eaph, second person singular 
masculine, 177. 

Eleven words which respectively occur 
twice, once with audible, and once 
with quiescent He, 178. 

Eighteen words which abnormally termi- 
nate with quiescent He, 178. 

Two instances in which the textual read- 
ing has un suffix, third person plural 
masculine, and the marginal reading 
D3 suffix, second person plural mascu- 
line, 190. 

piVwrr eight times, 174. 

rm^in eighteen times, 174. 

Tinrxi four times, 179. 

rmrnon thirty times, 174. 

'mo*prf twice entirely plene, eleven times 
entirely defective, and six times Jod 
plene, and Vav defective, 166. 

'n five times with Segol, 197. 



1 



1 how many times it occurs in the Bible, 

272, 273. 
Twenty-three verses which have neither 

Vav nor Jod, 282. 
1 conjunctive in eleven instances in the 

Kethiv, but not in the Keri, 117. 
1 suffix, not in the Eethiv in eighteen 

instances, but in tlie Eeri, 117. 
1 suffix in eleven instances in the textual 

reading, but not in the marginal, 117. 
1 in seventy-five instances, to be found in 

the middle of, or in, the textual 

reading for which the marginal read- 
ing has Vaf . 
Ten words beginning with Vav in the 

marginal reading, and with Jod in 

the textual reading, 187. 
Twenty-five vords with Vav plene, without 

paraUel, 151, 101. 



List of thirty- three words with Vav after 

Eametz and Chateph-Eametz in Uie 

textual reading, and without Vav in 

the marginal reading, 182. 
Forty-eight words terminating in Vav in 

the textual reading, and in Jod in 

the marginal reading, 282. 
Twenty-two words beginning and ending 

with Vav, which occurs twice, once 

Milel, and once Milra, 207. 
Five pairs of words which respectively 

occur twice, once with Vav conjunc- 
tive, and once without, 212. 
Sixty-two pairs of words in which both 

numbers have Vav conjunctive, 218. 
Sixteen pairs without Vav conjunctive, 

218, 214. 
Twenty-seven words beginning with Vav 

and Mem, 221. 
Thirteen words beginning with Vav, Mem, 

and Beth, 221. 
Twelve words beginning with Vav, Mem, 

and Oimmel, 221, 222. 
Four proper names occurring five times 

in the same order, but with the Vav 

conjunctive differently placed in each 

passage, 228. 
Six verses having the same words four 

times-, twice with Vav conjunctive, and 

twice without it, 224. 
Four verses having respectively the same 

word four times, the first with Vav, 

and the other three without it, 215. 
Forty-eight words in the textual reading 

with Vav at the end, and in the 

margin with Jod, 282. 
ywn three times, 202. 
^ forty-five times in an unparallelled 

construction, 218. 
DM1 three times at the beginning of a 

verse, 238, 289. 
riMI nine limes at the b^rinning of a verse, 

tion, 239. 
MYDH1 twice with Sheva under the Vav, 201. 
t7*iDMi nine times with Eametz under the 

Vav, 202. 
nrun eight times in an unique construc- 
tion, 218. 
nDH*1 six times with Sheva under the Vav, 

201. 
DVf^ nofcri twenty-five times, 215. 
I'tOHn nine times with Sheva under the 

Vav. 254. 
iDDkn Eal ton times, 283. 
Min in eight instances, supposed to be 

1«a*l, 225. 
•ttQ*l with Sheva under the Vav, occurs 

seven times, 141, 254, 255. 
bl3^ occurs three times, 189, 142. 
D*nS» "TlTi three times, 215. 
npw Vmi rroo "?« mrr "titi occurs twelve 

times, 139, 140. 
'>7V^ occurs thirty-two times, 141, 202 
novi thirty times, 245. 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX II. 

MASSORETIC LISTS QUOTED ENTIRE. 



K 

M how many times foand in the Bible, 271. 

Sixteen words with silent Aleph, or alto- 
gether without Aleph, 170. 

Seventeen words which occur only once 
with audible Aleph, 171. 

Fifty words which have only once silent 
Aleph in the middle, 171, 185. 

Twelve words which have only once quies- 
cent Aleph at the end, 172. 

Seventeen words with quiescent Aleph at 
the end, which have no parallel, 172. 

AO^M, Alphabetical list, according to, 223. 

Tnia« three times, 251. 

WtW occurs four times, 179. 

:inH three times dehnite, 149. 

rmtM twelve times plane, 150. 

in'M twenty -four times plene, 149, 160. 

^niN twenty-seven times plene, 150. 

m^lJ nrnw, Alphabetical lists of, 230. 

ni3Sp nrn'M, Alphabetical lists of, 231. 

fniH masculine, seventeen times plene, 
150. 

3mM feminine, seventeen times plene, 150. 
niM thirty -nine times plene, 150. 

HTM twenty-five times, 252. 

IPM three times with Kametz and Pattach, 
249. 

bM thirty times construed with other words 
in an unparalleUed manner, 218. 

Virrar ^n^M twenty-eight times, 215. 

DM five times, supposed to be wanting in 
the text, 226. 

□M three times before 3M, 241. 

mrr «x twenty times at tiie end of a verse, 
255. 

oyn^M mrp '»» twenty-one times at the 
end of a verse, 2A5. 

ThSH Hiphil future eight times, 233. 

p:3 rrnM eight times, 174. 

TODM in four times, supposed to be niDM3, 
226. 

r^MTT MM) on^trr HM occurs thirteen times, 
139. 

VinM, Alphabetical list of words, accord- 
to, 222. 

nriM eleven times in an unique construc- 
tion, 217. 



2 how many times found in the Bible, 272. 
Twen^-six words which occur only once 

with Beth, and which in aU other 

instances have Eaph, 220. 



Eleven words with Beth in the textual 
reading, and Eaph in the marginal 
reading, 188. 

Six words with Beth in the textual read- 
ing, and Mem in the mai^inal reading, 
189. 

n^ll six times Raphe, 199. 

nbu twenty-nine times, 174. 

Tromi four times Raphe, 200. 

rni fifteen times with Tzere, 193. 

• OM12 six times, 177. 

n*vn eight times Raphe, 200. 

l'>m i^ee times with Kametz under the 
Cheth, 246. 

3^!D3 four times Raphe and nine times 
with Dagesh in the Teth, 201. 

^3 seven times with Dagesh in the Eaph, 
200. 

r)D31 fifteen times Haphe, 20(^. 

rr'r^a three times Raphe, 200. 

p in four instances, supposed to be m, 
225, 226. 

r)*^! three times, 251. 

DTi'tm tra three times, 139, 215. 

n^iDM^ begins a verse three times, 142. 

miD2 five times Raphe, 200. 



3 how many times found in the Bible, 272. 
yoj three times defective, 148. 
Vnj four times defective, 149. 



1 how many times found in the Bible, 272 
Two words with Daleth at the end in the 

textual reading, and Resh in the 

marginal reading, 189. 
Two words with Daleth in the marginal 

reading, and with Tav in the textual 

reading, 196. 
"YMl plural, thirteen times defective, 161. 
Tnni eight times with Jod plural in the 

textual reading, but without it in the 

marginal reading, 183. 
"FDni three times defective, 162. 

n 

n- how many times it occurs in the Bible, 
274. 

n in twenty-nine instances, is wanted in 
the textual reading, but is supplied in 
the marginal reading, 117, 118. 



Digitized by 



Google 



297 





HOSXA. 




Chap. 


Ver. 


P*ge. 


Zephaioah 




Chap. 


Ver. 


Page. 


i. 


16 


223, 228 


Chap. Ver. Page. 


xii. 


10 


163 


, , 


20 154, 


166,260 


i. 9 152 


xiii. 


6 


207 








.. 17 


200 




14 


208 




Jonah. 




ii. 7 


119 




15 


214 


i. 


14 


L72, 226 


iu. 5 


140 


xiv. 


4 


222 


iii. 


2 


235 


7 


178 




6 


207 


i^. 


9 


215 




. . 


7 


141 


▼i. 


13 


236 


Haooai. 


, , 


10 


169 








i. 8 HI, 118 


i. 


JOBL. 

20 


236 


i. 


MiCAH. 

2 ] 
3 

7 

8 
13 
15 
16 

7 


141, 160 
182 
132 
118 
239 
163 


..12 
.. 13 
ii. 6 


226 
171 
189 


ii 


2 


212 


•• 


.. 21 


139 


iv. 


6 

17 

3 

8 


171 
254 
218 
208 


•• 


.. 22 

Zeohabiah 
i. 4 


200 
188 




11 


206, 209 


•• 


201 


.. 8 


206 


[] 


16 


203 


ii. 


208 


.. 16 


118 


, , 


17 


2d5 


iii. 


2 
11 

9 
10 
13 

4 

9 


118 
199 
248 
240 
240 
213 
140 


ii. 6 


212 




19 
Amob. 


172 


vr. 
▼. 


.. 12 
iii. 10 
ir. 7 


219 
236 
178 


iU. 
iy. 


9 

1 
2 


241 
151 
206 


a, 
▼ii. 


▼i. 8 

.. 11 

▼ii. 10 


152 
205 
218 




10 


171 








▼iii. 20 


163 




7 


221 




NAHm. 




ix. 4 


178 




8 


161 


1. 


2 


152 


.. 10 


208 




14 


141 


.. 


3 


182, 231 


X. 5 


220 




19 


226 


.. 


4 


. 152 


.. 10 


221 


▼i. 


9 


199 


.. 


13 


222 


xi. 2 


119 




12 


221 


ii. 


6 


118 


5 


171 


▼ii*. 


8 


182 


.. 


11 


171 


xiii. 9 


208 




14 


162, 206 


>. 


14 


178 


xiv. 2 


194 


▼iii. 


3 


182 


iii. 


3 


186 


6 


186 




4 


119 


.. 


12 


151 


..18 


237 




8 


186 










ix. 


1 


207 


Habakkuk 




Malachi. 




3 


239 


i. 


8 


201 


i. 8 . 202 




4 


239 


, , 


13 


208 


..12 150 




8 


206 


,, 


15 


196, 207 


..13 160 




13 


162 


. , 


16 


221 


..14 162 








ii. 


2 


161 


ii. 12 206, 221 




Obadiah. 




, , 


4 


216 


iii. 10 141 


i. 


4 


201 


, , 


6 


201 


.. 22 150,230,286 




10 


176 


iii. 


10 


213 






11 


183 


• • 


14 


183 


2 Maooabxbs. 














ii. 6 


119 



Digitized by 



Google 



"^r 


Ver. 

18 


^9 


Chap. 


Ver. 
11 


T, 


Ch.^ 


Ver. 
4 


L85, 221 




20 


156 


, , 


16 


178 




6 


. 208 


iTiii. 


16 


118 




26 


170 


, , 


9 


. 117 


, , 


23 


147 


il". 


8 


160 


, , 


16 


240 


, , 


25 


160 


, , 


4 


177 


T. 


7 


117 


, , 


29 


160 


, , 


16 


116 


,^ 


8 


185 


, , 


85 


160 


, , 


19 


206 


|] 


10 


186 


, , 


40 


239 


, , 


22 


183 




20 


209 


, , 


42 


218 


, , 


26 


188 


II 


21 


117 


, , 


48 


118, 179 


, , 


48 


218 


.. 


29 


117 


, , 


44 


226 


, , 


48 


166 


vi« 


10 


223 


xxiv. 


2 


212 


, , 


49 


166 




20 


230 


, , 


6 


178 


xli. 


8 


1J8 




21 


281 


, , 


11 


20o 


, , 


16 


119, 172 


▼ii! 


7 


288 


, , 


16 


168 


xlii. 


4 


217 




9 


222 


, , 


27 


202 




9 


119, 192 




10 


280 


XXT. 


6 


171 


, , 


18 


147 


II 


12 


206 


, , 


7 


190 


, , 


14 


186, 196 


II 


13 


238 


• • 


8 


208 




16 


117 


Tiii. 


22 


166 




7 


218 


, , 


20 


206 




28 


221 


zxrii. 


12 


199 


,, 


24 


222 


ix. 


5 


117 


, , 


16 


182 


xliii. 


2 


216 




12 188, 


208,209 


, , 


20 


178 


^^ 


10 


217 


II 


18 


118 


, , 


SO 


241 


, J 


16 


117 




19 


173 


xzTiii. 


8 


176 


, , 


16 


117 




21 


222 


, , 


9 


182,208 




17 


222 




24 


189 


, , 


18 


249 


, , 


20 


160, 218 


X. 


12 


176 


, , 


16 


170 


, , 


28 


220 




18 


262 


,, 


23 


200 


, 


27 


171 




18 


245 


, , 


24 


171 


xliv. 


1 


262 


xi 


6 


221 


, , 


26 


171 


, , 


8 


182 




12 


171, 189 


Kix. 


6 


150 


,, 


5 


186 




18 


189 


, , 


19 


178 


, , 


15 


262 




81 


160 


xzx. 


16 


118 


, , 


22 


218 


II 


88 


200 


xxxi. 


4 


. 222 


, , 


24 187, 


222, 241 


II 


88 


214 


. . 


5 


172, 183 


xlv. 


3 


118 




44 


172, 238 


•• 


7 
11 


222 
222 


•• 


7 
21 


262 

141 


xii. 


18 


149, 218 


, , 


13 


218 


, , 


23 


287 




HogBA. 




, , 


18 


179 


xlTi. 


9 


117 


i. 


1 186, 


187, 188 


xxxii. 


13 


169 


, , 


15 


187 




6 


. 287 


, , 


25 


162 


xlvii. 


8 


162 


ii. 


2 


214 


^ , 


80 


198 




9 


216 


iii. 


1 


164 


, , 


31 


179 


, J 


10 


178 


iv. 


6 


. 171 


, , 


82 


179, 282 


, , 


11 


188 




8 


. 218 


xxxiii. 


9 


218 




12 


162 




19 


160 


, , 


80 


. 262 


1. 


18 


190 


▼, 


12 


. 207 


, , 


81 


141,266 


, , 


14 


118 




14 


207 


xxxIy. 


23 


167 


xlyiii. 


16 


110 


vi'. 


2 


208, 209 


, , 


29 


166 




85 


. 276 




3 


*173 


ZZXTl* 


3 


213 








II 


10 


118 


, , 


6 


172, 178 




Daniel. 




yii 


2 


221 


.. 


11 


169, 214 


i. 


4 


171 




12 


226 


, , 


12 


179 


, , 


6 


214 


viil 


1 


201 


, , 


14 


116 


, , 


18 


196 




10 


218 


, , 


20 


222,225 


ii. 


9 


186 


II 


12 


182, 282 


xxxyii. 


9 


207 


, , 


22 


118 


ix. 


10 


178, 207 


,, 


10 


207 




39 


172 




11 


. 221 


, , 


22 


179 


, , 


43 


117, 179 


II 


16 


162 


, , 


24 


236,241 


iii. 


6 


288 


X. 


6 


160 


xxxTiii. 


4 


160 




10 


118 




10 


118 


, , 


9 


207 


, , 


19 


282 


, 


14 


171 


, , 


17 


160 


, , 


27 


288 


xi. 


9 


224 


xxxix. 


2 


171 


•• 


29 


172, 179 


xii. 


1 


168 



Digitized by 



Google 



Chap. Vor. 
xxxviii. 24 


Page. 

206 


Chap. Yer. 
U. 48 


^ 


Chap. V«r. 

Y. 7 


^ 


.. 28 


262 


Hi. 11 174 


Yi. 9 


150 


.. 62 


162 


..17 . 174 


.. 18 


236 


TTTIT. 7 


174 


..31 . 260 


Yii. 21 


117 


.. 11 


236 


.. 32 184, 199 


YiiL 1 


162 


.. 12 


110 




4 


215 


.. 13 


231 


Lakentationb. 


6 


193 


.. 14 


231 


i. 1 193, 206, 288 


ix. 3 


215 


.. 16 


218 


.. 6 181, 193 


5 


189 


.. 19 


261 


. . 12 168, 281 


6 


213 


xl. 1 


174 


..16 152 


.. 8 


171, 229 


.. 3 


184 


..18 . 184 


.. 11 


194 


.. 7 


174 


. . 19 208, 209 


X. 1 


156 


.. 8 


119 


u. 2 117, 184 


2 


155 


.. 12 


233 


..4 .207 


8 


165 


.. 16 


177, 206 


.. 6 178 


6 


165 


..16 


118 


..8 .166 


.. 7 


165 


xU. 17 


223 


..9 .231 


8 


156 


xlii. 9 


216 


..11 . 206 


.. 10 


202 


.. 20 


116 


. . 12 208, 209 


.. 19 


. 215 


iliii. 10 


119 


.. 14 118,158 


.. 20 


216 


.. 11 


118 


.. 16 222 


xi. 12 


228 


xUv. 6 


214 


..19 118 


.. 13 


229 


.. 10 


217 


iii. 2 . 150 


.. 22 


216 


.. 13 


162 


..4 .220 


.. 24 


139 


xlY. 2 


216 


..10 . 118 


xii. 18 


274 


xlTi. 4 


287 


..12 . 172 


xlii. 14 


222 


.. 8 


233 


..20 . 118 


.. 16 


148 


.. 12 


163 


.. 86 . 281 


xiY. 1 


222 


.. 21 


163 


..39 .183 


4 


178 


.. 26 


162 


..66 . 232 


.. 8 


222 


.. 28 


217 


iy. 3 193 


.. 12 


205 


xlvii. 7 


218 


..6 .184 


.. 22 


152 


xlyiii. 4 


119 


..12 117 


XY. 5 


222 


.. 6 


118 


..16 117 


XYi. 4 


150 


.. 7 


117 


..17 197 


.. 89 


150 


.. 9 


196 


..20 236 


.. 40 


150 


.. 18 


186 


Y. 1 . 118 


.. 44 


178 


.. 20 


187 


.. 3 117,184 


.. 66 


163 


.. 21 


119 


..4 .199 


..67 


150, 171 


.. 26 


222 


.. 6 117,184 


.. 69 


. 150 


.. 27 


118 


. . 7 117, 184 


.. 60 


150, 166 


.. 40 


201 


..18 . 186 


.. 62 


166 


xlix. 3 


163, 177 


.. 21 118, 236 


xYii. 12 


174 


.. 16 


. 201 




.. 17 


160 


.. 20 


163 


EZEKIEL. 


.. 20 


174, 222 


.. 22 


201 


i. 1 171,172,287 


.. 21 


. 184 


.. 30 


190 


..2 .238 


XYiii. 6 


266 


1. 1 


118 


.. 8 


232 


.. 13 


216 


6 


118, 179 


.. 10 


224 


..14 


196 


8 


184 


.. 14 


172 


.. 17 


241 


.. 11 


187 


ii. 3 


150 


.. 20 


184 


.. 16 


116 


4 


160 


.. 22 


216 


.. 18 


218 


iii. 16 152, 


190, 193 


.. 27 


216 


.. 21 


147 


.. 16 


262 


xix. 14 


205 


.. 25 


260 


.. 23 


207 


XX. 16 


241 


.. 29 


109, 161 


.. 27 


150 


.. 20 


266 


IL 3 


110, 192 


iY. 9 


162 


.. 24 


241 


.. 9 


171 


.. 10 


. 221 


.. 31 


216 


.. 10 


202 


.. 12 


208 


.. 38 


225 


.. 16 


250 


.. 14 


213 


xxi. 16 


152 


.. 27 


241 


.. 15 


119 


.. 28 


182 


.. 34 


232 


., 17 


236 


ixii. 14 


150 


.. 43 


196 


V. 6 


241 


.. 16 


150 



Digitized by 



Google 



294 





Chap. Ver. 


239 


Chap. 


Ver. 


Page. 


Chap. Yer. 


Page. 


xiv. 9 


xxvii. 


1 


142 


ii. 20 


189 


.. 10 


141 




16 


174 


.. 21 


162 


.. 14 


119 




18 


174 


.. 25 


116, 163 


.. 16 


163 




19 


166 


.. 27 


187 


XV. 1 


207 




10 


174 


.. 81 


163 


.. 6 


148 


.'! 


22 


174 


.. 36 


160 


.. 7 


168 


xxviii. 


4 


174 


.. 62 


861 


8 


183 


.. 


8 


158 


iii. 2 


194 


.. 9 


118, 168 


xxix. 


1 


168, 174 


6 


168 


.. 11119, 


149, 163 


.. 


3 


174 


7 


118 


.. 16 


183 


, , 


4 


174 


.. 9 


166 


xTi. 2 


158 




8 


169 


., 12 


168 


9 


254 


, , 


10 


166 


.. 18 


141, 265 


.. 11 


160 




14 


118 


.. 19 


221, 286 


.. 16 


119 


[\ 


15 


174 


.. 22 


169 


xvu. 1 


236 


, , 


20 


174 


iT. 6 


117 


.. 7 


196, 208 


., 


21 


218 


.. 11 


163 


8 


118 


, ^ 


28 


116, 161, 


.. 14 


162 


.. 11 


183 






163, 196 


.. 16 


241 


.. 18 


186 


^ 


24 


218 


,. 22 


160 


.. 19 


184 


^^ 


26 


177 


.. 23 


218 


.. 28 


116 




82 


201 


.. 29 


169 


.. 26 


218. 221 


XXX. 


4 


218 


▼. 8 


240 


xriii. 3 


198 


.. 


14 


150 


.. 9 


163 


8 


236 




16 


171,233 


.. 10 


163 


.. 10 


118, 160 


, , 


21 


206 


.. 12 


213 


.. 16 


119 


xxxi. 


10 


196 


.. 18 


. 158 


.. 22 


118 




28 


2J6 


.. 22 


160, 222 


xix. 2 


118, 236 


, , 


32 


207 


.. 24 


117 


XX. 8 


260 




84 


160 


.. 28 


207 


4 


174,200 


.. 


88 


109 


Ti. 7 


118, 241 


.. 6 


174 


^, 


89 


226, 118 


9 


162, 163 


.. 11 


160 


^ , 


40 


189 


.. 14 


229 


.. 17 


178 


■TTTiiT 


8 


202 


.. 21 


186 


xxi. 3 


214 


, , 


17 


189 


.. 20 


147, 187 


4 


216 


, , 


21 


171 


.. 29 


193 


6 


213 


, , 


23 


116, 196 


▼ii 26 


168 


.. 9 


186 


, , 


81 


160 


.. 27 


177 


.. 13 


190 


x::xiu. 


2 


150 


.. 28 


168 


xxii. 2 


213 




4 


218 


.. 31 


287 


6 


179 


, , 


8 


164,182 


▼iii. 1 


117, 168 


.. 12 


226 




18 


163, 222 


.. 6 


116, 163 


.. 14 


196 


, ^ 


21 


227 


7 


119 


.. 22 


221 


xxxiy. 


2 


216 


.. 11 


229 


xxiii. 4 


116 







261 


.. 20 


163 


6 


116 


, , 


18 


216 


ix. 6 


160 


.. 16 


241 


, , 


14 


286 


., 7 


116 


.. 18 


187 


XXXV. 


4 


221 


.. 9 


236 


.. 21 


216 


, , 


8 


256 


.. 23 


160 


.. 22 


207 




10 


265 


X. 2 168 


, 199, 221 


.. 24 


139 


xxxy. 


16 


168 


.. 18 


184, 260 


.. 27 


226 




18 


241 


.. 18 


162 


XX7. 3 


171 


XXXTi. 


10 


206 


.. 23 


200 


.. 6 


150 


, , 


12 


152 


xi. 17 


150 


.. 7 


119 


, , 


13 


220 


xiii. 2 


202 


.. 9 


218 


, , 


22 


237 


6 


160, 222 


.. 34 


218 


xxxvii. 


7 


216 


.. 16 


186 


xxTi. 6 


241 


, , 


16 


160 


.. 20 


187 


.. 6 


118 


, , 


16 


156 


.. 26 


160 


8 


168 


, , 


18 


150 


.. 27 


168 


.. 11 


168, 200 


xxxviii. 


2 


186 


xi^. 2 


221 


.. 16 


169 


, , 


11 


184 


.. 3 


119 


.. 16 


200 




12 


171 


.. 8 


240 


.. 28 


237 


.. 


16 


110 



Digitized by 



Google 



Chap, 
▼iii. 



XI. 

xii. 
xiii. 



xxu. 
xxiii. 



xxiT. 



XXY. 

xxvi. 



Ver. 


Page. 


1 


207 


8 


262 


4 


206 


5 


246 


17 


287 


6 


198, 196 


16 


. 221 


6 


118 


13 


171. 267 


17 


. 221 


24 


177 


83 


171 


11 


. 221 


5 


118 


2 


141, 266 


16 


194 


21 


168 


10 


264 


12 


162 



21 

8 

4 
14 
18 

1 

4 

6 

2 

8 
22 

2 

6 
13 
16 
28 

1 
18 
17 
11 

2 
10 
18 
19 
10 

1 

2 
16 
20 

4 

9 
11 150, 

4 
12 
16 
17 
20 

8 

5 

8 
31 
18 



175 
240 
222, 232 
222 
220 
207 
206 
182, £20 
178, 208 
20o 
218 
208 
178 
213 
208 
224 
199 
247 
118 
178 
178 
162 
207 
207 
206 
187 
166 
174 
223 
182 
213 
222 
208, 222 
150, 178 
172, 229 
118 
196, 208 
205 
166 
207 
161 
161, 184 
221 
216 



Oliap. Ver. 
XXX. 6 
.. 7 
.. 9 
.. 18 
.. 19 
.. 29 
.. 32 
8 
11 
14 
19 
7 
12 
16 
8 

10 

9 

6 

16 

21 

26 

80 

82 

86 

12 

16 

18 

6 

8 

12 

20 



XXXI. 

xxxii. 



xxxiy. 

XXXT. 



xxxn. 
xxxvii. 



XXXIX. 

xl. 



xli. 



24 

27 

7 

9 

17 



xliv. 



.. 26 

xlii. 16 

20 20 

24 24 

xliii. 9 

14 

17 

6 

14 

16 

17 

24 

xlv. 2 

8 

8 

18 

16 

24 

11 

17 

xlTii. 18 
xlyiii. 2 
7 
8 
10 
I 



xlyi. 



xlix. 



Page. 
171 
240, 241 
229, 241 
152 
208 
222 
178 
200 
173, 206 
196 
222 
198 
172 
281 
206 
266 
262 
160 
189 
216 
150 
116, 117 
109 
217 
207 
196 
258 
174 
151 
222 
198 
207 
206, 207 
202, 221 
152 
221 
215 
118 
171 
140 
118 
119 
264 
174 
208 
221 
231 
118, 201 
182, 201 
193 
118 
161, 216 
207 
222 
216 
225 
282 
252 
282 
215 
217 
162 
199 
208 



Obap. Ver. 

xlix. 4 

.. 6 

.. 7 

.. 9 

.. 13 

.. 16 



1. 
U. 



lu. 



Uy. 



Iv. 



Ixi. 
Ixii. 



Ixiy. 
Ixy. 

Ixyi. 



7 

9 

13 

16 

21 

2 



12 
6 



13 

15 

2 

.. 4 

.. 7 

.. 18 

.. 20 

lyi. 10 

lyii. 1 

.. 11 

.. 19 

lyiii. 2 

.. 6 

7 

9 

lix. 18 

Ix. 6 

21 

1 

10 

8 

4 

Ixiii. 2 
.. 12 
6 
4 
7 
8 
4 
7 

10 
17 
21 



237 
118 
147 
149 
186 
206 
284 
202 
218 
221 
240 
226 
202 
154 
282 
199 
183 
206 

216, 221 
154 
221 
227 

150, 222 
208 
196 
218 

117, 184 
236 
230 
248 
150 
119 
160 
236 
221 
201 
154 
240 
232 
208 
207 
119 
206 
221 
206 
151 
189 
189 

152, 241 
246 

170, 196 
183 
190 
213 



Jebbxiah. 
i. 1 
6 
ii. 2 
.. 9 
.. 13 
.. 14 
.. 16 
.. 16 

R R 



187 
182 
235 
168 
171 
201 
197 
186 



Digitized by 



Google 



.V-J U" "_ _^-. 



?-AJ "^ 



292 



pROVBlfflS 


Cha^. 


Ver. 
1 172, 


, , 


5 




8 


, , 


10 




15 


II 


19 


, , 


20 




27 


, , 


29 


ii. 


7 




11 


, , 


22 


iii. 


6 


^ , 


15 




80 


II 


34 


iv. 


16 


V. 


8 




20 


ii. 


3 




18 


yii. 


18 


, , 


16 


Tiii. 


17 


, , 


26 


ix. 


2 


, , 


9 


X. 


18 


xi. 


8 


, , 


U 




25 


II 


26 


xiii. 


20 


xiv. 


12 


, , 


21 




22 


XV. 


28 


, , 


27 




83 


xvi. 


19 




21 


, , 


27 




28 




30 


xTii. 


10 




13 


, , 


14 


, , 


27 


iviii. 


16 


, , 


17 


xix. 


16 


, , 


17 


, , 


19 


XX. 


3 


, , 


4 




17 


, , 


21 


,, 


24 




26 




30 


xxi. 


4 


xxii. 


8 




11 



Page. 

280, 238 
205 
203 
196 
228 
205 
172 

117, 207 
246 
187 
177 
256 
196 
205 
119 
109 
119 
178 
165 
240 
188 
205 
223 
118 
223 
205 
238 
172 
187 
220 
172 
205 

117, 187 
225 
102 
218 
206 
216 
217 
109 
206 
188 
231 
172 
205 
118 
217 
187 
217 
186 
117 
196 

189, 223 
200 
186 
200 
1H9 
188 
252 
118 
164 

182, 251 
208 



'^ 


Ver. 


Page. 


Chap. 


Ver. 


P&gd. 


14 ] 


161, 183 


vii. 


23 


118 


,, 


20 


119 




37 


236 




25 


188 


viii. 


5 


206 


xxiiil 


5 117, 119, 


, , 


12 


221 






187, 201 


, , 


15 


200 


^ , 


7 


205 


ix. 


2 


200 




1& 


236 




4 


117, 191 


II 


23 


185 


, . 


11 


288 




24 117, 


118, 184 


, , 


12 


206 


, , 


26 


117, 191 


X. 


3 


185 


xsiv' 


10 


177 


, , 


14 


206 




12 


206 


, , 


18 


208 


II 


29 


200 


, , 


28 


184 


XXV. 


7 


208 


xi. 


8 


216 




28 


208 


xii. 


4 


208 


xxvi. 


24 


188 


, , 


6 


189 


xxvii. 


1 


196 


, , 


18 


230 




9 


224 








II 


10 


118 


Song or Songs. 




14 


161, 214 


i. 


1 


230 


II 


19 


200 




17 


189 




24 


117, 184 


ii. 


2 


207 


II 


26 


221 


, , 


11 


1G8,'183 


II 


27 


221 


, , 


17 


164 


xxviii. 


13 


222 


iii. 


8 


137 




17 


231 


, , 


11 


177 




22 


206 


iv. 


2 


190 


xxix. 


21 


191 


, , 


3 


207 


XXX. 


10 


183 


, , 


4 


157 




14 


221 


, . 


5 


208 




15 


281 


v. 


2 


150, 222 


II 


18 


118 


, , 


6 


222 




24 


205 


, , 


11 


150, 207 


xxxi. 


2 


. 232 


. , 


13 


210 




10 


178 


, , 


16 


207 


II 


16 


118 


vi. 


5 


240 




18 


118 


vii. 


4 


208 


II 


21 


154 


viii. 


9 


232 


II 


23 


220 


, , 


10 


171 


.. 


27 


117 


•• 


12 


274 


ECCLEBIASTI 


SB. 




Ihaiah. 




i. 


1 


200, 286 


i. 


7 


155 




2 


200 


, . 


8 


207 




5 


218 


ii. 


12 


236 


II 


16 


228 


iii. 


5 


240 


ii. 


1 


201 


, , 


15 


193 




18 


200 


, , 


16 


119 


II 


22 


200 


, , 


24 


196 


,, 


25 


251 


iv. 


1 


206 


II 


26 


286 


, , 


2 


236 


iii. 


16 


205 




4 


208 


iv. 


8 


183 


v. 


8 


199, 200 




14 


170 




24 


207 


V. 


8 


200 


, , 


25 


209 




10 


118 


, , 


28 


209 


II 


12 


238 


, , 


29 


187 


vi. 


8 


216 


vi. 


2 


142 




10 


185 


, , 


4 


151 




12 


200 




13 


205 


vii'. 


1 


230 


vii. 


4 


206 




19 


201 


, , 


10 


245 




21 


227 




15 


201 


, , 


22 


118 




16 


201, 206 



Digitized by 



Google 



291 



Chap. 


Ver. 


XXX. 


9 


xxxi. 


4 




6 




18 


xxxii. 


4 


xxxiii. 


14 


xxxiy. 


8 


, , 


18 


, , 


27 


xxxvii. 


18 




29 


xxxiz. 


2 


, 


7 


xl. 


5 




17 


xli. 


8 


, , 


10 


xlii. 


6 


, , 


8 


xUt. 


17 


xIt. 


10 


, , 


12 


, , 


18 


xlvi. 


2 


, , 


5 


xlyiii. 


14 


xUx. 


15 


1. 


4 


, , 


23 


U. 


2 


, , 


4 


Iv. 


18 


, , 


16 


lyi. 


1 


., 


5 


, , 


7 


, , 


12 


iTii. 


2 


Iviii. 


6 


, , 


8 


, , 


12 


. , 


18 


Ux. 


8 


, , 


13 


, , 


16 


Ixi. 


6 


Ixii. 


9 


Ixv. 


5 




11 


Ixyi. 


7 




9 


, , 


10 


, , 


15 


Ixvii. 


8 


Ixviii. 


81 


Ixix. 


7 


Ixx. 


5 


Ixxi. 


4 




7 




12 


. , 


15 


, , 


20 


Ixxii. 


1 




5 



Page. 
218 
217 
150 
207 
162 
266 
206 
208 
254 
151 
207 

140, 163 
206 
240 
252 
186 
151 

152, 173 
151 
221 
162 
207 
149 
203 
147 
178 

118, 286 
218 
127 
223 
118 
201 
193 
150 
246 
118 
246 
203 
152 
183 
201 
277 
221 
221 
119 
175 
203 
147 
220 
118 
116 
208 

233, 234 
150 

220, 222 
215 
254 
206 

203, 207 
118 
162 
232 
255 
217 



Chap. 


Ver. 


Page. 


Chap. 


Ver. 


Page. 


Ixxii. 


16 


207 


cvi. 


45 


183 


., 


17 


118 


evil. 


8 


221 


, , 


19 


238 




20 


286 


, , 


20 


236 


, , 


24 


206 


Ixxiii. 


2 


117, 179 


CTiii. 


7 


. 232 




27 


175 


.. 


15 


188 


, , 


28 


223 


cxv. 


10 


287 


Ixxiy. 


5 


206 




15 


155 


, , 


6 


118 


cxviii. 


8 


203 


, . 


7 


198 


, , 


9 


203 




9 


151 




12 


208 


, , 


11 


119 


cxix. 


9 


161 


Ixxv. 


10 


149 


., 


16 


161 


Ixxvii. 


12 


118, 187 


, , 


17 


161, 183 




13 


162 




28 


161 


Ixxviii. 


31 


239 




87 


162 


, , 


38 


135 




41 


162 




57 


207 


, , 


42 


161 


, , 


72 


208 


, , 


47 


183 


Ixxix. 


10 


118 




48 


201 


Ixxx. 


2 


155 


, , 


65 


161 


, , 


6 


207 


, , 


70 


207 




14 


135 




71 


208 




16 


230 


, , 


79 


232 


, , 


17 


207 




98 


162 


Ixxxi. 


16 


141 


, , 


105 


161 


Ixxxiii. 


12 


207 


, , 


107 


161 


IxxxiT. 


4 


230 




118 


223 


IXXXT. 


2 


119 


, . 


119 


175 


IxxxTii. 


4 


240 


, , 


130 


196 


IXTXix. 


10 


217 


, , 


161 


183 




11 


171,240 


, , 


167 


236 




18 


118 




169 


161 


[* 


29 


162 


cxxi. 


8 


162 


II 


40 


175 


, , 


6- 


177 


^^ 


49 


216 


cxxii. 


2 


161 


[I 


51 


214 


cxxiii. 


2 


172 


xo. 


8 


118, 176 


• • 


4 


193 




10 


240 


cxxix. 


8 


119 


, ^ 


11 


151 


, , 


5 


207 


,. 


17 


141 


cxxxi. 


2 


207 


xci. 


2 


203 


cxxxii. 


11 


199 




12 


162 




12 


199 


\\ 


16 


222. 


, , 


15 


178 


xcii. 


1 


217 


cxxxy. 


18 


212 




7 


206 


cxxxyi. 


6 


233 


I] 


8 


207 




11 


250 


.. 


9 


149 




20 ] 


L70, 240 


., 


20 


232 


cxxxviii. 


3 


240 


xciii. 


5 


170 


cxsxix. 


5 


177 


xciv. 


25 


252 




6 


117 


xcvii. 


11 


208 


cxl. 


10 


119 


xcix. 


6 


170 


cxli. 


8 


177 


ci. 


5 


150, 182 




11 


118 


cii. 


5 


153 


cxliv. 


1 


198 


ciii. 


5 


201 


cxlv. 


6 


117 




19 


200 


, , 


8 


182 


civ. 


29 


206 


, , 


10 


177 


CT. 


9 


247 


, , 


15 


218 




11 


232 


, , 


21 


236 




13 


219 


cxlvii. 


19 


183 


1.' 


28 


183 


cxlviii. 


2 


188 


, , 


37 


199 


. , 


4 


182 




40 ] 


63, 183 


cl. 


5 


205 



Digitized by 



Google 



=#s«K9 



290 





Esther. 




Ohap. 


Ver. 


Page. 


Chap. 


Ver. 


Page. 


Chap. 

Ul. 


Vep. 


Page. 


xviu. 


28 


200 


xxxviii. 


10 


202 


4 


188 


xix. 


2 


171 


, , 


11 


272 


, , 


12 


208 


, , 


4 


239 


, , 


12 


292 


, , 


16 


238 


, , 


17 


206 




19 


209 


iv. 


11 


206, 264 


, , 


29 


118 


, , 


30 


239 


, , 


14 


161 


XX. 


11 


183 




86 


264 


V. 


9 


222 


, , 


13 


266 


, , 


39 


221 




12 


150, 170 




17 


214 




41 


183 


vi. 


9 


200 


xxi. 


12 


236 


xxzix. 


10 


238 


. , 


11 


200 


, , 


13 


188, 201 




26 


188 


viii. 


8 


208 


. , 


42 


221 


. 


30 


183 


, , 


11 


213 


xxii. 


28 


208 


xL 


6 


193 




18 


119 


xxiii. 


7 


205 




10 


213 


ix. 


7 


231 


, , 


9 


a05, 249 


, , 


11 


222 




9 280, 


231,232 


xxiv. 


1 


183 


, , 


17 


183 


, , 


16 


206 


, , 


2 


155 


, , 


80 


223 


, . 


22 


221 


, , 


6 


220 


xli. 


7 


170 


, , 


27 


117 




6 


118 


xlii. 


10 


245 


, , 


28 


213 


, , 


8 


221 


, , 


16 


118, 278 




29 


230 




14 


240 








, , 


32 


221 


, , 


22 


206 




Psalms. 










, , 


24 


222 


i. 


6 


151 




Job. 




XXV. 


2 


208 


V. 


9 


119, 180 


i. 


1 


171 


xxvi. 


8 


205 


vi. 


4 


118 


, . 


10 


118 




12 


117, 240 


ix. 


5 


199 


, , 


13 


213 




14 


183 


,, 


7 


240 


ii. 


4 


200 


xxvii. 


1 


245 


|] 


8 


162 


, , 


7 


117, 184 


, , 


2 


215 


, , 


10 


141 


iy. 


14 


208 




7 


207 




13 


109 


V. 


4 


160 




11 


253 


.. 


14 


219 


. , 


5 


221 


xxviii. 


18 


178 


, , 


21 


249 


, , 


8 


218 




16 


U3 


X. 


6 


164 


vi. 


2 


118 


, , 


27 


178 


, , 


8 


177 


, , 


22 


205 


xxii. 


1 


246 


, , 


10 


187, 193 


, , 


29 


187 




2 


214 


.. 


12 


109 




13 


230 




16 


222 




14 


156 


, , 


40 


223 


XXX. 


11 


232 




15 


182 


vii. 


6 


118, 231 


, , 


22 


119 


xi. 


1 


232 


, 


20 


205 




80 


205 


xvii. 


11 


187 


viii. 


12 


217 


xxxi. 


7 


171 


.. 


12 


207 




19 


197 


, , 


8 


221 


, . 


14 


118 


ix. 


IS 


240 




20 


221, 283 




26 


262 


, , 


26 


201 


]* 


22 


171, 178 


xviii. 


1 


150 




80 


232 




35 


197 




3 


203 


, , 


33 


245 


xxxii. 


4 


178 


xix. 


3 


221 


, , 


84 


230 


, , 


6 


223 


.. 


6 


207 


X. 


13 


162 


xxxiii. 


5 


178 




9 


208 


, , 


17 


236 




9 


231 




12 


232 




20 


186 


, , 


12 


197 


XX. 


4 


162 


xi. 


2 


166 




19 


118 


xxii. 


17 


253 


, , 


17 


220 




20 


197, 223 


.. 


27 


207, 216 


, , 


42 


166 




21 


187 • 




30 


231 


xii. 


15 


207 




26 


252 


xxiii. 


5 


236 


. , 


22 


140, 260 


, , 


28 


187, 231 


xxiv. 


4 


231, 232 


xiv. 


5 


183 


xxxiv. 


31 


208 




6 


182, 183 


,, 


21 


206 


XXXV. 


8 


249 


. , 


7 


229 


rv. 


9 


238 


xxxvi. 


1 


245 


, , 


8 


21:9 


, , 


15 


183 




11 


201 


, , 


9 


229 




27 


217 


., 


U 


208 


XXV. 


5 


160 


xk\ 


11 


207, 214 




16 


239 




13 


203 


, , 


14 


163, 231 


xxivii". 


12 


183 


xxvii. 


2 


208 




16 


179 




19 


208 




4 


150 


xviii. 


11 


222 


xxxviii. 


1 


193 


, , 


6 


231 


•• 


17 


226 




3 


213 


XXX. 


6 


220 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ohap. 

T. 


Ver. 
12 


. ^j 


Chap. Ver. 

XTxiii. 11 


. ^4 


, , 


18 


216 


xxxiv. 6 


193 


, , 


19 


216 


.. 9 


. 187 


▼i. 


9 


226 


.. 12 


153 


, , 


11 


202 


.. 14 


220 


, , 


13 


214 


.. 22 


182 




80 


200 


.. 23 


200 


, , 


il 


201 


.. 33 


207 


vii. 


18 


166 


XXXV. 4 


119 


viii. 


14 


220 


.. 13 


206 


, , 


16 


216 


.. 25 


. 216 


ix. 


18 


213 


xxxvi. 4 


174 


, , 


20 


223 


.. 14 


182 


, , 


20 


187 






xi. 


1& 


168 


Ezra. 




xii. 


30 


277 


i. 1 


172 


, , 


82 


276 


4 


199 


xiii. 


14 


186 


ii. 26 


213 


, , 


19 


119 


.. 36 


275 


xy. 


1 


139 


.. 38 


273 


, . 


6 


219 


.. 42 


276 


xri. 


7 


170 


.. 46 


117, 191 


xvu. 


8 


117 


.. 50 


118 




11 


117 


.. 59 


. 208 


XTiii. 


7 


222 


.. 65 


272 




12 


141 


.. 67 


274 




14 


207 


.. 69 


273 


xix! 


7 


221 


.. 70 


225 


, , 


8 


227 


iii. 2 


216 


, , 


11 


141 


.. 3 


117 


XX. 


9 


201 


.. 7 


172, 221 


, , 


26 


216 


iv. 2 


108, 111 


, , 


29 


220 


4 


117 


xxi. 


17 


220 


.. 7 


183 


xxii. 


7 


221 


9 


118 


, . 


10 


222 


.. 12 


192 


xxiv. 


6 


216 


.. 22 


172 




20 


139 


V. 10 


239 




23 


216 


.. 14 


239 


. , 


27 


187 


.. 15 


118, 181 


XXV. 


3 


110 


vi. 6 


239 


, , 


12 


274 


9 


212 


, , 


26 


273 


.. 11 


256 


xxvi. 


6 


174 


.. 15 


172 




10 


174 


vii. 17 


212, 214 


, , 


21 


119 


.. 25 


255 


xxvu. 


9 


152 


..26 


232 


xxix. 


8 


117 


viii. 14 


188 


, , 


9 


213 


.. 17 


117, 119 


, , 


14 


119 


.. 18 


213 


. , 


2-2 


174 


. . 25 


182 




•) ' 


174 


ix. 4 


216 






■-7 


5 


220 






i ^ • 


X. 5 


255 


Xj>X. 


21 


iin 


..12 


las 




25 


152 


.. 17 


2fK) 


xxjd*. 


5 


213, 214 


..29 


186 


, , 


6 


li2 


.. 35 


187 




14 


161 


..37 


232 


. , 


16 


220 


.. 43 


232 




17 


220 


.. 44 


187 


xxxii. 


9 


174 






, , 


21 


232 






Kxxiii. 


3 


208 


ii. 2 


219 



Oh.Jp. 


y«r. 

3 


. ^e 




14 


218 


iiL 


6 


213 


. , 


7 


199 


, , 


13 


170 




15 


117, 152 


, , 


20 


188 


,, 


30 


117 


. 


31 


117 


iv. 


17 


151 


V. 


5 


. 213 


, , 


11 


171 


vi. 


8 


171 


, , 


11 


201 


, , 


14 


150 




17 


152 


vii. 


8 


213 




11 


272 




17 


272, 278 


, , 


31 


213 


, , 


87 


213, 272 




38 


272 


, , 


42 


274 


, , 


44 


. 277 


, , 


62 


119 


, , 


61 


208 


, , 


62 


213 


, , 


66 


271 


,, 


70 


276 


, . 


78 


. 256 


viiL 


6 


208 


, , 


9 


147 


, , 


11 


147 


ix. 


6 


118 




9 


213, 241 


, , 


17 


117 


, , 


16 


175 


, , 


19 


200 




20 


176 


, , 


23 


219 


, , 


29 


220 




35 


175 




37 


108 


X. 


20 


119 


, , 


29 


161, 213 


, , 


30 


213 


xii. 


9 


232 


• • 


14 


117, 187 




16 


118 




38 


152, 171 




42 


207 


..' 


44 


171 


xiii. 


4 


217 


, , 


16 


171 




23 


182 


'.; 


30 


231 




ESTHBH. 




i. 


6 


117 




6 


230 




8 


208 




16 


117 


ii! 


2 
14 


148 
159 



Q Q 



Digitized by 



Google 



288 



Chap, 
iii. 



Tl. 

Tii. 



▼m. 
iz. 



zu. 
liii. 
xiv. 



ZTii. 

xviii. 



2 Kings. 
Ver. 
13 
19 
24 
26 

5 

7 
82 
84 
89 
40 

9 
12 
17 
18 
27 

7 
12 

4 

6 
12 
13 
14 
15 

8 

4 

6 
14 
17 
27 
28 
83 
37 
16 
19 
22 
27 

1 

2 
18 
20 
10 
26 

6 

7 
18 
11 
12 
20 
26 

6 

7 
10 
16 
17 
18 

3 
24 
27 

2 
10 
20 
23 
26 



Page. 
218 
237 
188 
149 
118 

117, 184 
174 
183 
225 
207 
183 
189 

163, 211 

109, 192 
227 
205 

163, 262 
208 
205 

177, 185 
184 
209 
185 
149 
197 

174, 216 
252 
201 
149 
174 
117 
118 
149 
216 
250 
216 
117 
116 
188 
184 
189 
252 
116 
184 
117 
266 
266 
250 
184 
189 
152 
222 

117, 286 
117, 170 

118, 205 
252 
262 

181, 194 
214 

189, 155 
216 
181 
170 



XXI. 

xxii. 



Ohap. Ver. 
xix. 28 
.. 34 
.. 37 
XX. 3 
.. 4 
.. 11 
12 
13 
18 
13 
1 
5 
9 
14 
15 
1 
2 
6 
11 



10 
13 
15 
16 
18 
16 



XXV. 

xxix. 



Page. 
169 
217 
109 
265 
193 
252 
171 
241 
117 
208 
218 
117 
252 
222 

200,216 
233 
218 
250 
208 
109 
118 
179 
250 

118, 174 
174 
174 



1 Chboniolbs. 
i. 1 186, 187, 
188,280 



24 
46 
51 
8 
13 
49 
55 
19 
21 
23 
24 
7 

17 
19 
.. 20 
.. 40 
.. 41 
y. 20 



u. 



m, 



IV, 



117 
118 
226 
117 
127 



226 
117 
186 
226 
206 
119 
141 
118 
207,208 
26 170, 172, 216 



8 

11 

20 

6 

7 

8 

11 

31 

34 

35 

25 

84 

4 



118 
255 
218 
255 
226 
118 
182, 186 
226 
118 
226 
198 



XI. 



Chap. Ver. 
ix. 19 
.. 28 
.. 83 
X. 3 
1 
2 
8 
17 



5 

.. 15 

.. 23 

.. 80 

.. 85 

.. 36 

.. 88 

.. 40 

xiii. 4 

.. 15 

xiv. 15 

XT. 28 

xvi. 2 

.. 18 

.. 20 

xvii. 2 

5 

9 

.. 21 

.. 27 

xviii. 10 

XX. 5 

xxi. 22 

.. 24 

xxii. 7 

.. 15 

.. 16 

xxiii. 12 

.. 14 

.. 80 

xxiv. 11 

.. 14 

.. 24 

XXV. 1 

.. 7 
12 
29 
10 
19 
22 
12 
15 
22 
11 
16 



xxviL 



XXXlll. 

xxxiv. 



Page. 

151, 216 
218 
118 
255 
174 
218 
174 
207 
194 
255 
119 
118 
118 
174 

278, 277 
272 
221 

170, 174 
218 
255 
255 
141 
159 
250 
282 
219 
266 
199 
222 
168 
221 
182 
119 
199 
199 

180,282 
214 
141 
228 
250 
214 
288 
282 
119 
189 
142 
198 

117, 119 
214 
171 
245 
200 
288 
241 
286 
252 



2 CHBOiaCLBB. 

i 2 
.. U 212, 
.. 12 
ii 11 
16 
6 



lU. 

iv. 



218 
218, 215 
212 
289 
155 
207 



Digitized by 



Google 



287 



Oh«p. 

XTifi. 


Ver. 
18 


Page. 
116, 232 


Chap. 


1 KIN08. 

Ver. 




Page. 


Chg. 


Ver. 
86 


. ^ 


, , 


17 


116, 


255 


1. 


1 




117 


, , 


39 


171 


, , 


18 




116 




20 




218 


xii. 


3 


. 117 


• • 


20 


. 


109 




21 




214 




5 


163 


• • 


22 


141, 


245 




24 




217 


, , 


7 


. 117 


, , 


23 


, 


141 




81 




149 


, , 


21 


117 


six. 


7 


, 


116 




37 




118 


xiii. 


5 


. 207 


, , 


8 


, 


226 




40 




220 


, , 


7 


174 


, , 


19 


, 


116 




41 




223 


, , 


15 


174 


, , 


25 


. 


216 




51 




249 


, , 


20 


262 


, , 


27 


208, 


209 




58 




170 


,, 


29 


289, 240 


, , 


82 




116 




5 




148 


, , 


33 


. '141 


, , 


41 


, 


116 




6 




148 


xiv. 


5 


141 


XX. 


5 


116, 


118 




80 




252 




12 


178 


,. 


6 


, 


217 




33 




149 


, , 


25 


119 


, , 


8 


, 


116 


iii. 


2 




237 


XV. 


10 


218 


, , 


14 


, 


116 




5 




215 


, , 


15 


282 


, , 


15 


168, 


16d 




11 




215 


, , 


17 


255 


, , 


23 




116 




14 




167 


, , 


18 


. 184 


, , 


25 


116, 


118 




17 


167 


169 


,, 


27 


265 


xix. 


1 




262 




26 




219 


.. 


83 


. 245 


,, 


4 


, 


116 




8 




184 


xri. 


9 


172, 205 


, , 


5 


, 


154 




18 




172 


, , 


26 


188 


,, 


6 


116, 


262 




17 




232 


, , 


84 


118 


, , 


9 116 


,118,220 




23 




218 


XYii. 


12 


202 


, , 


12 


116, 


192 




26 




148 


, , 


13 


. 232 


, , 


16 116 


, 190, 232 




4 




155 


, , 


14 


216 


, , 


18 


, 


190 




5 




119 


, , 


28 


117 


, , 


20 


116, 


118 




20 




217 


xriii. 


1 


196 


, , 


21 


, 


116 




21 




118 


, , 


5 


. 168 


xxiL 


4 


, 


221 




25 




155 


, , 


12 


177, 196 


, , 


8 


, 


116 




27 




166 


, , 


24 


207 


, , 


15 


, 


116 


Tii 


6 




156 


, , 


27 


224 


, , 


28 


116, 


232 




13 




156 


, , 


86 . 


188, 220 


, , 


25 




252 




21 




155 


, , 


42 


188 


., 


80 


, 


177 




20 




184 


, , 


44 


. 177 


, , 


88 


. 


116 




28 




118 


, , 


46 


177 


• • 


84 


116, 


117 




86 




117 


xix. 


2 


252 


, , 


40 




170 




45 


116 


191 


, , 


4 


190 


, , 


51 


116, 


118 




48 




216 


XX. 


8 


163 


xxiiL 


1 


• 


206 


Tiii. 


7 




165 


, , 


22 


213 




8 


190, 


215 




9 




289 


, , 


27 


236 


, , 


5 


164, 


200 




18 




154 


xxi. 


2 


141 


, , 


8 


116, 


232 




21 




202 




6 


199 


, , 


9 116 


,184 


187 




26 


188 


215 


, , 


8 


149, 184 


, , 


11 


• 


116 




84 




175 


, , 


10 


207 


, , 


18 




116 




89 


i75, 


200 


, , 


18 


207 


, , 


15 


116, 


171 




48 




217 


, , 


15 


199 




16 


116, 


171 




62 




255 


, , 


21 


193 


, , 


18 




116 




65 


216, 


255 


, , 


23 


165 


, , 


20 


116, 


171 


i 


5 


149, 


166 


xxU. 


13 


188, 252 


, , 


21 


116, 


181 




9 




117 




18 


163 


, , 


85 




232 




18 




186 


, , 


87 


286 


, , 


87 


, 


116 




2 




174 




43 


225 


XXiT. 


1 

8 

10 


• 


245 
205 
262 




5 

7 
9 


188, 


197 
141 
149 




49 
2 Emae 


179 


, , 


11 


, 


262 




21 




228 


i. 


15 


149 


, , 


14 


116, 


183 


i'. 


4 




167 




17 


262 


, , 


16 




116 




6 




216 


ii. 


9 


141 


, , 


18 116 


, 118, 


214 




15 




128 


, , 


21 


171 




22 


116, 


262 




16 


128 


,255 




22 


170 


, , 


28 




262 




17 




171 


iii". 


11 


149, 205 


.. 


24 199 


,160, 


214 




81 




216 


.. 


12 


149 



Digitized by 



Google 



286 



1 








Ohap. 


Ver. 


Page. 


Ohap. 


Ver. 


Page 


Chftp. 


Ver. 


] 


Page. 


XXTi. 


6 


218 


yil. 


12 


166 


xvii. 


17 




172 




7 


. 216 




23 


220 


, , 


18 




236 




11 


216 




20 


221 


, , 


28 


L16, 


186 




12 


151 


viii 


8 


109, 192 


,, 


26 




200 




14 


!il8 




8 


221 




27 




200 




15 


216 




9 


116 




29 




245 




16 


216 




17 


171 




84 




116 




19 


151 


il 


1 


171 


.. 


87 




262 




22 


184, 216 




13 


218 




45 




200 




28 


. 200 




24 


171 


, , 


47 




200 


xxvii. 


4 


116 


xii. 


8 


287 


xriii- 


1 


116, 283 




8 


116 




4 


200, 221 




6 


116, 119 




10 


218 




7 


216. 217 


.. 


7 




116 




11 


213 




9 116, 200, 232 


. . 


9 




116 


XXTiii. 


8 


229 




12 


236 


, , 


14 




116 




6 


158 




18 


262 


. . 


20 




189 




8 


116, 182 




20 


116, 188 




22 




116 




9 


. 229 




22 


116, 186 




25 




226 




16 


240 




24 


116 


.. 


29 149, 


171 


,245 




21 


202 




81 


116, 188 


xix. 


4 




163 




2i 


141 


dii 


7 


174 


.< 


12 




251 




24 


222 




18 150, 177, 250 


• . 


18 




116 


xxi*. 


8 


208, 209 




82 


116, 118 


. . 


19 




116 




5 


116 




88 


110 




20 




158 


XXX. 


1 


. 218 




84 


116 




21 


245, 262 




2 


. 207 




87 


116, 189 


.. 


22 




116 




6 


116 


xiV; 


7 


116, 119 


, , 


28 


116 


,189 




16 


151 




11 


116 


XX. 


1 


116, 119 




22 


207 




15 


214 


., 


2 




116 




24 


116 




21 


116 




8 




206 


xxxi. 


7 


196 




22 


116 


. , 


8 




226 










SO 


116 




18 




141 


2 Samuel. 




81 


174 


, , 


17 




245 




2 


188 




82 


168 


. . 


20 


178, 268 




8 


116 




•50 


228 


.. 


24 


116 


,189 




10 


209, 216 


XV. 


6 


208 


, , 


29 




219 


.. 


11 


. U6 




8 


116, 118 


.. 


86 




164 




20 


208 




9 


174 


.. 


38 




116 




21 


236 




19 


287 


xxi. 


2 




287 




1 


174 




20 


116, 118 


. . 


8 




206 




22 


236, 245 




21 


119 


.. 


12 




116 




28 


116 




28 


116 


.. 


14 




188 




85 


166 




29 


262 


xxii. 


18 




116 


m. 


2 


116 


x^'. 


2 


116, 186 


, , 


15 




182 


• 


8 


116 




8 


. 116 




17 


116 


,232 




12 


116 




10 


116, 117 




18 




118 




15 


116, 119 




11 


289 




22 




116 




22 


225 




12 


116, 118 


,. 


45 




200 




25 


116 




18 


116 


xxiii. 


2 




262 




1 


. 255 




19 


226 




4 




245 




1 


174 




21 


109 




5 


116 


,188 




2 


116,192,218 




23 


262 




U 




262 




3 


. 174 


xvii! 


6 


217 




20 




118 




8 


116, 282 




12 


116 


,, 


21 




194 




19 


262 




14 


262 




38 




214 




28 


188 




16 


116 


xxiv. 


9 116, 


181 


,193 




24 


116, 141 




20 


174 




19 


116 


,118 


▼i'. 


1 


245 




22 


252 


XXV. 


3 


116, 282 




2 


155 


xviii. 


2 


212 


,. 


6 




218 




20 


256, 262 




8 


116, 118 




12 




207 




28 


. 116 




8 


116 


, . 


18 




116 


Yii 


4 


262 




9 


150, 214 


, . 


21 




252 




6 


199 




11 


200 


xxvi. 


5 




116 




7 


252 




12 116, 190, 208 
















Digitized by 


G0O5 



'gl 



285 



Ohap. 


Ver. 


Puge. 


Chap. 


Ver. 


Page. 


Chap. 


Ver. 


Page. 


xviii. 


12 




116 


xiy. 


15 




160 


iv. 


13 


116, 189 


, , 


14 




116 


XV. 


18 




175 


V. 


6 


109, 116 


, , 


19 




116 


, , 


19 




161 




7 


215 


.4 


24 




116 


xvi. 


12 




207 


, , 


8 


215, 233 


jdx. 


7 


212, 


218 


. , 


19 




200 


, , 


9 


109, 116 




18 




178 


, , 


21 151 


,152 


, 2-23 


, , 


10 


. 215 


, « 


22 


116 


,119 




25 




193 


, , 


11 


215, 233 


, , 


29 




11« 


, , 


26 116 


,165 


,191 


, , 


12 


109, 116 


, , 


47 




221 


xvii. 


3 




252 


vi. 


2 


208, 209 


XX- 


8 




116 


, , 


4 




252 


, , 


3 


215 


xxi. 


10 




116 


, , 


5 




252 


, , 


4 


109, 116 


,, 


27 




116 


xriii 


28 




205 


, , 


5 100 


, 116, 216 


, , 


40 




213 


xix. 


16 




174 




7 


. 174 


XXli, 


7 




116 


, , 


18 




174 


, , 


12 


230 


, , 


8 




199 


. , 


25 


188, 


-261 


vii. 


9 


116, 117 


, , 


22 


206 


,208 


XX. 


18 




109 


viu. 


8 


116 


XXIT. 


2 




216 


xxi. 


19 




221 


, , 


18 


148 


, , 


8 


116, 


118 


, , 


20 




117 


, , 


20 


208, 209 


, , 


4 




149 


, , 


22 




119 


ix. 


1 


116, 193 


, , 


8 


116, 


118 










, , 


2 


. 141 


, , 


14 


149, 


214 




BUTH. 






J J 


8 


252 


, , 


15 


116 


189 


L 


8 




118 


, , 


7 


200 


.. 


19 




11^ 


, , 


6 




221 


, , 


8 


246 


•• 


22 




149 


•• 


9 
12 


177, 
118, 


286 
177 




9 
26 


206 
116, 118 




JUOOBS. 








20 




172 


X. 


5 


. 141 


i. 


3 




149 


ii. 


1 




118 


, , 


10 


139 


. , 


81 




178 


, , 


4 




216 


, , 


11 


168 


ii. 


1 


288, 


263 


, , 


8 




200 


, , 


12 


168 


iiL 


26 




173 


, , 


12 




203 


, , 


14 


218 


iv. 


18 




174 


, , 


16 




164 


, , 


18 


. 216 


.. 


21 




171 


, , 


22 




200 


, , 


21 


116,118 


Y. 


8 




205 


iii. 


8 




200 


, , 


22 


262 


, , 


16 




249 


, , 


4 




141 


xi. 


6 116 


, 139, 188 


, , 


22 




228 


, , 


6 




109 


, , 


9 


116, 188 


vi. 


8 




206 


, , 


11 




161 


xu. 


8 


169, 237 


, , 


4 




214 


, , 


12 




110 


, , 


10 


116, 117 


', . 


6 




186 


, , 


18. 




230 


, , 


23 


140 


, , 


8 




216 


,, 


17 


io9, 


192 


, , 


24 


149 


, , 


10 




162 


iv. 


4 




118 


xiu. 


8 


116, 118 


, , 


19 




260 


, , 


6 




182 


, , 


19 


116, 117 


, , 


28 




208 


, , 


8 




168 


xiv. 


4 


. 162 


vii. 


12 




218 


, , 


9 




214 




6 


. 208 


. , 


21 




118 


. , 


12 




141 


, , 


13 


262 


. , 


22 




226 


, , 


16 




•205 


, , 


19 


262 


viii. 


2 

10 




198 
218 


•• 


18 




168 


•• 


27 


116, 160, 
191,262 


ix. 


2 




208 


1 Sahubl. 






82 116 


, 184, 189 


, , 


8 




261 


i. 


1 


, 


282 


, , 


88 


170, 171 


. , 


87 




246 


, , 


9 


. 


286 


, , 


86 


262 


, , 


41 




171 


, , 


17 


170, 


215 


, , 


52 


207 


, , 


66 




262 


. , 


26 


176, 


177 


XV. 


6 


218 


X. 


18 




160 


ii. 


8 




116 


, , 


18 


166, 167 


xi. 


14 




246 


, . 


9 


116, 


183 


, , 


16 


116, 117 


, , 


18 




258 


, , 


10 




116 


xvi. 


2 


262 


, , 


27 




218 




16 


, 


200 


, , 


4 


148 


, , 


84 




226 




24 


169, 


168 


, , 


7 


222 


. , 


87 




118 


, , 


26 




141 


, , 


12 


262 


xii. 


6 




287 


iii. 


2 




116 


, , 


16 


189 


xiii. 


8 




168 


, , 


6 




246 


, , 


16 


189 


, , 


17 




188 


, , 


8 




245 




23 


139 


, , 


18 




171 




18 




116 


, , 


24 


116 




21 




205 


, , 


21 




246 


xvii 


1 


283 


xiv. 


8 




228 


iv. 


4 


. 


166 




7 


116, 189 



p p 



Digitized by 



Google 



284 



Deuteronomy. 


Chap. Ver. 


Page. 


Chap. Ver. 


Page. 


Chap. 


Vor. 


Page. 


xxiy. 10 


171 


iu. 16 


116, 189 


ix. 


22 


158 


XXV. 5 


173, 252 


.. 17 


266 


, , 


24 


231 


9 


2(K) 


iv. 1 


262 


^ , 


27 


218 


..19 


128 


.. 8 


239, 240 


, , 


28 


16() 


xxvi. 5 


174 


.. 18 


116, 188 


X. 


5 


202 


.. 8 


213 


V. 1 


116 


, , 


11 


141, 255 


.. 16 


150 


.. 12 


. 242 


, , 


15 


150 


.. 19 


147 


.. 15 


116 




17 


148 


xzvii. 8 


122 


vi. 6 


188, 116 


. , 


20 


2-29 


.. 10 


116 


.. 7 


116, 117 




22 


174 


.. 12 


218 


.. 9 


116, 232 


xi. 


9 


217 


.. 18 


225 


.. 18 


116, 191 


, , 


10 


205 


.. 26 


150 


.. 15 


116 


, , 


12 


140, 170 


xxviii. 27 109, 


U6, 194 


vii. 7 


196 


, , 


13 


121 


.. 80 


116, 194 


.. 10 


164,164 


, , 


13-21 


95 


.. 81 


155 


.. 21 


116, 118 


, , 


20 


159 


.. 89 


151 


.. 22 


174 


, , 


24 


247 


.. 46 


227 


.. 24 


256 


. , 


26 


170 


.. 51 


214 


viii. 11 


183, 116 


xii. 


4 


152 


.. 52 


196 


.. 12 


116 




16 


2i:9 


.. 58 


162 


.. 16 


. 266 


, , 


22 


141 


.. 57 


140 


.. 16 


116 


, , 


23 


208 


.. 68 


230 


.. 21 


. 255 




29 


150 


xxix. 5 


255 


.. 24 


262 


xiii. 


1 


205 


.. 22 


116 


ix. 7 116 


, 117, 182 




8 


151 


.. 27 


230 


.. 24 


196 


, , 


16 


175 


XXX. 19 


139 


X. 8 


116 


17 


, , 


236 


xxxi. 7 


150 


.. 24 


172 


xiy. 


]8 


212 


.. 10 


150 


.. 28 


237 


, , 


28 


204 


.. 26 


119 


.. 29 


266 


XV. 


2 


196 


.. 28 


189 


.. 81 


. 265 


, , 


4 


216 


xxxii. 1 


201 


.. 34 


. 255 


, ^ 


23 


229 


.. 6 


230 


.. 82 


220 


xvi. 


10 


226 


6 


230 


.. 35 


. 221 


,, 


18 


214 


7 


254 


.. 86 


266 


xvii. 


6 


229 


.. 10 


222 


.. 38 


256 


, , 


12 


206 


.. 11 


201 


.. 89 


174 


, , 


16 


174 


.. 13 


L82 


.. 48 


. . 266 


xviii. 


12 


150 


.. 14 


158 


xi. 16 


116 


, . 


18 


150, 230 


.. 18 


208, 231 


xii. 13 


232 


xix. 


15 


229 


.. 29 


230 


.. 14 


232 


XX. 


3 


224 


.. 88 


157 


.. 15 


282 


, , 


8 


176 


.. 84 


154 


.. 20 


116 


xxi. 


6 


188 


.. 40 


149 


.. 40 


171 


, , 


7 116, 


161, 179 


.. 51 


150 


xiii. 8 


226 


, , 


15 


177 


xxxiii. 2 


198 


.. 11 


213 




21 


255 


5 


264 


.. 16 


226 


xxii. 


6 


206, 280 


.. 6 


L41, 216 


xiv. 2 


226 


, , 


15 


109, 116 


9 


116 


4 


236 


, , 


16 100, 


116,200 


.. 27 


178 


.. 12 


214 




20 


109, 116 


.. 44 


218 


.. 15 


220 


, . 


21 


109, 116 






XV. 4 


116 


, , 


23 


109, 116 


JogHXJA. 




.. 22 


212 




24 


109, 116 


i. 8 


247 


.. 45 


213 


. , 


25 


109, 116 


7 


225 


.. 47 


116 


. , 


26 


109, 116 


8 


162 


.. 48 


116 


, , 


27 


109, 116 


ii. 7 


226 


.. 68 


116, 118 




28 


109, 116 


9 


247 


.. 68 


116 




29 


109, 116 


.. 11 


256 


xvi. 8 


116, 188 


xxiii. 


4 


267 


.. 18 


116 


5 


116 


, , 


5 


227 


.. 14 


161 


xviii. 1 


214 


,, 


11 


196 


.. 18 


174 


4 


141, 266 


. , 


17 


201 


.. 22 


198 


8 


116 


xxiv. 


8 t 


206, 226 


iii. 4 


116 


9 


116 



Digitized by 



Google 



288 



Chap. 



xiv. 



Ver. 

49 

4 

8 

21 

26 

5 

8 

20 

24 

1 

8 

5 

6 

10 

U 

17 

19 

20 

26 

32 

88 

44 

60 

66 

62 

68 

74 

80 

1 

7 

16 

2 

16 

8 

10 

86 

4 

11 

12 

20 

26 

26 

32 

83 

8 

12 

16 

1 

2 

9 

21 

22 

28 

80 

8 

4 

15 

17 

20 

26 

26 

86 

14 

24 



147, 



116, 



Page. 

150, 226 
150 
200 
150 
174 

168, 228 
147 
160 
216 
169 
160 
160 
150 
157 
232 
271 
159 
282 
282 
232 
232 
232 



170 
196 
160 
248 
216 
196 
256 
116 

171, 185 

140, 170 
222 
172 
171 
174 

116,233 
242 

163, 183 
207 
170 
170 
207 
172 
207 

225, 260 
260 
280 
174 
174 
176 
280 
161 
218 
140 

116, 119 
237 

140, 170 



Chap. 


Ver. 


Page. 


X7, 


41 


265 


, , 


81 


178 


, , 


41 


170 


xvi. 


9 


. 216 


, , 


11 


116 


, , 


16 


252 


, , 


17 


218, 218 


, , 


20 


140 


xvii. 


4 


156 


, , 


17 


. 160 




20 


166 


, , 


23 


250, 251 


, , 


24 


260 


xvui. 


24 


204 


^ ^ 


28 


. 227 


, , 


26 


218 


xix. 


1 


140 


XX. 


16 


174 


, , 


17 


200 


xxi. 


4 


259 


, , 


6 


206, 246 




20 


221 


, , 


22 


200 


, , 


32 


116, 118 


xxii. 


2 


240 


, , 


12 


215 


, , 


15 


. 245 


^ ^ 


22 


263 


, , 


25 


245 


, , 


26 


245 


, , 


38 


160, 177 




1 


. 168 




8 


. 206 


II 


7 


268 


, , 


9 


197, 221 


, , 


24 


. 197 


xxiv. 


2 


139 


• • 


6 


230 




6 


. 207 


, , 


28 


216 


XXV. 


4 


150 


,, 


12 


281 


, , 


17 


160 




19 


242 


xxvi. 


8 


226 


, , 


9 


116, 119 




14 


273 


xxrii. 


2 


167, 217 


, , 


6 


. 230 




13 


206 


1', 


16 


215 


, , 


21 


217 


xxyiiL 


6 


154 


, ^ 


17 


. 141 




19 


265 




31 


. 266 


II 


88 


212, 266 


XXX. 


9 


160 


xxxi. 


12 


218 




18 


286 




22 


. 214 




24 


281 




27 


206, 261 




36 


. 277 



Chap. Yer. 

xxxi. 88 

.. 40 

.. 44 

1 

8 

7 

17 

24 

37 

8 

42 
4 
2 
4 
9 
10 
7 
3 
6 



Page. 
274 
276 
278 
247 
213 

116, 119 
170 
171 
172 
226 
287 
116 
221 
221 
276 
174 
236 

149, 221 
200 



DEUTSROKOlfT. 
i. 2 

11 
13 

16 
16 

1 

8 
14 
88 

6 
11 
13 
17 
21 
26 
28 
11 



ui. 



Tiii. 



262 
160, 169 
157 
224 
224 
237 
242 
164 
116, 230 
150 



82 
40 
46 
10 
14 
16 
18 
19 
26 

2 164, 

4 

9 
13 
17 
18 

9 
12 
19 

2 

8 

8 
14 

2 

6 
14 



230 
206 
218 
160 
205 
160 
237 
139 
139 
217 
237 

116, 232 
176 

164, 288 
226 
242 
149 

217, 288 
280 
96 

228, 229 
286 
214 
116 
170 
213 
116 
216 
182 
236 
218 
217 
150 



Digitized by 



Google 



Lbyiticus. 




Chap. 


Ver. 


^4 

140 


Ch.Jf. 


V«r. 
9 


] 


T4 


xiy. 


20 
83 


.. 


16 




175 


, , 


51 


150 


iii. 


6 




174 


XV. 


1 


140 




11 




174 


, , 


10 


. 160 




16 




174 


, , 


13 


205 


iV. 


19 




174 


, , 


29 


150, 205 


,, 


26 


174 


,207 


XTi. 


6 


214 


\\ 


81 




174 




8 


149 




35 




174 


,, 


14 


217 


T. 


1 




168 


^ , 


15 


217 




12 




174 


, , 


20 


247 


▼L 


2 




231 




21 


116, 247 




8 




225 


, , 


26 


174 


^ ^ 


9 




147 


xvii. 


4 


200 


, , 


18 




241 




5 


150 


]. 


19 




147 


, , 


18 


141 


, , 


20 




147 


XYiii. 


1 


255 


▼ii. 


6 




174 


, , 


2 


255 




6 




141 


,, 


4 


241, 255 


\\ 


9 




206 


, , 


5 


255 


[[ 


15 




141 


, , 


6 


255 


,, 


16 




141 


,, 


20 


218 


\] 


18 




141 


, , 


21 


255 


,, 


19 




141- 


, , 


23 


178 


, , 


21 




200 


,, 


25 


157 


1, 


31 




174 


, , 


27 


260 


, , 


86 




226 


, , 


28 


157 


, 


88 




226 




30 


255 


Tiii. 


2 




158 


xix. 


2 


255 


, , 


8 




135 


, , 


8 ; 


214, 238 


,, 


16 




174 






241, 255 


*| 


21 




174 


• • 


4 


255 


,, 


88 




174 




6 


141 


ix. 


10 




174 


, , 


7 


141 




12 




159 


, , 


10 


250 


, , 


14 




174 


, , 


12 


255 


,, 


18 




159 


, , 


14 


217,256 


, , 


20 




174 


, , 


15 


255 


, , 


22 116, 168, 218 


, , 


18 


256 


X. 


1 


. 


196 


, , 


23 


141 




2 


, 


150 


, , 


25 


255 


, ^ 


16 


\ 


185 


, , 


28 


255 


xi. 


I 


, 


140 


, , 


30 


255 


, , 


19 


212, 214 


,, 


81 


265 


,, 


21 




116 


, , 


32 


255 


, , 


84 


, 


141 


, , 


82 


265 




37 


208 


209 


,, 


84 


255 


, ^ 


41 




141 




37 


255 


, , 


42 


185, 


196, 


XX. 


4 


208 






280 


232 


, , 


7 


255 


,, 


48 




170 


, , 


15 


200 


, , 


44 




255 


, , 


16 


178 


xii. 


4 


, 


264 


,, 


25 


214, 251 


, , 


5 


, 


199 


, , 


26 


159 


. , 


8 


. 


214 


xxL 


2 


214, 241 


xiu. 


1 


. 


140 


, , 


6 116, 


179, 188 


, , 


2 




252 


,, 


7 


147 




8 




206 




8 


147 


^ , 


4 


178 


228 


, , 


12 


255 


, , 


10 




206 


XXli. 


2 158, 


207,255 




20 


178, "228, 287 




8 


256 


, , 


88 


186 


,280 


, , 


8 


. 255 


.. 


61 


, 


286 


, , 


16 


150 



Ob*p. 


Ver. 


Pase. 


Xlil. 


28 


. 218 


, , 


80 


141,265 


, , 


31 


255 


, , 


88 


. 256 


xxiii. 


13 


116 


, , 


17 


171 


, , 


21 


214 


, , 


22 


256 


, , 


24 


236 


, , 


28 


155 


, , 


43 


150, 255 


xxiy. 


5 


. 205 


, , 


6 


160 


, , 


7 


175 


, , 


9 


147 


, , 


12 


289,240 


, , 


13 


180 


XXT. 


17 


255 


, , 


22 


265 


• • 


28 


247 


, , 


25 


247 


, , 


27 


200 


, , 


30 


U6, 247 


, , 


85 


247 


, , 


39 


. 247 


^ , 


44 


218 


, , 


46 


149 


, , 


55 


150, 255 


xxri. 


1 


213, 255 


^ ^ 


2 


206, 256 


, , 


9 


166 


^ , 


25 


261 


, , 


48 


241 


, , 


44 


289 


, , 


45 


256 


xxrii. 


9 


226 


, , 


10 


200, 201 


, , 


26 


. 200 


, , 


80 


204 


.. 


32 


204 


NUMBSEB. 


i. 


16 116 


, 118, 187 


, , 


21 


272 


, 


25 


274 


, , 


27 


278 


• • 


88 


274 


^, 


87 


272 


, , 


39 


272 


, , 


60 


180 


ii. 


1 


140 


iU. 


9 


159 


^ ^ 


15 


147 


, , 


19 


228 


,, 


40 


147 


, , 


51 


116 


iv. 


1 


140 




12 


150 


^ , 


17 


140 


, , 


19 


160 


,, 


28 


160 


, , 


28 


275 


, , 


86 


276 


,. 


48 


278 



Digitized by 



Google 



281 



Chap. 


Ver. 


^^A 


Chap. 


Ver. 


Page. 


Chap. Ver. 


Page. 


iii. 


17 


283 


zv. 


2 


22-2 


zzriii. 12 


148 


, , 


22 


221 


, , 


11 


177 


.. 20 


213 


iv. 


2 


lie, 193 




14 


249 


.. 23 


175 


, , 


7 


252 


, , 


18 


149 


.. 28 


116, 207 


, , 


8 


166 


, , 


19 


252 


,. 29 


148 


• • 


11 


200 


xvi. 


2 


116, 118 


.. 30 


175 




12 


205 


, , 


7 


116 


.. 36 


149,230 




16 


218 




8 


220 


.. 40 


221 


, , 


19 


154, 164 


^ ^ 


12 


255- 


zxiz. 8 


150, 175 


, , 


21 


174 


, , 


13 


116 


<5 


175 


, , 


26 


222 




23 


214, 23S 


.. 18 


174 


, , 


29 


233 


ZTii* 


12 


213 


.. 17 


175 


▼. 


1 


216 


zviii. 


1 


259 


.. 18 


174, 214 


, , 


7 


171 




5 


259 


.. 25 


174 


. , 


28 


221 


, , 


7 


174 


.. 81 


147 


▼i. 


2 


215 


, , 


19 


141 


.. 84 


141 


, ^ 


3 


218 




21 


224 


zzz. 9 


213 


, , 


4 


166, 167 


, , 


25 


224 


.. 16 


175 


• ■ 


6 


158 


ziz. 


8 


262 


.. 18 


175 


, , 


11 


202 


. , 


18 


216 


.. 82 


247 


, , 


18 


140, 218 


, , 


16 


166 


xzzi. 8 


189 


, , 


18 


228 




17 


250 


.. 17 


189, 149 


, , 


24 


171 


zz. 


1 


215 


zzzii. 4 


206 


yii. 


2 


217 


, , 


6 


140 


.. 10 


150 


, , 


12 


157 




11 


189, 233 


.. 18 


149 




29 


176, 177 


, , 


13 


232 


.. 17 


116, 178 


viii. 


6 


. 237 


,, 


15 


232 


.. 19 


116 


, , 


10 


207 


, , 


16 


232 


.. 25 


281 


, , 


18 


. 246 


zzi. 


3 


241 


.. 27 


216 


, , 


19 


154 




6 


149 


xzxiii. 8 


174 


ix. 


15 


150 


, , 


8 


116 


.. 9 


174 


, , 


16 


. 217 


. , 


10 


178 


.. 13 


162 


, , 


18 


178 


, , 


27 


132 


.. 22 


220 


, , 


19 


174 


, , 


28 


141 


zzziv. 7 


161,280 




22 


141 


xzii. 


4 


116 


..14 


230 


, , 


27 


213 


, , 


22 


196 


.. 26 


281 


, , 


84 


245 


, , 


26 


116 


zzxv. 11 


116 


z. 


1 


205 


, , 


29 


223 


.. 81 


189 


, , 


2 


217 




30 


154 


zzzvi. 6 


242 


, , 


9 


161 


zziii. 


2 


95,164 


.. 14 


216 


, , 


12 


220 


, , 


8 


157 


.. 17 


214 


, , 


18 


26*1 


, , 


13 


226 


.. 19 


216 


, , 


21 


151 


zziv. 


1 


218 


zzzTii. 8 


116 


. , 


28 


205 


, , 


5 


128 


.. 16 


196 


zi. 


8 


230 


, , 


10 


215 


zzxriii. 12 


156 


zii. 


16 


141 


, , 


14 


218 


.. 17 


155 


, , 


22 


218 


zzv. 


9 


150 


.. 25 


213 




80 


245 


, , 


16 


175 


.. 28 


276 


, , 


34 


155 




18 


155 


zzziz. 3 


224,230 


, , 


87 


173 


, , 


20 


237 


4 


116 




42 


155 




21 


175, 218 


.. 14 


149 




46 


141 




22 


150 


.. 21 


116, 207 


, , 


46 


199 




26 


175 


.. 83 


116 


xiU. 


8 


141 




29 


196 


zl. 4 


206 




7 


141 


, , 


30 


176 


7 


175 


, , 


11 


116 


zxvi. 


1 


151 


.. 8 


176 


, , 


16 176, 


177, 234 


^ , 


7 


216 






, , 


17 


174 


, , 


14 


216 






xiv. 


7 


159 




16 


287 


i. 1 


196,231 


, , 


9 


150 


, , 


34 


175 


9 


174 


, , 


13 


. 226 


zzrii. 


7 


206 


.. 13 


174 




16 


141,255 




10 


155 


.. 16 


174 


, ^ 


17 


141, 255 


.. 


11 116, 


155, 183 


.. 17 


174 




19-21 


219 


ZZTlii. 


11 


149 


ii. 2 


174 



o o 



Digitized by 



Google 



280 



Chap, 
xziv. 



xznu. 
xxix. 
zxx. 



Grkbsib. 
Ver. 
25 
28 
80 
82 

83 116, 
46 
47 
63 
65 
57 
67 

1 

6 

7 
12 

16 167, 
18 
19 
21 
28 
81 

2 

3 
10 
12 
19 
26 

2 

3 

7 
22 
24 

29 116, 
81 
85 
87 
46 
10 
21 

1 
11 
21 
26 
84 
87 
40 
42 

8 
10 
13 
18 
82 
85 
49 
18 
15 
21 



26 
4 



Page. 
247 

109, 116 
168 
174 

118, 187 
251 
258 
250 

109, 116 

109, 116 
174 
245 
158 
276 
168 

208,209 

177, 207 
168 
178 

118, 187 
178 
174 

156,166 
252 
240 
168 
248 
197 
116 

176, 284 
166 
217 

117, 221 
164 
162 
218 
231 

197,242 
205 
205 

116, 193 
197 
196 
161 

196, 223 
226 

154, 280 
251 
154 
197 
174 
216 
163 
223 
160 

158. 212 
220 
252 

285, 286 

116, 168 

182, 188 
208 
177 



Chajp. 
xxxiii. 



zxxyi. 



XXXTUi. 



xli. 



xlii. 
xliii. 



Ver. 

8 
18 
20 

8 
12 
25 
26 
81 

1 
10 
17 
20 
21 
22 
28 116, 

1 

5 

9 
14 

16 ' 
21 
24 
80 

2 

4 
10 
11 
26 

27 
28 

1 

9 
18 
25 

1 

6 

9 
11 

20 116, 
22 

5 
10 
12 
18 
14 
17 
19 
21 

1 

8 160, 
11 
15 
20 
25 
28 
83 
86 
88 
89 
40 
57 
29 

6 



Page. 
197 
218 
215 

109, 116 

109, 116 
197 
207 
280 
215 
206 
219 

155, 216 
179 
242 

212, 218 
168 
116 
168 
116 
116 
264 
158 
268 
168 
-148 
218 
198 

167, 174 

208, 222 
161 
174 
287 
208 
149 
149 
174 
161 
150 
174 

118, 249 
116 
200 
159 
159 

168, 176 
178 
197 
150 
252 
242 

151, 152 
200 
241 
148 
228 
228 
205 
207 
139 
150 
217 
174 
174 
200 



Chap. Ver. 

xliii. 11 

.. 14 

.. 16 

.. 28 



xliv. 



xlv. 



zln. 



xlvii. 



28 

88 

17 

18 

20 

29 

4 

17 

12 

16 

22 

2 

8 

4 

7 

8 

9 

12 

22 

26 

27 

U 

18 

27 



.. 80 

xlviii. 4 
5 

.. 9 

.. 21 

.. 22 

xlix. 11 

.. 12 

.. 18 

... 21 

.. 27 

.. 28 

.. 29 

1. 18 

.. 14 

.. 21 



Page. 
200 
208 
174 
250 
174 

116, 117 
207 
242 
170 
241 
170 
174 
174 
198 
166 
200 
215 
174 
174 
174 
174 

174, 218 
226 
226 
174 
174 
205 
208 

170,207 

242,277 
161. 
176 
174 
197 
251 
252 
116 
280 
226 
154 
197 
150 
150 

174, 226 
174 
150 
230 



Exodus. 

1 



8 
16 
19 
2 
8 
5 
7 

10 
12 
16 
20 
13 
14 
15 



174 

212, 218 

264 

177 

280 

178, 229 

148, 167, 229 

160 

222 

220 

177 

228 

169 

215 

149, 164 



Digitized by 



Google 



279 



INDEX I. 



MASSORETIOALLY ANNOTATED PASSAGES OF SCRIPTURE 
REFERRED TO. 



Gba^. 


OSHBUS. 

Ver. 


Page. 


Chap. Ver. 
yiii. 10 


Page. 
246 


Chap. Ver. 
xTii. 17 


^ 


1 124,189,143, 


.. 15 


215 


.. 18 


216 




215, 230, 231 


. . 17 115, 118, 


.. 19 ] 


L66, 215 


, , 


2 


189 


180, 251 


..20 


167 


, , 


3 


216 


.. 22 


163 


XTiii. 6 


174 




4 139, ] 


L42,209 


ix. 8 


216 


7 ] 


41,218 


], 


6 


140 


.. 10 


213, 25 


.. 11 


242 


** 


6 ] 


L41, 215 


.. 11 


166 


.. 12 


247 




7 


L39, 142 


.. 12 


215 


.. 16 


262 


, , 


9 


216 


.. 17 166, 


167, 216 


..20 


205 


,, 


11 


216, 252 


.. 21 . 


179 


..21 


209 




14 215, < 


221,228 


.. 26 


141 


.. 26 


201,207 


|] 


15 


140 


..27 


141 


.. 29 


245 


, , 


18 


221 


.. 29 


276 


xix. 10 


174 


, , 


20 


L42, 215 


X. 1 214, 


286,287 


.. 12 


168 


, , 


21 


157 


.. 3 


268 


.. 14 


219 




24 


216 


8 


148 


.. 16 


239 


\\ 


26 


215 


9 


148 


.. 22 


161 


, , 


29 


215 


..10 


197 


.. 29 


196 


ii. 


3 


189 


.. 19 


115, 177 


.. 80 


151 




4 


168, 231 


.. 23 


197 


.. 86 


177 




6 


165 


.. 29 


167 


.. 87 


216 


[\ 


16 


289 


.. 30 


177 


.. 88 


216 


^, 


. 21 


177 


xi. 31 


174 


XX. 8 


164 


]] 


• 22 


219 


xii. 6 


174 


. . 6 140, 


160, 170 


^ ^ 


23 


206 


.. 7 


287 


.. 14 


262 


iii. 


6 


197 


.. 8 


179 


.. 15 


201 


^ , 


11 


206 


.. 10 


174 


.. 16 


236 


, , 


17 


164 


.. 11 


174 


xxi. 6 


. 206 




18 


249 


.. 14 


174 


.. 8 


197 


, , 


22 


149 


xiii. 8 


179 


.. 12 


206,216 


iv. 


2 


205 


6 


220,221 


.. 15 


197, 252 


, , 


5 


218 


.. 10 


177 


.. 23 


. 176 




8 


262 


.. 16 


227 


xxii. 2 


262 


, , 


9 


201 


xir. 2 


116 


.. 13 


206 


,, 


29 


283 


.. 8 


116 


.. 22 


208 


y. 


1 


168,220 


.. 16 


252 


xxiii. 2 


231 




6 


. 278 


XT. 1 


196 


9 


199 


, , 


31 


. 275 


.. 2 


234 


.. 11 


223 


▼i. 


2 


246 


.. 6 


250 


.. 16 


223 


, , 


3 


149 


XTi. 4 


197 


.. 18 


286 


, , 


10 


219 


.. 7 


178 


xxiy. 8 


246 


^ , 


18 


216 


.. 13 


200 


4 


226 


, , 


14-16 


229 


XTU. 2 


160 


.. 6 


247 




16 


218 


6 


. 206 


.. 14 


109, 116 


, , 


18 


166 


7 


166 


.. 16 


109, 116 


, ^ 


21 


141 


.. 9 


. 216 


.. 18 


251 


vii. 


21 


261 


.. 16 


216 


.. 28 


182, 247 



Digitized by 



Google 



278 



mniBte nop 

V T T - 

nar o^jrantn mo nut mm aim Tin 
nmi npam via ^sa hmi via rw «ti 
(T"D ,a"D avK) 

T T 'V T T »T 



,t<"h na-ma) »]Sk omr^m rwir npay 



TT Tl T TT 



niKD pm ♦n i»h dim *d» ^a vm * fan moir neoiDa -rat niaa ^a *nn 

(3"o '3 naitDa) dtikdi o'paw nir^ 



J nnjTD nnno }win 
: itSk ^iSn b^^kh 

M o f o e 



nan iniK noa: y^n 
•in-ve^a Da man ik 

'IDidS p^d n^B^n na 



^V'ia 



» A 7Vi«, ooenrs 86,140 times. The Tav itself is indicated by the first letter of 
r6nn, with which the stanza begins, and the number of times it occurs is shown by the 
initials of the remaining words in tiie first two lines, yiz., Dp"lb = 86,140, as well as by 
the numbers occurring in the two passages of Scripture quoted under this stanza, yiz., 
Numb. xzzi. 44, where we have 86.000, and Job xlii. 16, where it is 140 = 86,140. 

>o n Tav without Dngeah^ occurs 28,208 times. The letter in question is not 
only indicated by the first letter of mnin, with which this stanza begins, but more 
espedall;^ by the last letter which is without D<igesh, The number of times it occurs 
in Uie Bible is ^own by the initials of the remaining words in the first two lines, viz., 
n"33 = 28,208, as well as by the numbers contained in the two passages of Scripture 
adduced under this stanza, viz., Numb. iii. 48, where we have 22,277, and Gen. ▼. 6, 
where we have 980 = 28,208. 



Digitized by 



Google 



277 



•t tt t r » 



't\ t 

nwD »Dn pDx rwBD TiJnnKxin n^i 



(,h ,3"» /« D'D'n nan) 

pa 'iTlt |K3r 'B^K D»m3T D»n^K 331 



niiyni d^b^sh to 

... .y - I . 



:p|nhrjaBnjnB 

D»3«^i p'par rwD d»b^n B^pnB 03 
(': '3 Knrp) 

nn»T y^DB% !?ip 

m» rnriJ p3r onxD ynK3 spy- *n»i 

D*p3n»1 D»3» p3B^ 1"n »3r 3PP' »D* Tin 
(n"3 ,V'D tVVH12) nz9 n«Di 

man D»p3nN rwD iqw* 'i^ omiiPDn ^a nsT 3awD ipi* k^ ne^n ovan p 

(T'D 't '»Dro) (n"^ ,K"S 13103^ r)^« D'wSri D»3«^ WB3 

» }^ FtnaZ Tzaddi, occnw 4,872 times. The letter is indicated both by the first, and 
especially by the last, letter in V^i ^th which this stanza begins. The initials of the 
remaining words of the first two lines, viz.. ip'risn =■ 4,872, indicate the nnmber of the 
times this letter occurs in the Bible ; which is also shown by the numbers oocorring in the 
two passages of Soriptnre adduced under this stanza, viz., Ezek. xlviii. 30 and Ezra ii. 4, 
iu the former of which we have 4,500, and in the latter 872 = 4,872. 

^ p Konky occurs 22,972 times. The mnemonical sign for the letter in question 
is the Kopti in the word ip, with which this stanza begins, and the signs for the 
number of times it occurs m the Bible are both the initials of the remaming words 
in the first two lines, viz., S^'y^!) = 22,972, and the sum total of the numbers contained 
in the two passages of Scripture adduced under this stanza, viz., 1 Chron. xii. 30, where 
we have 20,800, and Ezra ii. 3, where we have 2,172 = 22,972. 

S7 1 Resh, occurs 22^47 times. The letter itself is indicated by the Rekk 
in Frnn, with which the stanza begins, and the number of times it occurs is shown both 
by the initials of the remaining words of the first two lines, viz., io'p23 — 22,147, and 
by the numbers in the two passages of Scripture adduced under this stanza, viz., 
Ps. Ixviii. 18, in which the nimiber is 22,000, and Gen. zlvii. 28, where we find 
147 = 22,147. 

» ^ Shin, occurs 82,148 times. The 8Un itself is indicated bv the first letter of 
m^, which begins this stanza, and the number of times it occurs in the Bible is shown 
by the initials of the remaining words in the first two lines, viz., niQp"3V = 32,148, as 
well as by the numbers in the two passages of Scripture adduced under this stanza, 
viz., Numb. xzxi. 85, where wo find 32,000, and Nehem. vii. 44, where it is 148 --^ 32,148. 



Digitized by 



Google 



276 



on niv ^j^yi? 
:Dn*D3|1n3T^DnnaK 

V • I ' T • I T T t - 

n "Wft^ nnnaK ♦♦n »3w »2d» n^Ki 
mv riNo Q'»9 vDn^ mv Q*pavi 
(T ,n"a n*»»na) 

It I . • I 

'tt y 'I 

par D*D^« DnnD»D^ Ki*T>pD rnn 

npi*? D»np^ n3»a 'pnr laaref' ♦aaoi 
Sai D»WD onnritT ^Knr» nwp» no 
(a"^ ,a» 'K n"n) ditd ^ pn»n« 

♦rV YTr) ^^to ni 



.... I ... , • I ^ 
nrf? anhi -nnV^a 

mry rip nonn nop^ -|n»a nnum 
^Kpm*) no» D^D^K mwi nonp d^d^k 
(n"» ,n-D 

•t : • I T : 1 • • T 

(n"^ n"o S»pTrr) rfyn n»p mD» a^ao 
D'pa»i nvDm mKDn pae^i ri^KPi nni 

lanDa) rif^t^ ncpp rwir oit^ B^cii 



*i y Jjm, occurs 20,176 times. The letter itself is indicated by the AJin in onoiy, 
the first word of this stanza, whilst the initials of the remaining words in the first two 
lines, viz., lYVpD = 20,175, show the number of times the letter in question occurs in the 
Bible, lliis is moreoTer shown 1^ the numbers to be found in the two passages of 
Scripture adduced under this stanza, viz., Ezek. xlviii. 18, where we have 10,000 and 
10,000, and Gen. xxv. 7, where the number is 176 = 20,175. 

^ fi PCf occurs 20,750 times. As usual, the letter in question is indicated by 
the Pe, the first letter in DTTD, the word with which the stanza begins, whilst the number 
of times the letter in question occurs is shown by the initials of the remaining words in 
the first two lines, viz:, 3'p = 20,750. This number is also contained in the two 
passages of Scripture adduced under this stanza, viz., Ezek. xlviii. 85 and Numb. iv. 36, 
in the former of which the number is 18,000, and in the latter 2,760 = 20,750. 

*> ^ Final Pe, occurs 1,975 times. The letter itself is not only indicated by the 
first letter in ri^fi, the word with which the stanza begins, but more especially by the 
last letter of this word, which is Final Pa, The initials of the remaining words in the 
first two lines, viz., 719"^^ = 1,975, give the number of times the letter in question occurs 
in the Bible, whilst the numbers in the two passages of Scripture, adduced under this 
stanza, show this still more explicitly, viz., £xod. xxxviii. 28, where the number 1,775 
occurs, and 2 Chron. xii. 82, where the number is 200 = 1,975. 

9* V Tzaddij occurs 16,950 times. The letter itself is indicated by the Tzaddi 
in 133^, the word with which the stanza begins; the initials of ine remaining 
words in the first two lines, viz., li'Y^ = 16,950, show the number of times the word in 
question occurs in the Bible ; and the two passages of Scripture adduced under this 
stanza, viz.. Numb. xxxi. 40 and Gen. ix. 29, are made to state the same fact, inasmuch 
as the number 16,000 occurs in' the first passage, and 950 occurs in the second, yielding 
together 16,950. 



Digitized by 



Google 



276 



(r^ '3 ititj?) Twhwi OT^aiBf 
naer D*jr3»i yaw id^ »d» ^a "m 



'3a TOK '33 Dl^» 'ia D'lpwn *33 

^an »ar »33 MOtsn »33 3ipp ♦33 po^D . 
(3*D '3 ititp) np»m D»»^» rwD 

• I Tt: -'t • 

'131 nan^D^ 13113 maun ♦witn njfpoi . 
ni3na d^wdh nipito ^hn o»3fia"n am 
CP /? '*Dn3) niKD vDm o»r^ D'3na 



T T t Til' 

^fcnaj ony*th D*n©n 

T : • T I • X . .. - 

^h» onrpi njr3i« nD3D3 p»nDn ^m 
('D ^n-a n3-TD3) 

I tt ^. y. , 

n^H P'w^wi D»3r n»3D noD^ onnipD 

T it' T 

T I • • - I • - 

mH2D roni d'dVk n3Dw onnpD rnn 

(n"D 'T n3TtD3) D»3fi»1 



• I - T - I 

n3i3t DTK n«i pnn3 ohk r« im3fn3 

0»3» nte «»33 PHK rw Tl 3«V 3W1 

('3 'D D»^n) »i^K irp 



^7 Q ^inoZ ifem, oocqzb 24,978 times. The Final Mem is not only indioated by the 
first, but more especially by the last letter in DnisaVDi the first word in this stanza 
which terminates in Final Mem. The initials of the remaining words in the first two 
lines, yiz., XT'yiS = 24,978, state the number of times the latter occurs in the Bible, 
which is indicated still more explicitly in the numbers occurring in the two passages of 
Scripture adduced under this stanza, viz., Numb. xxv. 9, where we have the number 
24,000, and Ezra ii. 86, where the number is 978 = 24,978. 

u 2 Nuny occurs 82,977 times. The letter itself is indicated by 1)03, the first word 
in this stanza which begins with Nun, and the number of times it occurs in the Bible is 
shown by the initials of the remaining words of the first two lines, yiz., r^y^ = 82,977. 
This is also shown by the numbers in the two passages quoted under this stanza, viz.. 
Numb. i. 35, where we have 82,2»0, and Gen. t. 81, where we have 777 = 82,977. 

^ ] Final Nun occurs 8,719 times. The letter in question is not only indioated 
by the first letter in J133, the first word in tfris stanza, but more especially by the hut 
letter of the word, which is Final Nun, The initials of the remaining words in the first 
two lines, viz., iQ^'jn = 8,719, as usual indicate the number of times the letter in question 
occurs in the Bible, which is also shown by the numbers to be found in the two passages 
of Scripture adduced under this stanza, viz., Numb. iv. 48, where the number 8,580 
occurs, and Ezra ii. 42, where we have 189 = 8,719. 

*o D Sameehy occurs 18,580 times. As usual, the letter in question is indicated 
by the first letter in iTn3*3D, the first word in this stanza, whilst the initiids of the 
remaining words in the first two linds, viz., D"^3^ = 18,580, show the number of times it 
occurs in the Bible, which is indicated still more plainly by the numbers in the two 
passages of Scripture cited under this stanza, viz., Fs. Ix. 2, where we have 12,000, and 
Nehem. vii. 70, where we have 1,000 + 50 -<- 530 -= 1580, making in all 18,580. 



Digitized by 



Google 



274 



T I • T^ I T 

T T ' - -T - • I - 

D»nHDl HIdSv "l^ fj^KH *3D^ »^ *Dn3 

' T I V T - » 

onmD nww) o'^vhwi hikd yaw dttdio 
(^•d 'a Hnn) niriDm o^^ait otikd 

:mteD yr^rh \h ^2^ Din 

• • T t *- • T 

(a"D 'T '•oro) irp nj?a» pi^m onn 'sa 



T S t • T T " -I 

(?"D 'a' Hntj^) 



T • 1 • T I "tt- : 

msrf? DoaDi tjfw a^vhun nw«f ipam 

I T • • •• - 

n"n) nTTTT »3a ia» n^»n o»D*m mtTri 
(a«* ,n-a /a 

T - IT- 



T I- • T» T 






u D iTapA, oocnn 87^72 timeB. The Ka^h in ]10D3, the first word of this stanzai 
gives the letter in qnestion, and the remaining mitialfl of the first two lines, vis., 
Xy^ = 87,272, giye the numher of times the letter occnrs in the Bible, which is 
also stated in the two passages of Seriptore adduced under this stanza, viz., Knmb. 
xxxi. 88, containing the number 86,000 + 72 = 86,072, and Song of Songs viii. 12, 
containing the number 1,200, = 87,272. 

1^ ^ Final Kaph^ occnrs 10,981 times. This is not only indicated by the first, but 
more especially the last letter in Ti03, the first word in this stanza, whilst the initials of 
the remaining words in the first two lines, viz., mD[Y* = 10,081, give the number of times 
the letter in question occurs in the Bihle. This is also shown hy the numbers 
occurring in the two passages Quoted under this stanza, viz., 2 Chron. zxv. 12, where 
J 0,000 occur, and Ezra ii. 66, where we have 786 + 246 = 981, yielding the sum total 
of 10,981. 

1* 7 Teamed, oceurs 41,517 times. The Lamed is indicated by the first letter of 
p^, the first word in this stanza, whilst the number is given in the initials of the 
remaining words in the first two lines, viz., r'^IMO = 41,617. This is also shown in the 
numbers of the two passaoes quoted under this stanza, viz.. Numb. i. 88, where the 
number 40,500 occurs, and Nehem. vii. 42, where we have 1,017 = 41,617. 

i> D Mem, occurs 62,805 times. The Mem is indicated by the first letter of trmDO, 
the first word of this stanza, and the number of times it occurs in the Bihle is shown 
by the initials of the remaining words of the first two lines, viz., Tfr^z = 62,806. This 
is also indicated by the numbers occurring in two passages of Scripture adduced under 
this stanza, viz., Numb. i. 26, and Ezra li. 67, wheiein occur the numbers 45,660 and 
436 + 6,720 = 62,806. 



Digitized by 



Google 



278 

p^pT vjn6 na pJipa |W3 nnU " 

'♦23113) nj^3»1 DW D»D^» 'Ua •» HWD HJIDITI t|^» Dn»p PHDK '33 pi 

('B"» '1 {'^ ,3"» '» n"i) f?'n ni33 

D»p3en npsTK q»nKDi i^fw nirwD ^is o'Tryi p*3» •i^jriarn ninowD nht^ 

{n"h 'a Knw) (Y'» /i3 n3T2D3) dtwoi e]f?K 

TT I -I •• r T •! • I • •- 

'♦ana) p'jibh D»»Dn pj^n tok »i3 nst) rrnn* »» V3» D*»n d^dVk mrpi 

('D 'I (a"» ,n"3 '3 n*D»n 

• T*^" I T -I ' T I T I • T » 

PD©3 liB?^^^ onn }^Dn ji^n onba 

'tDHj) DniBfyi niKD w^r onn ♦33 ppi pj^ki nwi33 wv D'3iD3'n 3nt 

(n''^ /T nt^D p»3n3 m3n3i d»d^k n»Dn n*3D 

(B"D /a Kntj?) 

of this stanza, and the nnmber of times it oconrs is given in the initials of the remaining 
Words in the first two lines, viz., 33'Yq^ = 76,922, which is also contained in the two 
passages from Nnmh. i. 27, and Nehem. vii. 17, viz., 47,600 and 2,322 = 76,922. 

9 t Zatfi, occnrs 22867 times. The Zain itself is indicated in nmi, the first word 
of this stanza, and the sam total is contained in the initials of the remaining letters of 
the first two lines, viz., TD"D23 = 22,867, as well as in the two passages from 1 Chron. 
zii. 80, and Nehem. vii. 19, viz., 20,803 and 2,067 = 22,867. 

u n Cheth, occurs 28,447 times. The letter itself is indicated in p^pTT, the first word 
of this stanza, whilst the number of times it occurs in the Bible is shown by the initials 
of the remaining letters of the first two lines, viz., rD"n33 = 23,447. This is also stated 
in the two passages of Scripture adduced, viz.. Numb. xzvi. 14, and Ezra ii. 88 ; in the 
first of which the number 22,200 occurs, and in the second 1247, = 28447. 

u t3 Tethy occurs 11,052 times. The letter itself is indicated in WD, the first word 
in this stanza which begins with Tethf and the initials of the remaining letters in the 
first two lines, viz., 13"M* = 1 1 ,052, ^ve the nnmber of times the letter in question occurs 
in the Bible. The number is also given in the passages of Scri^nre, 2 Cbron. xxv. 12, 
and Nehem. vii. 40, adduced under this stanza, in the first of which we have 10,000, and 
in the second 1,052, = 11,052. 

u ^ Jod, occurs 66,420 times. The Jod is indicated by the first letter of m\ the 
first word in this stanza, and the number of times is given in the initials of the remain- 
ing words in the first two lines, viz., ^^^'^XD = 66,420. This is also given in the two 
passages quoted under this stanza, viz., Ezra ii. 69, which contains the nnmber 61,000 + 
6,000 + lOi) = 66,100, and Nehem. vii. 85, which contains the number 320, making in 
all 66,420. 

N N 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



272 



nnn^n D^oaw po^oa 

o»»^»i rwDn |»D»3n tod^ on^iipe 

^j? ppjKi nrD npD "WK Dn^n nipD ^a 
n^pDi »"m pD naT ^a onnBi^Df? mir »d 

-:- 't T - . T- ' • 

n30»i Dn»p non^D »aT»p ^ann pi 

D'panKi r^vv jaiNn hidd^ onnipD 
nnej n^ nVD^ol ^ 

•• : - - T T 1 

D'paeri npa-w ni^r^ pidd^ nnnips 
(T"a 'N nanoa) nwD re^i F)f?« 

^ a ^e/A, occurs 38218 times. The Beth in «3l, the first word in the stanza, 
indicates the letter nnder discussion, and the remaimng initials of the first and second 
lines m'Trb = 38,218, give the nnmher of times the letter occurs in the Bihle, which 
is also given in the two passages quoted under this stanza, viz., Nnmh. i. 37, and 
Nehem. vii. 11 ; since in the former the nnmher 35,400 occurs, and in the latter 
2,818 = 38,218. 

* Jl Gimmeh occurs 29,587 times. The Oimmel in D^13 gives the letter in question, 
and the remaining initials of the first two lines, viz,, tV^3 — 29,537, indicate the sum 
total, which is stated still more explicitly in the numbers to he found in the two passages 
adduced, viz., Nnmh. iii. 39, and Ezra ii. 65, in which occur the numbers 22,000 and 
7,337 = 29,537. It will be seen that the Knph at the beginning of the second Ine 
is used in its final value, as explained above, vide p. 136, 270, &c. 

^ li'DdUth^ occurs 32,530 times. The Daleth in nm, the first word in this stanza, 
shows the letter under discussion, and ihe initials of the remain ng words of the two 
lines, viz., V*^ 3^ = 32,530, give the sum total, which is also given in the numbers found 
in the two passages adduced, viz., 1 Chron. xii. 35, and Nehem. vii. 38, wherein are the 
numbers 28,600 and 3,930 = 32,530. 

7 n //e, occurs 47,754 times. The He nnder discussion is indicated in Dl^n, the 
first word in this stanza, and the number is given in the initials of the remaining words 
of the first two lines viz., n3"po = 47,754, which is also ^ven in the numbers found in 
^e two passages quoted, viz.. Numb. i. 21, and Nehem. vii. 37, wherein are the numbers 
46,600 and 1,254 = 47,754. 

« 1 Far, occurs 76922 timei. The Vav itself is indicated in ni'D^ai, the first word 



nnaft ^bd«? onoa-S 

• •• -I I - - T T I • 

o^^« aKv pw ':at a«iD nne »3a 

rwar n^ Dn»nnDNi ainajr "late 
orniwD yain d^b^^it niw vfhvf d'e^n 
in"o 'a mtp) D»rwD nmisyoi 

niHD jnrn d^^k rvohv nt^x) »3a 

(n"^ 'T '♦Dm) D'Bf^lBfl 

npanKi nvon o^nwDi pj^ d^»p »3a 

nnii ja^ ^jk' niry 

o^-wp mJsD »^»i u^ih^ njip •aa 
(T"» 'T '♦am) Don 



Digitized by 



Google 



271 

the manner in which the final Mem, 'trmnv loa ^S^''^^^ »d»»w ^ti ^ 
Nun, Tzaddiy Pe, and Kaph are ,p*n»DWDTn"m ,^*nnr)npna mooD 
employed, and the value of which hvnn) ; p"m J^ ,n"n ^ ,»"n % n"n d 
I have already explained in the ^^rsn /f?i3i nm f?mnDn ''nn Tinna 
above-named Introduction [vide Dnyie>nDP)"3ojrTnD^^y^"Dnyi6rn3 



notes 500, final 3f^« 600, final Nwi '^ ' ' f ' ^ZC' 

700, final P. 800, final Tzaddi 900. r"" !'' ^ "°'T °lt T"" ^ 

Thus, for instance, in the fourth ^ '^" =^ ^=> »^ ''^^^^ =^^^" ^^™" "" 

stanza, commencing im ;?ouw>7, ^^^rin^wum ;yiDJ" livpy )m ,rD^XT 

&c.,. where . you find onplB^nD "'^ °'^ ^^^ ,nQr»n5 o^wsn rpi»m ,w"n 

D!?^y7 ^i^^ the salvation at Elam, ^^^^ 1"° ^^^^ °^P° ^^'^^ P^ H^''" 

you must observe that the Kaph nnt^ jv^ja pxoi^^n t^xon ,nm riDB^n 

ill Dnyi65^n3 is employed, according nn« ^ij»p Dpmo^crDn ^B"V30m»nw2D 

to the value of final Meni, Nun, -. K^om pn ,f ^ 'f D* q nra n*^p 
Tzaddiy Pe, and Kajyh, and denotes 

600; whilst the Lam<?rf in d!?^S mnnn ^^nnx pll 

signified 80, as usual. The same : nnoi hVn D*p^3ya 

is the case with the fifth stanza, 

beginning Dii?n hither, &c., where there are two Nuns following each 
other, viz., ^yt^i nj5i ; the first denotes 700, and the second signifies 
60, as usual. This method obtains throughout. Hence, wherever one of 
these letters is used in this signification, you find in the middle margin 
one of the final letters Mem, Nun, Tzaddi, Pe, and Kaph with a circle 
over it, as follows : — y 5 ? q n. Examine, and you will find it so. 

And now I shall begin the Poem * 
Which propounds these things. 



t"*- : T T V TT : • • : 

^:a W3 minn narS-i ^33-ip ^by hr\^r\ 

TT T T - -V: TT i't T T N' - 

ncron d'j^k d^jet npa u'rhvfn natf?i vhv u^thvi «ian yanK nnna Snpn ^a 

nj^on mv *3a D*»aa ne^on o'Tinp (t-d '? '♦Dm) n*r»i niKD 

(T"» 'T nanna) 

^ We at first intended to give, with the Hebrew origioal, an English version of this 
poem ; hat, after translating half of it, we found that the pocnHar coustmction o/ it, the 
way in which the Biblical words are therein nscd, and, in fact, the whole plan adopted 
by the writer to make it at all Intelligible to the reader, would require a commentary at 
least three times the size of the poem itself. We have, therefore, abandoned onr original 
intention, and simply subjoin an explanation of each stanza. 

' t^Alepli^ occurs 42,377 times in the Hebrew Scriptures. The Aleph in Vn«, the first 
word of this stanza, gives the letter the number of which is here discussed, and the 
letters l7"^n!D = 42,877, being the initials of the remaining words in the first and 
second lines, give the number of times the letter in question occurs in the Bible. The 
same fact is also indicated by the passages adduced from Nehem. vii. 66, and Numb, 
vii. 17 : as in the former the number 42,860 occurs, and in the latter 17 ; thus yielding 
together 42,377. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



270 



Mark that the number of each *e^M*)3 dvi3 niMi niH h^ hdoo 's yi 
letter is indicated by the initials of phnnv no ,D»3i»Knn D*pf?n 'a ^er maTi 
the first two lines. Those in the ^zvn ptnai ^*D^N:n i^^aj jivNin 
first Ime signify thousands, and nrNon imh nsii pDoon '\X9 SSaj 
those in the second line denote ^,,3^ ,^,1^^^^ p^^g, ,DnnNm nrT»pm 
the remaining numerals-that is, ^,3^ ^,„ ^^^ ^^,^ ^ „^^„ ^„^ „^^ 
hundreds, tens and umts ; and m ^^^ ^„^ ^^^ ^ 

the third line he quotes one word, ^ "^ ' ' '1 

which indicates thl verse he places ^^=° ^l" "'^^ P^°°"° "^ "^^^^'^ 
under this line ; and so, also, in the "'^ "'^ '^ "^^'^ 1^^**^ ^^^^ P^^ *^" 
fourth line he quotes one word from °T^°=^"» '=» "»3°» nannnai ,D*pioD 'a K»a» 
another verse, which he places again ^^ "1** ;n*an n7T;na» mNn iddd naa 
under this line, in such a manner, ^^^f^ niN iddd t^^nn noooa d*^!^ 
that he brings two verses under each ,»piaDn mnn ^p miD «*n o ,n3iip«in 
stanza. Now in adding up the num- : j^a pi ,'3 1« /a ik ,'h dh 

ber of the two verses, you will thus <pnN" Vrmo iivN^nn n*an '^K'Ml 
obtain the number of the letter in ^k ^y nnm ^n« f?B; n' f?«n ;:^:n" pDD- 
question wi^h which the stanza com- ^,^ ,^,^^ ^^^ ^^ |,^^,^ ,^^^^ ^^^^ 
mences. You must not, however, r l l - n 

include in this sum the nmnerical ^^nno ^3«.n pf^m, ;d^d^ a-D nn a"D 
value of the first letter, for this naa, ;T"p«.nia*ny-, ^^pri^y DK^' 
simply indicates the letter under ]^ P' '^"^^^ °'^^»* a"D cj-frKn -tddd 
consideration, whether it be Al^ph, P^P^ ^^nnon 'c^'frrn pf?nni ; nwi nw 
5<?tA, or Gimmely &c. d'30*d on ,n3T?1 ^»nnD »5*ann p^mi 

Thus, for example, in the -first n^ai n*a ^a nnn o^anaan D'pioDna"^ 
stanza commencing ^3^33 |1DD S^K ana NX03 n»t^ nipa »f?a npn na»naa 
the Tabernacle, my established edi- yniK IPIfcO Snpn tJD nriNn i^'-amDoon 
Jice, the ^itT?^ in SlK indicates the D^DK'npn D^D^K^n nar^l 'an^ /i:i «m 
letter^i/?pA,whilsttheinitialsofpDD o^piDDn ov iesod nann»»a n^n ,nDi3i 
^3*33 yield n"0 = 42, which denote 
42,000. In the second line, again, 
beginning ^jpt ^Sy DK'65' whither my 
elders resort, the initials are V'W = 
877, and thus we obtain the number '"^'"^''^J' °"*^«"^^ '"'^"'^^^ '^^^^^^ ''^•' 
of the AUphs as 42,877. The same ^^^^ «*'" '** n^'VOD nvniKO mirnim 
is the case with all the letters. As 

to the third line, beginning with ^pipn the congregation, the fourth line, 
beginning with T\2^h) and for a sacrifice, &c., they indicate the thirty- two 
verses, which are respectively placed under each stanza in smaller 
characters and without points, and in which the number in question 
occurs. Thus, the first, " all the congregation together was forty 
thousand," &c. [Ezra ii. 6] ; and the second, ** and for a sacrifice of 
peace-oflfering, two oxen," &c. [Numb. vii. 17] ; when the number of 
these two verses is added up, we obtain the sum total of 42,377. 
The same is the case with each letter. 

Moreover, it is necessary to notice, that whenever you find in a 
stanza two words ranged together, the initials of which denote tens, and 
the first of the letters is Mem, Nun, Tzaddi, Pe, or Kaph, it is used in 



pi ,T"pw D»B^K a"o DHDOD nh)y nn» 
: niKi m« ta nrp 
rra ni'Na kxdp nrtta *a pnn» I^VI 



Digitized by 



Google 



269 



That you may know how many times ,j-j^^ ^^^ ^3 pjQ T\^h 

Each letter occurs in the Bible* .niN^tOJ XIpDn ^33 TK^ 

Read all the words in this Poem. : nWH ilTK^n ^21 ^D HK N'Tpn 

I have now come to ftdfil my ^man ivh nan m p«p^ ^rwa nny 
promise which I made in the Third ^rnoan Qv^ ,nDiDt anp n'»*^» rnaipna 
Introduction, towards the end of it t^nn nm neon Pj^oa it^a^i ama^ 
[vide mjrra, p. 186]. I there stated ^^^^ t,^ q^b f^^^rn^,-, t,^ ^^qq j^^t, j^^p, 
that, at the end of this book, I would ^^.^^ra noai ,|"'Df?« noa noif? nxn ;iwi 
giyeandexplamthePoemwhichwas ^aa o^N^o^^^Taw-^o^a nnai 

written, to show the number of all "^ ' 

the letters, as well as the nmnber I^'^ '^"^=" 1^^^" """^ "» '^ ^'^^'^^ 
of each individual letter; that is, "f"^ '^ °'^^*°^ P'^ '"^^ °^"'=>'^" 
how many AlepJis, how many J5^^/w, '^'i«'^ '"» ^' "^'^^ '""^^^ '^1"»'^ ^^'^^^^ 
how many GimmeU, &c., are to be ^^^^^^ "^^^^ ^"^ o*«»03 jmonai ,nDn 
found throughout the Bible. It is ^: ^"^ "law 

said that R. Saadia Gaon is the "iD^Da ,ntn }Mra» D»nan tddd nDHI 
author of it ; and this statement t^in rrai n*a h^nw i3»vn ,a''Kn mTn« 
seems to be correct, since we find t» mona nrj^Ji ,nnK nw pao T^aD 
therein very difficult and foreign ^irnn panK^ p^m n»a ^a?^ U"m ,pVinD 
words, which are not of Hebrew nnpi ; h^pv -jv f?p»Da nrpa ir^ ^aNt 
origin, and the like of which are : TnaK 

also to be found in the Treatise, 
entitled, Faith and Philosophy y which he of blessed memory wrote.^ 

Now the number of the stanzas in this Poem corresponds to the 
number of the letters in the alphabet. Thus, each stanza propounds 
the number of one letter, and is made in tilie form of a complete 
poem, each stanza being divided into four lines, but it is not written 
in even metres. Let me now explain it. 

1 Saadia's philosophical work, to which Levita refers, has already heen described 
{vide supra, p. 136). That Levita most emphatically believed Saadia to have been the 
author of this poem, is not only evident from the above remark, bnt is placed beyond the 
shadow of a doubt, by his epilogne to it {vide in/ray p. 278). We are, therefore, sorprised 
at the remark of the learned Dukes, that '*£lias Levit« does not say expressly that 
R. Saadia was the author of it, but merely quotes it as a common opinion, with which he 
agrees" {Bertr&ge zur Oeachichte der aeitesten Avslegung und Spracherklarung des 
Alien Testamentes, vol. ii., p. 101, &c. ; Stuttgart, 1844). It is now, however, i^botiost 
certain that Saadia b. Joseph Bechor Shor, who flourished in France towards the end of the 
twelfth century, was the author of this poem, which was first published by Levita in the 
editio princeps of the Afassoreth Ha-Masaorethj Venice, 1538. It is omitted both in the 
Basel (1539) and the Sulzbach (1771) editions. It was reprinted in the Theologiad 
Decisions of the Gaom'm (D'3i«an n^mtJm mblW), Prague, ctrca 1690; by our conntxy- 
man Hugh Bronghton, in his work, entitled, Daniel, his Clialdee Vision, and his Hebrew, 
&c., at the end of chap, ix., London, 1597 ; by Buxtorf, in his Tiberias, cap. xviii., p. 183, 

, &c., Basel, 1620; in the Compilation, entitled, Taalamoth Chochma (riDSn niQ^^n), 
Basel, 1629-1631 ; by Anshel Worms, in his Sejag La-Thora (minV TD), Frankfort- 

•* on-the-Maine, 1766; in Likute Ha-Shas (D«?n 'tDip^), Koretz, 1784; by Jehudah b. 
Jacob, Dyherenforth, 1821 ; and by Fiirst, in his Hebrew Concordance^ p. 1379, 
Loipidg, 1840. 



Digitized by 



Google 



;*nii«w \hn mK vhn Kom Jtif?^ m^H pn *d ^n^ae^n qdok 

;*mapa }b^k ny mee^ a^iT ,niD* k^i n^n^ nsD ib^k ^^ n 

j^niiaa new ^ob^ ^ab nwin .^an nma oirDi ^dd naS pS 

j^niN 1M13 n^K n^ iD«n ^na^an *d n^ nniK d^^«ib^Si 

;m^QNi S^n tr^K naaBv Kin .K-ipj idb> ^i^ -ktk tb^k b^n p 

;^n'TBn ^nan n>D^yii n^y no .n-ip nBne Tin n"iD^ n^B^ loaa 

Forsooth I have committed errors, for there is no man who does not 

err, so that my error cleaves to me. 
I pray, therefore, that whoever understands and knows them, may 

correct my errors according to his wisdom. 
The Lord God knows, and also Israel may know, that I have not done 

this proudly ; 
Nor to show thereby my greatness, but simply yielded to the request 

of my special friends. 
Moreover, on account of my sin, I lost my sons: there is none left 

to perpetuate my house after my death. 
It is enough for me that my book will live and not die ; it will speak 

when I sleep in the grave. 
Therefore ^o forth, my book, circulate thyself through the world; show 

to every wise man the work of my strength. 
To those who ask who made thee, say, The hand of Elias made me. 
The son of a man who is called Asher Levi, a German, a man of 

valour and distinction. 
It was finished in the year 298 [= 1588], in the week of the Pericope 

Eorah, here in this city, the great and celebrated Venice. 

Thus thb Song is bbouoht to an end, and the book to 
its oomplbtion. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



267 

These are the signs which I ,nD o^roh 'n*«nw dod^dh on nPH 

deemed desirable to explain here, ^jk) ,n^«D Tnr j^xd» vtitv^n poo ♦^ai 

and the enquirer will doubtless fcta neon ohm ntai ; Tip vtp^h 'rut^a 
discover many more ; but I am : ^^^« ^^ ^vk nnnv' ^Ssi 

tired of lookii:^ any more for them, 

and herewith concludes this book. Praised be He, above all, who is 
able to do all things 1 



I nariM rwnn m^ -niib r63M um nam 

;>nnTyi ^nx n^n ne^« jy^ «,nnini ^^n n^ 'hvh )n« 

;^nyn^ iDiy^D d^« !?3!? n-)i« ,D:n ^3« p oa ^!? oann «in no 

;>mnnn ns-i -)in k^i DneiD ,^dd «bi ^n^np Dneo ^bd 

Now BEFOBE I FINISH TO SPEAK, I SHALL COMPOSE A NEW SoNG. 

I give to my God praise and thanks,**' because he was with me as my 

help. 
He deigned to teach me knowledge ; so much so, that I composed 

an explanation of the Massorah. 
As He gave it to me freely ; I also freely teach every man my scanty 

knowledge. 
I have searched with all my heart to discover the right thing. Thou 

mayest believe that having laboured I found the truth. 
I have received assistance from books, but not orally ; nor had I any 

fellow labourer in my work. 
I converted the obscurity [of the Massorah] into light ; I have shaken 

it as in a sieve. 
The words of the wise [in the Massorah], their secrets, and enigmas ; 

who can find them unless he ploughs with my heifer ? 

^ It will be Been, that the initials of the first line in the Hebrew are the acrostio of 
'^rrS* EliaSt the author's name. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



266 

truth and with a perfect [^.^?^] d*^^ »n*D JinnSD >B^1 p'oi ,nhv 
heart," and the sign thereof is **the a^na mwt^ 'n i^ wnr T^DP) ^'nnnn 
beginning of their respective hooks" ^^nman mp»» ,nvmK 'n (>» Kinef ,ai^^ 
that is, the bx^ok of Kings, be- /^ t,^ ajn, p nrnw 'i yh »'w flTPI 
ginning with ^5?^1 ^^^ *^ Sw^r, -nrmK 

which has five letters, it is written ,, ,^ .^^^L^^ ..L^« 

11^1-1, which also contains five let- ^' "^ '" ^ P^° =^ =^'^^^^ l^'° 
ters ; whilst in the book of Isaiah, «''7 P"^' '^"^ ^ ^"' ^'^^'^' ^1^°^ 
which begins with jWn, a vision, ^'^^^ cj» "^Pi ;Pn^ BfiTDm ^T DD*? 
consisting of four letters', it is 372^, *inn «nVDy 10*01 ^n^Vro^ npTai nVro^ 
also of four letters. * nrapo naiDBf r\>m> m'r^ ,K7tK «nVDX; 

The sign in 2 Kings XXV. 11. — ^In d»3^di ,d»3T pw^ rfiVro anw piinn 
2 Kings XXV; 11 we have " the : pni Tn* n»^ nN? ansa onnrp onr 
remnant of ite?!? «/i« multitude;' ^^^ „^ „„l, .^^q -^^y^.^^ p.^ 
and in Jerem. Hi. 16, ** the rest of ,^,^ '' „,il' . ,,, ' ,^,^^ ^„„^ ^,^^ 
[liDNH] t/,^ m«Zn-tJ.,- and the ^^/"/TJ. ^ ^^3^3n m3^. 
sign'tiiereof is - /..r. [«-,-,] « s^^d '^°- '^"^ ^ '^ " J^*"""^" '''^'' '' ^' ^^ 
/or you,'* the meaning of which is '' ^°5 V^J^ ^^'^^ '^^ *^«^ni 

well known. Moreover, in 2 Kings ^k K3»3p Sd ,n"» p»o pKprmi JD^D 
xiv.l2wehavenhp-1rtiit^o/t^^jf)oor f^^nn ^k *?aK ,Vap i^a '?5« «^ onnn 
07M, whilst in Jeremiah [lii. 15] it is ^3« &5^"» P*di rfir»B )'3eni ^p rxn tew 
nihK« 0/ tJie poor ones, and the ^^^ l^^" ^^^ ^^ «'^"'*b *«,n^DlB pp 
sign" thereof is, ** poverty follows »' io»3 "B D^oDian Y'aai ;pDp Kin 
w;)on poverty;'' that is, Jeremiah, nipo Nim ,b5>to -)*d« npna ^p n^erRiaa 
who speaks of the sundry desolations : )*an nh n»j2Dni ,110: 

of the Temple, has T\V*^D in the . 

plural, whilst the Kings, who are rich, have np'np in the singular. 

The sign in Isa. xxxv. 10. — ^In Isa. xxxv. 10 we have ^pj^. ^3W^ 
they shall obtain and rejoice, whilst in Isa. li. 11 it is ^W \^yV\ tJiey 
shall obtain, they shall rejoice, and the sign thereof is " Two Vavs, two 
Nuns," that is, in the first instance there are two Vavs together [/. e,, 
the last letter is iVfi^S and the first 1D31], and in the second instance two 
Nuns meet together [i,e,, the last letter of pVK'S which is Nun, and 
and the first of 1D3 which is also Nun], 

The sign in Ezek. xviii. 6. — In the whole of this section /3fiJ he ate, 
is entirely with Kametz [viz., Ezek. xviii. 6, 16], except in verse 11, 
where it is ^?frf, half with Kametz and half with Pattach, and the sign 
thereof is, ^'he who does not eat [}^Dp Sdn tC^*l], shuts his mouth;" 
that is, whenever ^3« is connected with ^, it is with Kametz,*^ In the 
twenty-four sacred books which have here been printed, this Massoretic 
remark is put into the book of Genesis on the words ''in the sweat 
of thy brow thou shalt eat," [iii. 19], but this is an egregious blun- 
der, and the editor did not understand it. 

^ It is to be remarked, that this mnemonical sign is based npon the double meaning 
of ^p, which denotes both the vowel-sign Kametz and to ahutj as weU as unon the fact, 
that when bSM to eat is connected with wb not it has Kametz. Hence the pla^ npon the 
words rPO'iD yop te« vfn, when Vat* and ^ are together it is Kametz, or, wlioso does 
not eat, shuts his mouth. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



265 

second He after the Baleth is qm- JTSyo hv «"n p ,nn3 n^^Tn -nw ^*rtn\ 
escent, so the He in J^JJ!? connected ^<»n 'p^ ^n iiDom ,njr3 ^^ ^t^ yiaom 
with ^?J is vocal \i. e., beginning n^0*1 CD^^I^D n*0> nriNj io^d) ;nn3 
with Jod], and the one connected nn ,1DT n« U^DD) tw p^^ ; D^DDO 
with ^9T [b^inning with Daleth] is 4s . p^n^ ^p 

qniescent. Another sign is, *' her ^^^b D"^o Ml ,DmD nKHDl JD^D 
daya are reve<ded, her blood U .^ ^^, ^^ 3^, ^,^ t^^ 

conc.a^rf; and another "ami u^. ,^ ^^ ^^ ^^,^; ^^^ 

conceal her blood,^' But these are , ' ^ ^^ . ^ J "^ 

easily understood.^ 1^°^^^ '""» l**^^ '^"^ ^^=^ '^" '°^^? 

n« mn/?7m>«tcaZ *^n t« Peri<iope *' • '^'^'^ '^^^^^ "^^^^ '^^^ P °*" 
P/im^oa.— The sign here is ni '""^ '^"^ P^=^ '1 !?ft<1IDB^n P^D 
D«^D, that is, in the whole of this Tip *nm papa 'ai ,]*3pa 'a nrsi^ -iip 
section it is written a3Wl a,, j his »itd ,nDn7Dn Hini p^oi ,rva}fiiain 
drink offei'ing, and OB?^? after tJie D^'pxoN 'ar nwVo ♦p'anm pBfJ^in 
rnanneVf except in the order for the : rrc^n 

second day, where it is written noNa ,i*<"a ]D'd ID^a^Dip^D 
t^n^?^! and f/i^t> (iriwA; offerings ^^^ nana n"f? |d*o rrprai ,Df?r MVa^ 
[Numb. rxix. 19]; for the sixth 

day, where it is 5 59?^ *"^ ''^ drink offerings [ver. 81] ; and for the 
seventh day, where it is D^QK^pS after their manner [ver. 83]. Hence 
the letters indicating the days in which these variations occur, viz., 'i = 
second day, 1 = sixth day, and r = seventh day ; together with the let- 
ters constituting the variations, viz., D in Dn^DD^I [ver. 19], ^ in n^3D31 
[ver. 81], and D in DDBBnDD [ver. 88], yield the sign D"^0 V"\^ pouring 
out water; thus pointing out that the ceremony of pouring out the 
water is contained in the Law, as is propounded in the Talmud tractate 
Taanith.*'' 

The sign on 2 Sam. xxi. 15-20. In this section the phrase and 
there was still [HOPPpj war, without the article, occurs twice [verses 
15, 20] ; *' and there was still [nDnpSPI] the war,'' with the 
article, occurs twice [verses 18, 19], and the sign is ** in the centre it 
is HDn^on/' with the ^rticle, that is, the first and fourth, which are 
the outsides, are nDn?p, without the article, and the two central 
ones are npnppn, with the article. 

The sign in 2 Kings xx. 8. — ^In 2 Kings xx. 8 we find '* in truth 
and with a perfect [lipi^] heart," whilst in Isa. xxxviii. 8 it is ''in 

^ The first and third mnemonical signB are not given in the printed editions of the 
Kassorah. 

<7 The Talmndic eTplanataon of these yariations in the words, and the law deduced 
therefrom, are to he foond in Taanith^ 2 6-8 a, as well as in Sabbath, 103 b. To 
understand the reference to the traditional enactment, it is necessary to remark, that 
these words also occnr in connection with the other days of the Feast, hnt withont the 
letters in question. As, according to the Talmndic laws of exegesis, no snperfloons 
letter is ever nsed in the Bible withont its having some recondite meaning (comp. 
Oinsbnrg's Commentary on Ecclesiastes, p. 80, &c. ; Longmans, 1861), the three 
redundant letters have been combined into d^d water. This exegetical rule is called 
|*«n>"n ]^D1 l^rvia Utters taken from one word and joined to another, or formed into 
new words. Comp. Kitto's Cuclopadia of Biblical Literature, a. v. Mivrash, p. 172, 
rule iii. See also Jacob b. Chajun's Introduction to the Babbinic Bible, p. 22, &e., 
ed. Ginsbnrg. 

M M 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



264 

and beginning with Sabbath." The mn ^a&n ova ^Tmoi ]«? lao »dv ^3 
latter is the correct one, and the «;'pTmo«^i eriipa pSpo |D»o) ppjrn 
proof of it is, that what is holy is ^^ m*D ,'\'*t1DpD Dn^K'j; tw io^oi 
placed first, and not last.** Another nxn /^d yopa Kin nvmna Tvp «in» 
sign is, "the rich are with ^am^f^," ^ t,^, ^^ ^,^1 Y'va ansjw nm^ 
tiiat is, when it is rich in letters, . V^^^ ^,^ ,^ , „,^ ^t^,„3 

It has ^am.^. and IS ;,/^.. that is ^^„ ^^^, ^^^^ ^^^^ 

it IS written 1^^*^ Dw^aw, with Jod; J^iL^ ,^. ' ^ V ,l 

whUst Ifeh Dis^n, with ao^^m, is ™^^ ^^'°^ ^''^^ =^"'" ^'=^'^^ •^^ 'J 
not rich, for it is defective, '' ^^"'^ ^ "'^P^ *^°*^- '^^ •^^"^^^ '«^^ 

T/i^ mnmonicai ^«/^/i in Pericope ™=» "J^''^ °3^^t^«»'^ ,«3 nfi^lB JD^D 
Shmfwth.— On n^m aw^ 5/.^ «^a// '^^'^ "=^"^^^ T^ V^ p^ ,n2it<ry 
live, with ^aw^fis under the Vav ^^ ^^-^ ^^no noon n«r ana riTD 
[Exod. i. 16], the Massorites re- ^^^ "^^^ ^^ nait^a f?aN5 ,npia djo 
mark, " not extant, once it is Hjn) inii ,-]^d )ni»»a »n'i nDK3» ,if?o mnw 
[Esth. iv. 11], with Slieva under : nanK^ pjt -jSd jd»d 

the VaVf and the sign thereof is N"nn mrro »r)i J/^ltn riKHDl )D^D 
KJB^ Jna^O, that is, by queen ,n*lin^ |d»di ,p'BD3 R"nn rnrro »d» ,nm 
Esther, it is with SJieva.*' npa K^n nmn* ^» ^"r TwerVVin ern^a 

TA^ mnemonical sign is Pericope 
Boh, — On "And he went out from Pharaoh" [Exod. x. 18], in con- 
nection with the plague of the locusts, the sign is, ^*the king is not 
by the locusts" that is, by most of the other plagues it is said, " and 
Moses went out from Pharaoh," whilst at &e place of locusts the 
name of Moses is not mentioned, because he is king, as it is written, 
"and he was king in Jeshurun" [Deut. xzxiii. 5]. Hence the sign^ 

The mnemonical sign in Pericope Thazriah,-' In tiie first ^JJ]? purity ^ 
construed with W2l m the blood of [Levit. xii. 4], the He is Raphe j or 
quiescent ; whilst the He of the second ''*739» connected with '*^\ in 
tiie same verse, is with Mappik, and the sign thereof is ^"J^*^] Jehudah; 
that is, just as the first He after the Jod is Hl^nj vocal, and the 

^ As the above explanation of the mnemonical sign is not very clear, and as it 
pre-snpposes a knowledge of Jewish manners and enstoms, it requires some further 
elucidation. It will be seen that the word \vn occurs seven times in the same paragraph 
(Gen. xxxvi. 30-80), — ^three times with ChoUm on the Shin {i.e. ]i^ Gen. xxxvi. 21, 
25, 30), and four times with Kametz under the Shin (t. e. \&l verses 26, 28, SO). Now, 
as the week has seven days, corresponding to these seven instances, and, moreover, as on 
three of these days an appointed lesson from the Law is read {i.e. Saturday, Monday, and 
Thursday), and tne other four days {i.e. Sunday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Friday) are 
without such lessons, thus corresponding again to the three instances of the Shin ynih 
Cholem and the four without it, the seven days are made the symbol of the seven times 
rxTi ; whilst the order of the three days with and the four days without the lesson from 
the Law is made to symbolise tho order in which ^^an is read, three times with Cholem 
and four times without {ji.e. with Kametz) y beginning with the Sabbath. Accordingly, 
the first |trT with Cholem answers to Sabbath, the first day, with a lesson ; the second 
|tn without ChoUnn answers to Sunday, which is without a lesson ; the third pari with 
Cholem answers to Monday, with a lesson ; the fourth ]ian without Cholem answers to 
Tuesday, without a lesson ; the fifth |pn without a Cholem answers to Wednesday, with- 
out a lesson ; the sixth ^^rr with a Cholem answers to Thursdav, with a li^sson ; whilst 
the seventh ]tDn without a Cholem answers to Friday, witliout a lesson. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



on the Pentateuch and Prophets, '.onsnnn 'te^ip nxp ttf^v D'M'^sa^ 

since several of them are difficult ,r"na PttTuim npn^ n: ncjnDl JD^D 

to understand. niDB^ '•B^T jd^di ',n*^n3 noni n-iai 

The mnemonical sign in Pericope n^rm unpin rwKna idd3 riTD Jin^nDD 

1. 6 it 18 nB^l Diphath, with Daleth ; ^ . -t," ' 

and the sign thereof is " TA^ initials ,_,, ^,^ ^ *.!]!' 

0/ f/i. Zm^ of their respective ^^^"^ o™k Ka^KTintnBl ItD^D 

booksr that is, in Genesis, which ^^^=* '=»^ P^=» "'^"'"^ ^^^ ^'"^^ wi 

is caUed n^K^N") with jR^s^, it is ^'^ ^^ P*o^ ^^'^^ ^'^J^^ ^^en aw 

written Biphath with iJes/i ; whilst '"'^p n»nw Dma« '33 rn^D ,131b63 

in Chronicles it is written Diphath Dpf?3 *33i ,n3p p»^ «in» ,*\xw a^ro 

with Daleth J according to the name 3»na ,p^3 »3n3' dhk p td«:p 'Dtk n»n» 

of the book which is called ^-QT ;iTDy ^n« ^»D^J^n,♦r)^»|^r^«lrt»,^Qy 

with Daleth. camsK »n^D ,«in p MXO irw )0^i 




two young men riiMK] with him ^«-,*«,.w* l 

[Gen. xxii. 81, whilst m connection ^ ' « ' ... 

with Balaam it is "and his two '^^^^'^^ '^^"^^^ on nvn,«n .titd ,niniK 
young men ri©?] u77/t /w«" [Numb. , . , r .n?'?p 

i^. 22], Ld the sign is, " each ^^ 'F^n p?^? f^p ^n^CTM ntTlBl JO^D 
wan according to his language ;" P*^**"^ °^' ^^nnD> ,^Dp3 i^aJ'? wnoDT *Dr 
that is, by Abraham, who was a '1^ 'V^ 'Vh 1^ "i'to" )^i rPi=»»' ^» 
Hebrew, it is written taK, which is iNprneon D^yTDD -)a ;'11?*?l^']y^ 
Hebrew; whilst in the narrative of ']^'li2J»7 d»tdiki ,Dn'^D'piVnD*nDnxn 
Balaam, who was an AramsBan, as unhv |D*di ,\f^ 'pn -]i^ >x&i -pen 
it is said, " from Aram has Balak 

brought me " [Numb, xxiii. 7], it is written to?, which is AramsBan, 
as the Chaldee renders ^i^M by i^^^V* Another sign for this passage is, 
*'as is his name, so he is;'* that is, Abraham, which is with Aleph, has 
\F\^ with Aleph, and Balaam, which is with Ajin^ has it written toy 
with Ajin. A third sign is " Aleph AUph, Ajin Ajin,'* i. e,, Abraham 
with Aleph has Aleph, and Balaam with Ajin has Ajin. Another sign 
for it, again, is ** their letters are the signs,'' that is, the different letters 
in their names are the signs of the respective expressions in question. 
The sign in Pencope Va-Ishlach, — The sign on J^^**! Dishan with 
KametZy and W\ Dishon with Chol£rn [Gen. xxxvi. 80], is, ** every 
day wherein the Scroll of the Law is used it is f^*? Dishan, with 
Kametz under the Shin, and it begins with the first day of the 
week," and the order is as follows, Dishon, Dkhan, Dishon, Dishon, 
Dishan, Dishon, Dishan. This is the explanation of the Spaniards. 
The French differ on this subject, saying that the order is Dishon, 
Dishan, Dishon, Dishan, Dishan, Dishon, Dishan, the sign with them 
being ** every day on which the Scroll is read, it is jKH Dishon, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



262 

KDJns is the name given by the pxDwa^ npoonn iK-ip p ,KDanB 
Massorites to a pause, or hiatus^ in ♦nnorrw San Sk pp noun pja ,piDDn 
the middle of the verse. Thus, on mD:nD n*3 vh^ noDi ,ni»a onrna 
"And Cain said to his brother Abel p-,v ♦yKi «mina pn3D 't piDD ^xoa 
o, and it came to pass they were ^w^an «S inyn ^yi d: ,wn ]wf? nrw 
in the fields" [Gen. iv. 8], the n»iD p mpoon f?a o^Kiip onpiSn n« 
Massontes remark. " one of the r < i 

twenty-five hiati [niD^^^Bl m the -. i l 

middle of the verse : " four of these ** ' 't^l^^T^fTnT ^' "',±''' 
are in the Pentateuch. « I do "'^^^^ HDinDI nnine nirne pyi 
not know from what language it is "^■'°*' ''^"^ ,mw«SD jna ip*i ,D»poiD3 
derived, and even the author of "»'»" *3fna nn^n ,rmi]t 'a nS »» nmna 
the ^rwc/i does not quote it. The ^""^^ rnixm ^rni« 'd i^p^w pSn n^aoi 
Italians, however, call all the hiati ;n*»»SwnnD»B'a Srjioi noW navrrM 
between the section, whether open no'crn pxDKa pSn rr:© nDiro nernDi 
or closed, beDa^^lB, with Tzere under ^ntDns^n q»*d2d a'TiNji ,nvmh< 'i mjr'»a 
P^; and I have enquired of their nesvn pxDKa f^^rmo no^wn tjioa im dmi 
sages about it, but they could not ,^^^ ^^^^ TonnnmBn f?Sani ;n»3rn 

^T XI- • _A i. 1 J • "0*5=^" PXDK3 n»Dn noinoni 

Now the import of open or closed „^, ^„ ,0,^ 

sections is explained by the Poskiniy '^ ' 

who, however, entertain a great 

difference of opinion about it. Ge- ^'^^' ''"' -"?"" «'"•B^«^DM 

nerally the open section consists of • ^"^ ^'^^ 

two kinds,— one is in the middle rr\\r\:^^ n^^oo *30*3 r»3ep nnaK nnyi 

of the line, where a vacant space of 

about nine letters is left, and the second has a whole line left vacant, 

and the writing commences on the third line. In the case of a closed 

section, a vacant space of about three letters is left in the middle of 

the line, and after it the line is finished ; and if the closed section 

terminates at the end of a line, the second line is begun in the middle. 

The rule is, that the open section is always at the beginning of the 

line, whilst the closed section is always in the middle of the line. 

jID^D [ = ftfcroy] is the middle. 1 have already discussed it under 
the word Q"D [vide supra, p. 256]. 

NnDID is Codex, recension. I have already described it under the 
word K"a [vide supra, p. 256]. 

I shall now explain some of the mnemonical signs of the Massorah 

^ For the four Piskaa in the Pentatench^ see above, p. 212. The other twenty-one 
are. Josh. iv. 1 ; yiii. 24 : Jadg. ii. 1 : 1 Sam x. 22 ; xiv. 18, 19, 36 ; vri. 2, 12 ; ux. 21 ; 
xxiii. 2, 11 : 2 Sam. v. 2, 19 ; yii. 4 ; xxiv. 11 : 1 Kings xiii. 20 : 2 Kings i. 17 : Isa. 
viii. 3 : Ezek. iii. 16 ; xUv. 15. Fiirst {Hebrew Concordance, p. 1369, cols. 1 and 2) 
enumerates no less than thirty-one snch Piskaa. Besides those we have given, he has 
1 Sam. xvii. 37 : 2 Sam. vi. 20 ; xii. 13 ; xvi. 23 ; xvii. 14 ; xv ii. 2 ; xxi. 1,6; xxiv. 10, 
23 : Jerem. xxxviii. 28 ; whilst he omits Gen. iv. 8 : 1 Sam. xiv. 13 ; xix. 21 : 2 Kings 
i. 17 : Ezek. xliv. 15. Indeed there is a great difference of opinion among critics as to 
the nomber and places of these Piakaa. 

** There can be but little doubt that MOanD is the Greek »rwVa, wpdv^ia. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



261 



follow the readings of Ben-Asher.« ia*B^ *«,n»K« p rtt^np hv ooow urot^ 
Hence we find in some Codices the |a nvi y^n^ orna onoon n»pa ^<3:2^3 
opinion of Ben-Naphtali noted in n<^np ^th mpten hk n*sm p« ,*^nD3 
the margin ; as n*ini arirf thou ]3 n«np^i ,]«d»d 'aa i^iin p 'ivNj |3 
»Aa/f divide [Numb/'xxxi. 27], a^na pi ; thj^ area irsm Ntin »SnD3 
which, according to the reading ^"1 Ni"33i /f?nD3 tdi(? natn 'W jv^^ja 
of Ben-Asher, is so written with two |a njyn anaier mKnoiia^ ;»^nD3 p Bfn*D 
PdshtaSy whilst, according to the j^^m ]»ina iwx p npii ,o*3Da »^nDj 
reading of Ben-Naphtali, it is H^Vni, la^fif? ,n»R p npi ij^xk nppn o ,mpD 
with one Pmhta, Hence the re- : |v^3a k^i D'joa nppn amaS )in 

mark in the margin BJ, that is, 'nana naa /i^ru'io tdi / nxn '3^1D 
^bnw Naphtali, and in some Co- ^t^nano paer j^Di^nn ^"jn noipna 
dices 3"!, that is, ♦^nw p -B^w- nNcnp hp paDio i3TOb< -)w ,*b<aTpoi 
NaphtalL Those Codices in which 
the reading of Ben-Naphtali is in 
the text, and the reading of Ben- 
Asher in the margin, are incorrect, 
since it is a principle with us to 
follow Ben-Asher. Hence it is the 
principle which should be expressed °^ T**^ '°'=*^"^i °**'=*" 
in the text, and not in the margin. 

'n^no, that is, ^«n3nD Eastern 
I have already stated, in the above- d'«»33i ,Kn^onp HnDf?^^ d»3i»ri D'K»a3 
named Introduction, the variations KnmK ^a p3a ^3»3n nhoWn Donn?^ 
between the East and the West, p na 'nn>oi ^nnbi^ Kn^onp »nD^r»i 
and that we follow the Western t^tvoh^x f?ai paaina nai *nnV«i^ nrw 
readings [vide supra, p. 118]. ;nnV^ 3"Da *nnV«h ^nn^^ n*nia'TW3n 
Hence it is only necessary to note ^i, \^^^, ^f^ ^aw ' ; nf?)i3 moraa ]"p 
in the margin the Eastern reading, . ^^^^i^^^ y»r\iii 

as on ^y upon [Judg. ix. 8], 

**the Eastern [^«n3no] reading is /^< to'' Those Codices which have 
in the margin the Western reading ^y are incorrect. Moreover, I have 
also stated already, in the above-named Introduction, that the variations 
between the Eastern and Western Codices only extend to the Prophets 
and Hagiographa, and that there is not a single one in the Pentateuch 
[vide 9upra, p. 114]. 

Kno^K^N completion J perfection. The Massorites call the earlier Pro- 
phets «n*D*1p «nD^tJ^, and the later Prophets K3^3n «no^KV. Thus 
** throughout the Pentateuch and the earlier Prophets [Nn^D*1p KHdSk'KI] 
it is ^I?n^^ I have sent, and ^^^riT^I, with Kametz under the Shin, except 
in one instance, where it is *?^n^^* [Levit. xxvi. 25], with Chirek under 
the Shin; and throughout all tiie later Prophets [«3*3n fr^nDbcTK] it 
is the same, ^'^npE' and ^i?n?KJ1 with Chirek under the Shin, except in 
two instances, where it is ^^n?C^ [Jerem. xxiii. 21 ; xxix. 19]." See the 
Massorah magna. But I do not know why they are called KHD^t^K. 



pn f\n^ Diwi^ -]n3t ]♦« ia*D^ ,»naipD 
♦Kn3nD Tjrn ?P neiyDi loa ,'Kn3»TD nj^T 
♦KaTpof? yina D»n3» onDoai ,Tj;n bw 
p Q.1 Tnyiin naai ;npon 8s<in hv 
'Ntm^TD |»a P|i^n y^vf h''yry noipna 

:rmna inn 
I noon »^pa iNnp p ,fe<nD^B^ 



\ 



** For Ben-AHhor and Ben-Naphtali, ride supra, p. 113, &c. 



Digitized by 



Google 



260 

of the Pentatench, derived from ,Ne^t3i Ton pjpo naio ,>rPTD Ha ,n3io 

Jericho. It discusses the plenes Ton inn* B^oina ^kpi rrtay^nn ^5 »3 pj3 

and defectives, as rtlglFtn t^ »Dinai ,p3pa 'a p:jrn T/^jsi ,n»35rnrM 

abominations [Levit. xviii. 27], is in ; ion ♦3»m k^d jiwunn irpT 

this Pentateuch of Jericho, without ^^^3101 p'"-i'ir] iNt^ao vSn 1BD 

the second Jod. So also ^7^^ ;/,^ K^iD'f?'jDan»«'^f?mQDa,f?"nD^Bnfi5'ai 

children of, which occurs twice in ;f?"3p h^dt n''f?nnmn»f? ^^?rn»K kxe>3 

the same chapter [Numb, xiii, 22, ^^ l,^ ^ j^^pj ^^qo^ ,3 \^^^j^ ,3^^, 

28], the first is ;7/^n^ in the Penta- ,^^^^ ^i^,^ ^^^^ 

' ^Sn nSD (^or/..r Hilaii, is quoted ^f^" ^^^^'^^^ ^"^*? °^ '^^^ '^'^'^^^ T'J' 
by Kimchi in his grammar called «^^ '^""'^ *"''" * I'^P la^oatwaipa 
Perfection, and in his Lexicon, in the « : Hin na »npn» 

followinglanguage:— **In the Codex '^'i ^'^V I^d i»« iddh Kin W5^n* 
Hilali, which is at Toledo, n?n i/<j ,p'iTn v'?jr -rpnr loa ,pnpnDn n:v 
«/ia/i roic [Deut. xii. 11], is found rcnv irx p n'jn» icon b<in ^h)t<^ 
with Daleth Raphe.'' Thus far his nonpa Tianar joa *^D»aT d*d» D'^»n'3 
remark. I at first thought that the : S«t D'ao-n D»a n*w»^wn 

Codex is so called after its author, ,.^^t^ t,L,3 ^^ ^,„ K^D&DK IDD 
whose name was Hillel ; but I soon j^,^^^ ^^ t^^^ q,^^,^ q„ ,3 .^qq 
found that in some recensions it is '^,^^^^ .^,^,,^ ,„^^ ^^^^ 

spelt^X^n, with Aleph between ^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ,^^^^^ ^^,^ ^^^^ 
two Lameds (comp. the root DIBS' m ' ' , 

Kimchi'B Lexicon). Moreover, I «««T^ P^ ^'nDBan n^? nrx D.'nrvr 
found that in the Constantinople : K^^JB!? warK pe-^a, ,K'3DDK nr^a 
edition of the Wchhl it is pointed "'»"'«'" ™''P"=' '"=^ ''='=' -''"^^ 
♦^^n, with Tzere under H., so that T«' >" P 1=" •«'* !=" 1'="^ "i^^«" ' 
I do not know what it is.^° 

^D^IT Jerusalem Codex, is the book on which R. Jona, the Gram- 
marian, relied, as is attested by Kimchi. It is perhaps the Codex 
which Ben-Asher corrected,** and which remained at Jerusalem for a 
long time, as I stated in the third Introduction, in the name of 
Maimonides of blessed memory. 

8<^DDDK ")BD Spanish Codex, is the general name for the Spanish 
Codices, for they are more correct than all other exemplars, as I have 
already stated in the Poetical Introduction. As to K^DDDK, it denotes 
Spain, for thus the Targum renders inQD [Obad.' 20] , by «^ODD, and it 
is also called Hispania in Italian, and @panien in German. 

^^nB3 Xaphtali ; I have already mentioned in the third Introduction 
the variations between Ben-Asher and Ben-Naphtali, and that we 

*^ It is now generally acknowledged among scholars that the Codex Ili'lali derives its 
name from the fact, that t was written at Hilla, a town built near the ruins of ancient 
liahel. Thi-i Codex, which was completed circa a. d. 600, had not only the then newly 
invented vowel-points and accents, but was furnished with Massoretic glosses. It was 
bron.ht to Toledo about a. d. 1100, where the grammarian Jacob b. Kleazar used it 
for his works, and a portion of it was purchased by the Jewish commonity in Africa, 
about A.D. 1600. Comp. Kitto's Cyclopa'dia^ s. v. Hilali Codex. 

^ For Ben-Asher, and his celeb ated Codex, vide supra, p. 118, &c. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



259 

from the city of Saragossa, is the *33W ";^"3pnnDDn ")BD nannooifno 
author of the book called The ^ invyy^ vtMsn nf? 

Keijr Thus far his language ;« ,,^t„ ,^ .r^v^. ^i,, ^^ D»«nniTnD 

l^t I have not as yet been able ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^,^3, 

Km^rnD Macksortka is the name • ' 3g_^' 

of a work, the author of which I ' '^"'^ 

do not know. It is quoted in the np^*?nDD nana p^no worn d» ^D^D 
margin of the Pentateuch, as **n*3DS *3'Da) ^o'^-ua nn» rotS?] paa, D^opcn 
to Compaq [Numb. xxi. 4] has Beth ''¥1^^ ^« !^»o ^« ^» '^W \ T^^a ««in 
with Dagesh, but in the Machsortha ^<in ♦» ^npT n^i >nj P|pT3 ♦roai ,c)pTa 
it is Raphe:' ^ » : narmn 

^3^D iS\*/mt, is the name of a nn8«< ipoin i^<in NjonDD in^")^ K'Oin 
correct Pentateuch which treats on 

the variations of the accents; as X^?^?! and he heard [Exod. xviii. 
1], has the accent Gershainiy but in Sinai it has Rehixi ; again, ^3*]?n 
the desert [Exod. xviii. 6], has Sakeph, whilst in Sinai it has Sakeph- 
gadol. But I do not know who the author of it is.** 

in^"l B'tDin the Pentateuch of Jericho, is doubtless a correct Codex 

M Levita's qnotation is not literal. Eyen in his own edition of Ibn Ezra's Baiancef, 
the passage is as follows :— rmCDri "TDD ^n rnDDjro T\Snoi ^TIDD ]>Qn bw ]a MTpan n^ '3T» 
and R. Levi, wJio is called Ibn At-Tabben, &c., vide p. 197 6, ed. Levita ; Venice, 1546. 

^ This R. Levi, the Spaniard, or Aholfihm Levi b. Joseph Ibn Al-Tahben, as is his 
fall name, floarisheid a. d. 1120. He was i friend of B. Jehndah Ha-Levi, the celebrated 
poet and philosopher. Besides composing poetry himself, he wrote the Hebrew Gram- 
mar called The Key (nnD?3)) to which Lev.ta refers, but which has not as yet been 
pablished. Comp. Graetz, Geschichte der Juden, vol. vi., p. 131 ; Leipzig, 1861. 

^ Machsortha (MmiTno) is the common name of the «fewish Ritnal, comprising the 
whole annnal cvcle of the Daily and Festival Services. The cycle , as is the literal 
meauing of Maclisortha (from nm to go round), was generally written bv the most 
distinguished scholars of the respective commonities in the varions parts of the world, 
embodying the local usages, and hence obtained the name of the spe^'ial place where it 
was written, and the practice of which it depicted. The cycle, according to the practice 
of the Synagogue of Yitry, has alre:)dy been mentioned {vide supra, p. 45), and we have 
to add hero that these Rituals not only contained Prayers and Hymns, bat gave the text 
of the whole Bible, so that they became models, after which copies were made. It is 
owing to this fact that the Bible Codex itself was called Machsor iy^xrvQ), as is the case 
with the Codex made after Ben-Asher. 

w Levita's 4]piotations are not from the Masso'*ah marginalis on these passages, bit 
from the outer margin. The Massoretic ^(losses in question are not reproduced literally 
by Levita, as will be seen from the following statements : — On Exod. xviii. 1, the gloss is 
y»nn 'a'D msVil B"1 paru '^W 'sran '1 roion, the word yoxcn occurs twice with the accent 
Oershain at the beginning of a verse in the Pentateuch, Sinai has Bebia ; and on 
Exod. xviii. 6, bna r]pn '^ilbrr '3*0 Sinai has "MlOTl with Saheph-gadol. Now according 
to Levita's reading *3^l in Sinai, we are obliged to assume with him that it is the 
name of a Codex ; but, according to the proper reading, we may adopt the opinion of 
Joseph Eshve, the expositor of the Msssorah, which is enunciated on Exod. xviii. 1 — 
DHo THMi NTQiQ ^Q^n 'iwjo ITT 0*31 D^orTom TipaH 'spHD »^n '3 n Ti'y *3''D noiw rroi 
rfin "tow D««na oyiDi rvoin 'wn 3?o«n nnbo ^3© tdmi riTDon by a'bD m^tti ':n: yoxo rrn 
Ty\ DyiDl Dmo <w to the remark, Sinai has Bebia, know that the inventors of the 
vowel-i>oints and accents tcere mostly from the spiritual heads and the sages of 
Tibenas. Note tJte name of one of these was Sinai, and Tie differed from the 
Massorah, which remarks, ttuit yottTI tVi the two passages in question Juis Oershaim, 
and said titat it has the accent liebia. From this it will be seen, that this great 
Massoretic authority does not take ^3^ as Codex Sinaiticus, bat regards it as a proper 
name of one of the inventors of the vowel-points and accents. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



258 

as well as those which have Mappik, natpa k»D3 pi ,«nipn J^j; iDon oy Knpi 
and which are without Mappik ; and J^y toi^ nxn ,n"y nwv^ja o»»Dinn 
he called this book the Eye of the qv mrw ^"3n^ oBfia n^Dpe^i ,K11pn 
Reader, Hence you find, in the »8 . ^nana iwi»3 nancn 

margins of some Codices of the q^ ^^irri peiD tDy nia«n v«n D"y 
Pentateuch, n-y, that is «-iipn ry; ,3,3j^o ^,,p ^j^ni ,p"Tin nan neo i 
and sometimes it is remarked v^ns ^^^.i^.^ j,,^^ ,,^,^3, ^^^^^^ ^,30„ | 
which IS the name of the author, ,^^^„^ ^v,, ^,^^^^ ,^^^^ ^^ 
as I have stated.® m . q^m^-kt 

D"y are the initials of -)D1D Oy ,^^, ^^^^ ,^ ' IZ 

Siyhis of tlie Scribe, which is the ^^z'" PP^ ^^^ '"» ni=^^» '^^-^ V^ 
name of* a book written by Redak,® *^'^ '^^^^ ^"^^ V^^^ "^ °*°3^^ "=»"'" 
and which is a compendium of the ' ** : Kin »d ♦rwT 

contents of the Massorah and the P" ,nnBD i^<np3 ido n» 'DO 
accents. I have found it quoted lann pi ,t<yTi T'r ion 'dd3 DTPxm 
in the margins of the Spanish nsn papa pi ; nnyp 'Doa pDiKn naya 
Codices of the Pentateuch, but not »2d ^npT k^i ^iDipD nnaa i^<xd3 i^^^di 
in the German Pentateuchs.^ inmpna ana p'Kn» ^rwxn -|k ,n^' 

I'-n are the initials of pp: apy^ '-| •,>pD mDon nf? 'ii >«n D*:t«0 IBdS 
R, Jacob, the Punctuator. He is 

often quoted by the above-mentioned R. Shimshon, in his work, but I 
do not know who he is."* 

•aO is the name of a book called ni?D? The Key, as DH^p-Vni and 
the bracelets [Gen. xxiv. 47], it is remarked "in The Key ['DM] is 
without the second Jod;" so also ^35?? ^" *'*^ ^^^ [Judges xi. 
18], "in The Key is ^'^VQ beyond,'' Also on defective and plene, we 
find it quoted in many places, and I do not know its author. I hate, 
however, seen that Ibn Ezra makes the following remark, in his Intro- 
duction to the book called The Balances : — " R. Levi, the Spaniard, 

w Jelcntliiel b. Jehadah Cohen flonrisliecl circa a. d. 1250-1300, at Pragne. The 
work entitled The Eye of the Reader^ to which Levita refers, consists of Massoretic 
critidsms on the Pentateuch and the Book of Esther, and has been published by the 
learned Heidenheim, Bodelheim, 1818-1825. Jekuthiel has also written a grammatical 
treatise called The Laws of the Vowel-points ("npan *Dm .Tlpsn *Vta), the Introdootion 
and practical part of which were also nnblished by Heidenheim, Rodelheim, 1818-1821. 
Comp. Kitto's Cyclopcedia of Biblical LiteraturCj 8. v. Jbkuthibl. 

M i7"Tl are the initials of Tvap TH S B. David Kimchi, the distingnished grammarian, 
lexicographer, and expositor, who has already been noticed (vide supra^ p. 107). His 
celebrated grammaticiu and lexical work, entitled Perfection (ViV^q), which was edited 
by Levita, has been described on p. 79, &c. To the article Kimchi, in Kitto's Cyclop.^ 
it is to be added, that Kimchi's Massoretic Treatise, entitied The Stylus of the Scnbe 
irtSVD 1S9), to which Leyita refers, has recently been published for the first time, 
Lyck, 1864. 

^ There can be bnt little donbt that this B. Jacob is the celebrated Hebrew gram- 
marian and poet called Jacob b. Eleazar, who flonrished circa a.d. 1130, at Toledo. 
He was a distincnished writer on the vowel-points (whence he obtained the name of 
Ha-Nahdan) and on the etymology of proper names. He moreover formed a correct 
Beoension of the text of the Hebrew Scriptures, after the model of the Codex Hilali, 
and it is owing to these contribntionB to BibUoal literature that he is so often quoted 
by Shimshon, Kimchi, and other lexicographers and critics. Comp. Kitto's Cyclopcedia 
of Biblical Literature, 8. v. Jacob b. Elbazab. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



257 

the Laws respecting the use of the ^31fi5'OK'n ")DD1 \rvh D^onm ,uh\nT\ 

Chokm, &c. Whereas the book pi ,^»nnD D^ilpn linn Kipan nson Kin 

Shinishoni is nothing but the book onapn ona nai* ib^k Dnann nop »3 
called Chibur Ha-Konim, beginning ao . ,^,3^ ^p,^ q-, 

with ** Know that the fundamental ^^,3^ ^^^^ t^u^^ ^^03 ^n«3fD K^D 

things discussed by the Hebrews .^^ ^ ^^^^ ,^,,^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^,^^ 

C^'D, In the above-named Codex ^. ..^^ tM*«U% 
I found a proof cited from a correct '^^ '"^^ ^^ "^^ "^=:" **^**^ '^"' 
Pentateuch, saying, I found it so in ''''^' '^'^^^^ ^'^ "^^^ ^^'^ ^^'^^ '^^^p' 
the Pentateuch of R. Meier Spira, ^^^ ^"" 1=^ 'PP^^ P^^ "=«'« P^'^^^ 
which is )0"D = xn*D5r TXD.^^ ^^^"^ ''^'^^P' » *^'P ^"^^o ^^ "^^^ "'"^^ 

^•an> are the initials of ^«^nip? '^^^^ /°'"T'*b nj^-maw jxid p"p3 n^n 
n*lin* ■)! {nan Jekuthiel Ha-Cohen »na »^m5a» n»\pn nx'rn itt ^p *mDK 
ft. Jehudah, the author of the book nt**3 inn nvyi « ; Rin »2DnD ^d naa in*r 
entitled the Eye of the Reader, ^♦p^o pjfjsiff ni^oni nnipn )»3P3 ni«D 
whose surname in German is Sal- ,pD'po ♦n^ai j'spn pjpai ,pi^D it^ 
men Ha-Nakdan. He thus signs 

his name in the second poem of Uie book here alluded to. ] have heard 
that he was from the the city of Prague, in the country of Bohemia ; 
and I said, in a play upon the words, that from the walls [= lines] of 
the house [ = in the stanzas] of his poems, he is recognised to be a 
Bohemian." He composed a very excellent treatise, discussing the 
vowel-points, and the words, the accents of which are Milel or Milra, 

^ R. Shimsbon, the grammarian {"ppVl J)Xyiyo ^), floarishcd about 1210. Tbe 
treatise wbicb discnsses tbe vowel -points and accents, and to wbich Leyita refers, has 
not as yet appeared. Excerpts of it, however, have been pablisbed in Abicbt's Accentus 
Hebr. ex antiquissimo f«u lectorio vel musico explicati, &c. ; Acced. Porta accentuum 
Lat. conversa et notis illustr., Leipz. 1713; Delitzscb, in Jesurun, pp. 16, 86, 92, 192, 
249, 262. Comp. Wolf, Bibliotheca Hebrcea, vol i. 1152, iii. 1160, iv. 1008 ; Geiger, 
Wiaaenschaftiche Zeitscliri/t fUr JUdiache Theohgie^ vol. v., p. 423, &c., Leipzig, 1844; 
Fiirst, Bibliotheca Judaica^ iii. 16. 

81 All onr endeavoors to obtain some information abont this Meier Spira have proved 
abortive. Wolf {Bibliotheca Ilebrctay i. 756) simply saj^s that Levita ^notes him, whilst 
Fiirst, the Litest Hebrew bibliographer, remarks {Bibliotheca Judaica^ iii. 372) that 
Spira wrote these works : i. A Treatise on Arithmetic ; ii. A Commentary on Immannel 
b. Jacob's Astronomical Work ; and iii. A Pentateuch with the Maasorah. Fiirst, 
however, omits his usual references to some works for particulars about the author. 

^ To understand this pun, which cannot be reproduced in a translation, it is to be 
remarked, that Levita refers to an incident in R. Giimaliel's life, recorded in the 
Talmud, which is as follows : — II. Gamaliel, whilst in the house of study, was asked by 
Jehudah, a proselyte of Ammonitish descent, whether he might come into the house of 
study. Gamaliel answered him in the negative, submitting that the Law [Deut. xxiii. 4] 
prohibited it. R. Jehoshuah was of the contrary opinion, and adduced in support of his 
view the declaration made in Isa. x. 1 3, that Goa had abolished the boundaries of aU 
nations, and thus obliterated the territory of Ammon. He carried his point against 
Gamaliel, and the latter went to the house of his antagonist to be reconciled with him, 
since the altercation had assumed an angry tone. " On entering his house, R. Gamaliel . 
perceived that the beams were black, and said to R. Jehoshuah, n3^3 TTTW TTTO *^m30 
nrw 'OnWJ from the walls of thy house thou art recognised to be a blachsmith^^' for 
which incautious remark he had again to apologise {Berachothy 28 6). It will be seen 
that Levita refers to this remark of Gamaliel, and that the pun consists not only in the 
fact that m mea- s both hov^e and stanza^ but that nsHD blacksmith, with the slight 
alteration of the n into n, denotes Bohemian. 

L L 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



266 

J>VD, the word pDHD [ = /utrov] , but I «^i ,I^D'0 9^o Dipoa ^rrnxo mioD i»*3» 
have not been able to discover the : )rn) lan i^ •dhxd 

like of it anywhere else, ,,^t, ^Mnnx KnWJ ma-n '»«n ».., 

K"3 are the initials of tonnK KlTDIJ ^,„ ^„ ,,., y.^ ^^^^ „^^ ^„, „, 
«notA.rJfec.«^orCorf.^. This ^J t,„„ ^,^ ^..^^ „„„ 

expression is of frequent occurrence ' ' ' , 

in the writings 7i our sages of ^^^ ^^"'^ ^^^ ^"^- J^'^^ ™"^ "P^^^" 
blessed memory; as tD^n HDID to °^""^ °T^^" °*"'"" p opnpvinov 
trans/^ofeiZZo/d2t'orc^,n3nannDi: '^'^^=* P^ ,rnRnDi3 D*mp3 inn ibd p 
to trajisfer a hUsdng, &c. ; and it J ^di*^ P"''^ riTD ,n»n'a }D kp npan: 
appears to me to denote to transcribe, Tnjs< opo^ npnpm isnoi»f "tdik *» p? 
to tt'n>, like "inp^. [Prov. ii. 22], ' :t<in 

which denotes to remove, to transfer, Q^j^^^p, Q^^^pj ^p ^^^^ ^^^.^ j^^ 
Hence those words which have been ^^j^^t,^ ^jj-^ ^^^^^^ d^uxdih D'3?n i« 
transferred and copied from a book ^,^^^^ ^„ ^^,^, ^^ ^^^^^ i^ 

.are called ni«nD1J transfers, copus ^ ,^ ^,^^^ ,^^^^^ ^^^ ,^^^ ^c,, 
Codices, Hence, also, the word 

HD^n^. [Ezra vi. 11], is to transfer, "'^^^ ^^^ ^'^^^^^ "'°"' "»P °^ '°^f^ 
to mnoi-e. I therefore submit that • 1^^ ^"^^ "^^ 'J' 

«nD13 and npnpn are almost iden- ma^n 'Bftsn twiner ♦S loi^ia n'D"! 
tical. n'i^<-npn p nni^i n*n ,|Tn nCTD "1 

Let me now mention the names nrn^ San ,'nj;T kS ^awi p^pnaion 

of some of the punctuators and. ;^\p^n *^!?D -lan i»it »»»n pwd mrw 

praelectors, which occur in some of moon a^ao Snrr pmm onvpa D'ODian . 

the margins of the correct Codices ^g^ ^^. ^^^^^ ^^ ^Thmrw phmry 

of the Pentateuch. Most of these ^^^^ ««-.,, -,-^, . i,^, ,,«*^ m^ i^nin ,-* 
_ _. _, 1 -r 1 ^D^a vmat ^aai : lai ♦3dd |n3 nipan 'a 

Codices are German, and I have 

only seldom found them m the !i^^^u^*^m ^*>.^ 

Portuguese Pentateuchs, I shaU '^ ^^^' '^ ^'^''^' '^^^J" ^^° ^^^"'^ 

also describe some of the titles of P" '^V''''^'' "'''"'' ^ ''''' ?'"" 

the books which have been written ^wttDiSaDm^Txnnmpja ma'rn'rnna 

upon the subject. "'^i^i ^^'^^' "'^^ ^^^^ ^"=»^ P^'^^ 

n"tD"), I have been told, is the »io^ OBBftD nnK Dipoai ',(i"h n^hn) 
acrostic of ]Tn HK^D ") Rabbi Moses 

Chasan, who was one of the most correct praelectors, but I do not 
know who he is. It may be that this is the Moses who wrote the 
Treatise on the Laws of the Vowel-points, which is printed in the Great 
Bible round the margin of the Massorah, and begins with, <<Thus saith 
the author, for a truth the vowel-points were given on Sinai," &c. 
I have already mentioned it in the Introduction to this Massoreth 
Ha-Massoreth \yidesiipra, p. 128]. Many think that it is the Book of 
Shimshon, but they are mistaken, for we find therein the name Moses 
signed in many places, as in the beginning of the Treatise, when 
speaking concerning the vowel-points Tzere and Segol, which com- 
mences xvy^^ yri^ rsytP' f'om the plaice of his habitation he looketh 
[Ps. xxxiii. 14] ; and in another place, again, oVin'*'' "oio^ ^cdq^' 

Massorah finalis under the letter Shin, p. 60 a, col. 1. The Massoretic remark to which 
Levita refers ia not to be found in the printed editions of the Massorah. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



255 

D"D are the initials both of t\*\o ^BID im pIDD tjiD ma'n 'wrt B"D 
pIDD t/i^ <?wrf o/ «/e^ verse f and of ,RnDD3 d"d 'a njrr'?» paa ,D^p1DD 
DVIDD ^BID <^nrf« o/ r^r«tf« ; as ^?g *»Kn B"DD ini^< f?3 ^p noDj niKnoia »m 
*^Sn\ 7, Jehovah, ** occurs twenty oynVMrrtrr'SM pi ,DV1DD^D1D D nian 
times at the end of verses [D"D O] ' «7:pni ^"oaa |n'f?p nooa d-d a- a 
in one book.'* In some Codices it ^^t^ ^^^^ p^^a PVD man ^^kt DD 

15 remarked on each one of these l w.,- „^„, .-„r,«n «vrN»»-, 
H'TO, being the initials of >D1D O "^'"^ ^J*"^ Zl JT ^l \ 
DV1DB, " one of the twenty at the ^=" ^^J^' '^^^^^ ^ ^"^ ^J^^?' 
end of the verses." Thus, also, '^'^'"^ ^^^^ D^n^« a>:i ,n^:niD P^l » 
DD^n^K n\,T ^3K 7, J./,ora;i, yot/r ^^"^ °'^'=^^ "^^" ^«' ^" ^=^^ 
(/o^, whTch "-occurs twentV two ^^^^ '«^^« ^« ,«niy^VD i« Hiy^VtD 
times at the end of verses [D"Dn"3];" o""^ °" aan miDon ^^pa naw 
the Massorites remark, on each of P" .poe pxo loi'? una la^D^ /dSb^it 
them, 5|"DM.«' *8,n»maT d-t f?3i pioD piD 'nf? "^nir bDi 

D'D are the initials of pIDB ny^D, «';d"d nm d"d Tm d*t nn 'j rp«J3j jai 
that is, ** the middle of the verse." 

yVO is a word by which the Jerusalem Targum renders the Hebrew 
V^ and y^. Thus, "^lina in the midst of [Job xx. 13] is translated 
yV03 ; so also 1^5? ^'^ '^*^ mid^t of [Ps. Ixxxii. 1] is rendered by 
yxoa- The word'j^^n excqn, in the Pentateuch and the Prophets, 
however, is translated niyiXD or tcniy^VO, or Ky^vo; and because 
the language of the Massorites is mostiy that of the Jerusalem Tar- 
• gum, they write p*DD ))'i'Oy as ^^'^\ ^3). and all Israel, " occurs 
thirty-five times in the middle of the verse [b"D 'n^]» and whenever 
it occurs in the beginning of a verse it is like it ; "^s go, also, y?^?! and 
it was heard '^occurs three times, once at the beginning of a verse 
[B"*|], once at the end of a verse [B"D], and once in the middle of 
a verse [B"D]."*® lu some Massorahs I have found, instead of 

conjunctiTe, are, Exod. xIt. 16, 17 ; Dent. x. 11 ; Josh. xTiii. 4; Ipa. xiii. 2 ; Jerem. iii. 
18 ; Ezek. xxxiii. 81. They are given in the Massorah marginalia on Isa. xiii. 2. 

^ The tiirenty passages in which TVuV ^3M occnrs at the end of a verse are, Levit. xriii. 
5, 6, 21; xix. 12, 14, 15, 18, 28, 30, 32, 37; xxi. 12; xxii. 2, 3, 8, 3(), 81, 33; xxvi. 2, 
45; and the twenty -one instances in which DS^n^ 7T\tV ^3M terminates the Terse are, Exod. 
xvi. 12 : Levit. xviii. 2, 4, 30 ; xix. 2, 3, 4, 10, 26, 81, 34; xx. 7; xxiii. 22, 43; xxiv. 
22; XXV. 17, 66 ; xxvi. 1 : Nnmh. x. 10 ; xv. 41 : Dent. xxix. 6: Ezek. xx. 20. The 
former are ^ven in the Massorah marginalis on Levit. xviii. 1, and the latter are 
enumerated m the Massorah finalis nnder the letter Aleph, p. 4a, col 4 ; where those 
which are DD*n^ mrr *:« ^3, are given in one mbric, and those which are D3VlbH mrr »3M, 
without >3, are given in another mbric. Under the first rubric, which profesBes to give 
ten {'">) instances, are mentioned Levit. xi. 44, and Joel iv. 17, neither of which is the 
beginning of a versp, in the present editions of the Bible. Equally erroneous is the 
heading of the second rubric, wnich professes to give seventeen (t"*) instances, in which 
DDTt^M mrr *3M occur at the end of the verse, and only mentions fourteen. 

^ The thirty-five instances in which SrttD^ b'2^ occnrs in the middle of the verse are, 
Deut. xxi. 21 : Josh. iii. 17 ; vii. 24; viu. 21, 15 ; x. 29, 31, 34, 36, 38, 43 : 1 Sam. xvii. 
11: 2 Sam. iv 1; xviii. 17: 1 Kings viii. 62, 66: 1 Chron. xiii. 8; 1 Kings xi. 

16 ; XV. 27 ; xvi. 17 : 2 Kings ix. 14 : 1 Chron. xiii. 6 : 2 Chron. vii. 8 ; xii. 1 ; x. 3 ; 
xiii. 4, 16 : Ezra ii. 70 ; Nehem. vii. 73 : Ezra x. 6 : 2 Chron. vii. 6 : 1 Chron. xi. 4 : 
Ezra viii. 26. They are given in the Masporah finalis under the letter Jod, p. 37 b, 
cols. 1 and 2. 

» The three j^assages in which VQXD^^ occnrs with Pattach under the VaVy and Dagetih 
in the Nun conjunctive, are, Joflh ii. 11 ; Jerem. xxxv. 8, 10. They are given in the 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



254 

Oood Sense, Wherever Leganne n»DiJ^ piooa hxo3» oipo ^aa ;DytD 

oocurs in a verse, the Massorites ^ nn8«< mipaa *:h naa ))»^a3 una 

write against it in the margin '3^, ygvatf »»i ;n>ona^ ^n)f? my-) ^d"*!.-! 

with one mark over the Gimniel, ^^o: nwK «w nten »3 )'3»im ,nt3 

which signifies Leganne, Some i^^poa o*DpB y^ iwxDi k\t 'A rr^p 

have mistaken it, and thought that ^^ ,^^^ ^^,^^^ .^^^^ i^i^^^ ,j,l, t,^^ 

the word m question, on which the «-,„».-, l„ „-,,», -,»^ -^ ,^ «, ^,^^l ».^ 
Massontes remarked '3?, occurs « l c . «. 

thirty-three times in the Bible. "T"«^"T"Djn ^p nn« ^n,p 'a m^ir rrn 

But, according to the rule which ^^'^ ""^^^ ^^^'^"^ ^^'^^J' '^*^*^" ^^ 

I have stated at the beginning of "xni ;ir)^r3 nrK n^Dner h^kt «in mipa 

this Part, there can be no mistake ^°^P°=» ^"^'^ '^'J'l ««;n'2Dn3^ lti^h 
about it ; for, if it had referred to : DVID I^ID IDDl 

the number, it would have two laa^ ,n^ni3T n^7 r-na*n ^vi<'^ 17 

marks, one on the Lamed and ^<^ maoa »d noMni /n tdkd3 vniKa 

one on the Gimniel, Now, as the neoa pn ^nTnai n»^ Dipoa t"^ ♦nNxzD 

Ghmnel alone has a mark, it is ji^a ,miDD *3*:p3 01313 o'pTpnDn nxp 

evident {hat the word is not written Dn^n3i **pE)1D oy ")DD1 "no^D lSiO\ 
out fully, and that it is the ah- : q^qj^ 

breviation of Leganne, « I shall, ^^^ q^, p^^Q ^^^ „,3,^ ,^^^ 'qo^ 

however, discuss it again, in its ,^, ,ni«V«^^P«' ^^^ ^^^PO^ d^P^ ^' 

G?odsl^e^' "" "^^ ^^^^ "^«= *^^" 1"'^*=^^ ^"^^""^ 'r^-'^** 

1% a^the initials of n>ni3^ n>^, ^°= 'P^=f "^^"^ "^=^'" ^^^'^^ *^" "^''^P^ '^ 
which I have abeady explained in ^"^" ^^ "^ ""^^P^ •*^"'^='^ '\"=*"='«^ 
Section V. Indeed I have not P^ ""''^'^ '^ ^'^'i^l P" 'l^^n loi^ nxn 
found in the Massorah lb instead "»' '^ ^^^^^ *nT«3 ^^ai »/dt 't ^«!i;i 
of n*nm n'h, but in some gram- : pDi r«Tp^ 

matical works which treat on the 

Massorah ; ex. gr,, the Book Semadar, the Treatise called The Stylus 
of the Scribe,^ and a few others. 

B"*l are the initials of p^DB K'K") ^he beginning of the verse. This 
abbreviation, too, has been mistaken, for some have read it *bt Raphe, or 
pel Raphin. But the difference between these two is, that when it 
nas two marks over it it is the acrostic of piOD K'N'I the beginning of the 
verse y as I have already stated, and when it has one point over the Pe 
it denotes j^bt Raphes, Thus, it is remarked, the word ^^DN^I and they 
shall say, "occurs nine times (o")) Raphe ;" *^ ^^^l\ <^^^^ they shall come, 
"occurs ("BTT) seven times Raphe,'' ^ I have ^ready explained, in 
Section iii. \yide supra, p. 198], the reason why it is called Raphe. 

*• Here the Salzbach edition inserts the words "l lOMOl ^niMl n«»4, which were 
omitted from the former part of the paragraph. 

8* The Sepher He-Semadar is as yet nnlmown {vide mpra^ p. 122) ; the Stylus of the 
Scribe will be noticed hereafter nnder Kimchi. 

** The nine passages in which no«n is liaphe, that is, has Shera nnder the Vav 
conjnuctiYe, are, Dent, xxxii. 7: Jerem. xvi. 19: Joel ii. 17 : Isa. xiv. 10; xliii. 9: Ps. 
Ixx. 5 ; XXXV. 27 : 1 Ghron. xiv. 31 : Job xxxviii. 35. They are given in the Massorah 
marabiialis on Isa. xvi. 10. 

^ The seven passages in which ^Ma^ is Raphc^ that is, has SJiera nnder the Vav 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



253 

meaning of K3c6 in Section x. \vide 'B^m h'Ti ^"a mpaa ^ODi m«nDw »n 

supra y p. 240, &c.] In some Co- Hof^R n^nJ moDa pi ;N3C^? *^nm3»n 

dices, instead of ^o they write b"n» ,mv^h nna pn^nni pte j»in pin p Kno 

which are the initials of kdb6 nn o^xm ,(7" a avu) hn Ta nariR m^« loa 

two forms, as the alphabetical Hst ^^^ .j«^„ ^^j, t,jy oi,^ p, ^^ j^^, 

of words which occT^ twice m the nD«m «i;w»*^nna 0*73,^^11 hko t:» 

same form but ma different sense ; „^^, ^^,^ ^^^.^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

ex, or. yi^yti I wul tea€h\ Job xxvii. ^^ l 

111; and-nniK I will shoot [1 Sam. '^^''' P ^^ *^^"^ 'l'^=*^, *^^°"" "^'^'^ 

XX. 20], Ac.-;, they are in alphabetical «'"'^"" T^^^ 1"' '^^ ''^^"^ ;"^ ;;^^ 

order, and number about a hundred , • l"*^'^*' 

pairs, all of them with two mean- '^^^^ "'a^^ r«^T ^^ ^i^^^i ♦isrKT p"3 

ings.«i But, forsooth, among many ,paT«i O'l^pn ^d f?"T Hnp 'a /* nrwoa 

of them there seems to be no differ- d» *mN3 dj ; p Rnpa no^ opon ♦nanat 

ence whatever, and I shall only Y3«m ,|m^03 pn mooa la ibtdw k^ ^3 

mention the most difficult of all, -^p"^ nnn 'BfRna k^t ,r«np ^3 i3n3P 

^"HJ? psa- mviii. 13], and ^3 [Ps. ^noa, ^23 u?pi ,in» |nD n3nn iDn]tw3 p« 

xxii. 17]. Would that I knew the p.^ p., m^Dno nrwi nrw f?3 ^xk un3 

difference between them ! . ^^^^^^ p,^ 

P-3 ar« the imtialB of tjnp j>3 «H ^„, j,^cn nns n,a>n •»«■, TD 
the Scripture, I have already ex- 

plained, in Section x., that «^Sp is '^'P''^ o*-«03> ;'3 -i«D3 >3n ^mK3 
ttie designation of the twenty-four '^'^ «"'^='' "™ ^^ "'^^ 1^^^^^ r^=» =™ 
sacred books, and given the reason ^n'^a mooa j»n3on )D irw riw nrnn^ 
why they are so called. I have ^P°^ '^^^ ^'^^ ^"^ P o^ ^»o^t 
also explained there that the Mas- p) ; 't lot^oa "n »mK3 i»« ,«")DDn 
sorites always write it out fully, 'mNt3 lefN ,n*Dn:^ Nnpn aj^on ^j^ 
that is, they write it down %\Vi!n^ ^3 110 '1BD3 nj^3rr iijyi ^ ; 't noNiD3 
and not the initials p'3 [i'/(i^ supra, 

p. 234, &c.] But when they range many of them together, and make 
of them one Register, they write on each ond of the words thus 
rubricated p-o, as you will see on examination. 

T'Q are the initials of «1DD1 riDB Pattach of tfie Book, I have already 
explained its import in Section ii. [vide supra, 197, &c]. In correct 
Codices it is noted in the margin against every Pattach of the Book 
1"B> to indicate that it is one of the number rubricated in the 
Massorah magna. Moreover, 1"& are also the initials of Kn&D*l MpDD 
Piska of the Book, the import of which I have explained in Section 
iv. [vide supra, p. 209]. This is also the case with the accent called 
Legarmey which I have likewise discussed in Section iv. [vide supra, 
p. 210] ; « and which I shall explain still further in my book called 

'I Ab this alphabetical list is by far too long to be given here, we mast refer for it to 
the Massorah finalis onder the letter AUphy p. 1 6, col. 4 — p. 2 a, col. 3 ; and the Ochia 
Ve-OchUit section liz., p. 62, &c. Dr. Frensdorff has made some very important remarks 
on this mbric, p. 17, &c. 

» The Snlzbach edition erroneously omits "i IDMDI ^rrtMl lOH, which I have 
explained in Section iv. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



252 

&c., all of which are the initials : «3tZ3ni pm ,|D na ma'n ♦^m d*?2 ,*^i2i 
of |D ID = except, as you will find ncS Sax ,^"ip N7 nn»n *rKT p"? 
upon examination. ^lop M'TIN m*mKD nrw op pn nr kxdj 

D'h are the initials of ^^y «b mid nna ]«j^ ,»"pf? ,V'pf? ,n"pf? ,K"pf? pw 
wot ; they are only found in connec- p,,, .^ ^^^ -« ^^^03 ^,1,^ f^p ,„2naw 
lion w-ith one of the letters Ahph, . .^ ^^^^^ „,,,p^^ ^^^^^^ o, 

if., T «t', and Jorf, as N ■p^ = ^/.7./j, ^.^^ p ^^ p ^.^^ ^^^^^ ,^^^ ^..^ 
w 7iot r.rta, n'p7=He, ut not ready . , i i l 

Vp^ = Vavy is not read, ..p^ = ' ^« =* "=^ ^^'^^ "^^ ^^^ P ^^'^^^ ^^"" 
Jot/, w yiof mf</. Comp. what I ^"^^ '°'"^°" l'^*? °^^^^ Jf*P '^'"^ 
have said on this subject in Part ii., °^ •'" '^^'^^ m3ir»n mm'ja wna 
Section i., class 1 [vide supra, p. V^^ :'o noVna nrar mni'^a oa »man 
182, &c.], "and see also Part i., Sec- Q^iJ^f? lana kS D^Dpom nnipn '^y *a 
tion ix., [vide supra, p. 170, &c.] ,Kin p ma*n 'wkt nO nx 'a p"a 

30 are the' initials of p n^n3 V^w? >^n pi ^^ppa n"a mto «)npn^ pja 
written thus, or a^n3 p thm written, n"a rM ; D*an nr ntm n*"**^^ 'T'^' ««''» 
they are marked on those words a^ pj^ ^^oni onvp neoD f?p miD» 
which have two or three quiescents, " . ^^p^ ^^t, ^^^^ w^^.^ irw "rf's 
some of which are pJene and some ^^^i^ „^,^ ^.^c,„ t^ ^^^ ^^ ' .t,^ 
e/.>tr.. as I have explamed m ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^„^ .^^ C,^ 

Part 1., Section vm. \vide supra, p. I l ,l .l 

169, &c.] I have Idso discussed ^=^« ' '^° ^^ ^"^ '°^^" ^^^ P^ f i'^^"^ 
it in Part ii., Section ix. It is to be ^^ "^='^" *«'**^°" '"^"'^P '=» i^^'^5^ ^^'^'^ 
noticed that on the vowel signs and '^" '^^^^^ «^»*' V^V '"t^^ -^^ai ^KJK'^^ 
the accents the Massorites never 

remark 3 Of but they write it riD, which are the initials of Kin p it is 
so, as K^npni arid she denied [Gen. x\iii. 15] ** it is so [n "3] with Ka- 
metz; "^« and fi<Knri /<?« /i<>r .s:;>ro//< [Gen. i. 11], '' it is so [no] with 
Marich'' [= a long line under j^V/r], &c. Moreover nO stands also for 
the number twenty-five. Thus the Massorites remark on 25^'l and he 
restored, ** it occurs [no] twenty-five times ;"^^ on "inN one of , "it 
occurs [no] twenty-five times," ^ and it is always known from the 
context. 

'^3 with a mark over the Lamed stands for pn^3 aZ/, as 3 "3 '^3, that 
is p pn*n3 pn^D aZZ ar^ written so, and DHOn ^D a^Z are defective, or 
6d 63 M areplene. But when they have two marks above, they are the 
initials of Njc^b ^3, (tU the fornix, and I have already explained the 

^B That is with Tzere under the Cheth^ since the Tzerc^ as has already been explained, 
Ib also called Kametz. 

1* The twenty -five instances in which itCf*) occurs are, Gen. xiv. 16; xx. 14; xl. 21 : 
Exod. iT. 7 ; xv. 19 ; xix. 8 : Judg. ix. 06 ; xvii. 3, 4 : 1 Sam. xiy. 27 ; xxv. 21 : 2 Sam. 
X7. 29 ; xxii. 25 : 1 Kings ii. 30 : 2 Kings xiii. 25 ; xvii. 3 ; xx. 11 ; xxii. : 1 Chron. 
xxi. 27 ; 2 Chron. xxxiv. 16 : Job xxxiii. 26 ; Ps. xviii. 25 ; xciv. 23 ; Prov. xx. 26 : 
Ezek. xUt. 1. They are given in the Massorah finalis under the letter Jod^ p. 37 a, col. 1. 

*> The twenty- five instances in which TTW occurs are, Gen. xxi. 16 ; xxii. 2 ; xxvi. 10 ; 
xxxii. 23 ; xlviii. 22 : Levit. xiii. 2 : Numb. xvi. 15 : Deut. i. 2 ; xxv. 5 : Judg. xvii, 5 : 

1 Sam. ix. 8 ; xxvi. 16 : 2 Sam. vi. 20 ; vii, 7 ; xvii. 22 : 1 Kings xix. 2 ; xxii. 13 : 

2 Kings vi. 12 ; xviii. 24 : 1 Chron. xvii. 6 : Isa. xxxvi. 9 ; Ixvi. 17 : Ezek. xxxiii. 80 ; 
xlv. 7 : Dan. x. 18. They are given in the l£assorah mazgioalis on 2 Kings vi. 12. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



261 

<^ It is, moreover, to be re- ^ pi a» lana »^ pnn ^W1 ,^ 
marked, that they do not write |i» .d'tdh jnxpi q»(«^d pxpv rn^a 
this except on words which are D"a ,'t Vipp )3i ;n"ai b"n ,'j Tfirn 
sometimes phiie and sometimes o'sfmn pn ijoj «f?» mfraa ^a» '"• n''3i 
drfi'cthe, as n^Wl a«rf ,/.« ht down, ,^ n.^t,on ^..^ ^^^ .,^1, o'-ann w na^ 
"«!curs three times once plene ,, , ^^ ^^, ^^ 

and twice defecHre; mpB "occurs ^„ ,„-^ 1 ^ ^ 

four times, twice pUnie and twice ,, t . i » ' . 

^6/.c^n'.," &c., &c." But in those " ^=*" '^f "^^^ ^'^ ^^' "' """ ^^"^ ^^ 
words of which either the plenes 1°°^^ '"^^^^^ "^^P^ '^ °J' '^"' °"°"' 
alone or the defectives alone are P" .1"^*" "^V T'^n p nnK nw |n^t» 
counted, the Massorites also only '^^"^ **^" ^''^^^ "'"^^ '^"^^ .=»"^3 »«"»=» 
put down either the plenes or the P "^^ r^^^^ P "»3 ,nn« fD 13 ma»n 
defectives, and the respective num- iD'^nn ♦3DD yin nn wn»Di ; »^i2i IIB^C' 
her, as T^^^? ^% forefathers, m,^^m^ K"Da f]T3?2 n^np ^2 ju3 ,^3»D 13 
"occurs three times plene,' and ,kSd K"Da non wvdk ^d oa^nliM pi 
do not give the initials 1D"3;" so ^rp if?*«i mwp p f?a« ;m»p ip pi 
also n71| ///'^rtf, " occurs five times «Sd o^aina ta dj'P^^m pja ,|»^ 'a i:do 
defective,'' and they do not write j"» ca ,a"» D''a ,»"* D"a pi ",i"» D"a 
the initials HTt. It is also to he 

noticed, that when the letters Beth and Mem occur together with two 
marks above, and one of the letters from Akph to Jod is joined to them, 
as N'on, or a "Dn, or 3"D3, &c., they are the initials of nriK JO 13 
except one, 'l \0 13 except two, nt^K^ [0 13 excrpt three, &c. The 
meaning of 13 is except ; so the Chaldee renders *3©D pn, [Eccl. ii. 
25], by ^?P 13 except I, Thus the Massorites remark on ^^VS in the 
folds, "it is so in all the Scriptures except once [N"1D3J, where it is 
^iyi^ AND m the fowls ;^^'' also D^^H^? your fathers [Gen. xlviii. 
21], on which the Massorites remark, "it is defective throughout 
the Pentateuch, except once where it is plene'' [viz., Exod. iii. 18], 
and so on up to ten instances. But, fi'om ten upwards, the Mas- 
sorites make this remark in two words, as D3^ni3« is ^*plene through- 
out the Hagiographa, except in sixteen instances;"*' so also N"^ D"3 
= except eleven, 3"^ 1D"3 = except twelve, 3"^ D"3 = except thirteen, 

mnr^inalis on Namb. xvii. 23. It will be seen that the Massorah giyes thirteen instances 
of defective, inclnding Jndg. xix. 25, whilst Levita only mentions twelre. If the text 
does not cont.iin a clerical error, Levita most probably excludes Jndg. xix. 2.5, because 
the Tzaddi has Chirek, and not Tzere^ as is the case in all the other instances. 

1* The three instances in which "mm occurs are, Gen. xxiv. 18 : 1 Sam. xix. 12 (both 
defective) : Gen. xxiv. 40 fpleuej. The Massoretic remark to which Levita refers is to 
be found both is the Massorah parva and the Massorah marginalis on Gen. xxiv. 18. 
For the instances in which TipD occurs, see above, p. 147. 

^<^ The three passages in which Yn*^^ ^^ plene, that is, has Vav quiescent with the 
Cholem^ are, Gen. xxxi. 3 : Jerem. xxxiv. 5 : Prov, xxii. 28. They are given in the 
Mas'forah marginalis on Gen. xxxi. 3. 

i« The instances in the Bible where my2 occurs are only three, viz., Gen. vii. 21 ; 
viii. 17 ; ix. 10; and the one passage in which it is Fjiyai with Vav conjunctive is in 
Levit. XX. 25. On none of these passages, however, could we find in the printed 
Massorahs the remark to which levita refers. 

37 For the orthography of D3'm3«, see above, p. 168, &c. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



260 

n"D^ are the initials of ]D KV1' ,^^3n \0 KV1' nia^n 'r^cT iT'O^ 
SS!3n departing from the rule, D'opeS '*D ,D*DpDn *3na m mna*? D»im3 
These initials are generally used in D*«xvn »»i ,D'Dpe3 thk hh^ D»3m:»3 
Treatises on the Laws of the n-Q^ -731 ^a p^Sp pnno ,f?f?3n ]d 
Accents. When one of the roles of ^.^ ^^^^^ ^,.^1*? ^ikt Kpnrn *aD*? ]i:3 
the accents is described and there ^^^^ ^^^^,^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^t^^ j^.^, 
are some exceptions to it, they . ' ^^^ y^ 

remark on them, ** such and such l 

are JT'D^, = exceptions to the rule. , 

Thus, for instance, tiefore Sarka »^"^^° I^^"^ "»^=»^=» l^"'^" "'^^^ ^"»0" 
there ought properly to be Munach, '^^^^ ^' °"d "^"^ ^^ '^ ,ni3i»Knn 
but ** there are thirteen [n-O^] ex- ;«^"P "^on kxdjo D^njn Y'm i"n f?^ pn 
ceptions to this rule, having Mercha nnon ik mute nwxD^n mSn f?j? ]3i 
before it;" as, with the help of p:m3 /lai mmpn 'nn 'in /:a w 'aa 
the Lord, I shall explain in my ip ♦^iai rra D"3 in P"1 D' 3 p ainaS 
book, entitled. Good Sense, ih k'^d lana ^S^ki T'vn p SaK ; T'vn 

n-K 0"K are the initials of in« «si*5 hvnn^ ,naf? ]^»n na»m ,iaf? non 
non inK Nt>D wic<? defective, once a'a^ananf?! ,n*TDn a"n D*Nf?D a"\V'a 
/?/<?«/». I have already stated in ' i»n"an 

Part i., Section i., that plene and 

defective only obtain with quiescent Vav and Jnd in the middle of a word 
[vide supra f p. 145, &c]. Moreover, on words which occur plene 
or defective in two, three, or four places, the Massorites remark D"2 
n"3 = ** twice plene f twice defective,^' or n"i Ca = " thrice plene , thrice 
defective ,'' &c., up to ten instances. But from ten and upwards they 
write the word plene or defective separately, and the letters denoting 
the number separately, as on ^^"l*! and he brought out, ** it occurs 
twenty -four times, twelve times plene [D^N^loa 3"^] and twelve times 
defective [D^'JDn 3"^],"^' but they never write D"3^ or n"3^ on one 
word. 

he was bom at Coacy, not far from Soissons, circa a.d. 1200. anil died 1260. The 
work on the Commandments and Prohibitions consists of sermons which K. Moses de 
ConcY delivered on his jonmejs through the South of France and Spain (1235-12-15), in 
the different Synagogues the desi'/n of which was to confirm his brethren in the 
ancient faith, since the orthodox religion of the Jews was at that time being undermined 
by the philosophy of Maimonides. The work which propounds the six hundred and 
thirteen precepts was first printed before 1480; then in Soncino, 148H; and in Venice, 
1622, 1647, &c. Comp. Furst, BibHotheca Judaica, i. 189, &c.; Steinschneider, Caia- 
loffus Lihr. Hebr. in BibUotheca Bodleiana, col. 179.')-1798 ; Graetz, Oesrhichte der 
Juden, vol. vii., pp, 61, 70, 72, 115. 1.S0. Leipzig, 1863. The Minor Book of th^ 
Commandment 8 (*TDp UXSXi nCD, caUed p'OD Semcuj, from the initials of its tit e) is 
simply an abridgment of the greater work, made by Isaac de Corbeil, ad. 1*277, and is 
divided into seven parts, for the seven days of the week. It was first published at 
Constantinople, 1610; then at Cremona, 1556, with glosses, &c. ; and at Cracow, 1596, 
&c. See Kiirst, Bibliotheca Judaica^ i. 186 ; Steinschneider, Catalogus Libr. Iltbr. 
in Bibliotheca Bodleiana, col. lir)8. 

1* The twelve passages in which «3n^ is plene are, Gen. xv. 5 ; xxiv. 53 ; xliu. 23 ; 
xlviii. 12 : Exod. xix. 17 : Judg. vi. 19 : 2 Kings xxiv. 13 : 2 Chron. xxiii. 14 : Ps. cxxxvi. 
11 : Jerem. x. 13 ; 1. 25 ; li. 16 ; and the thirteen instances in which it is df/ectirf are. 
Numb. xvii. 23, "21 : Judg. xix. 25 : 2 Sam. x. 16 ; xiii. 18 ; xxii. 20 : 2 Kings xv. 2() ; 
xxiii. 6; x. 22 : Jerem. xx. 8 ; lii. 81: 2 Chron. xvi. 2 : Job xii. 22. The former are 
given in the Massoriih marginalia on Judg. vi. 19, and the latter in the Massorah 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



249 

Jerusalem Targum, which renders lipix dt« 11^ p^ ,*t)^p^ p3»n ^3 13 
K'iiW wian [Ps. ix. 21], by ^l 1? hi<pmn dt« ]| f?aNf ;kot E'a m 
son' of man, DltJ JS so;? o/ man h^\ y:ttip *i wm pi ,D1N in ]nM-nnD 
[Job. ixxv. 8]; whilst D"Jfc$ |3, ^n, 3*3,, ^^ pit 'n pi »;n*m3n rav 
which 80 frequently occurs in Eze- ;T'?in fin ,Tn-n fp^ ica ,nnH )irf? 
kiel, the Chaldee translates DIK 13. t,aj^ . ,,3,' ^,3,, q^,^ ^3^,, q^^, p. 
On TriN to seize, too, the Massorites „.„ ,' ^^^,^ ^/ ' ' ^^_, " ' l„ 
remark, ** it occurs three times l l « 

with KametZy and all [3"355^] proper , '^ 

names are like it."» Also the four ^^a ,n'?nin niDD -^nif? nxn n"DO 
pairs, one of each pair being a ^^^ni ,np nw "i^dpi n^pw f?p nDD3» 
proper name [3385^], and the other ^°;i"v npi v'*i |»a»nan n'ooa a"N{ 
being different, as y'y^ a thorn mao^i n"iDD n*?n3 moD^ ]mp» »n 
[Gen. iii. 18], and yS;) Koz [1 Nilpn py 1DD3 n^NT pi ,n"DD n:op 
Chron. iv. 8], proper name ; nn\^ ^nia D*nf?K »*? jna n»K d^tddh hSni ,y'Ti 
a specie^ ^of gem fEzek. xxviii. 13], ^^^^ ^^^ ^.^^^ ^y, ^,.,00, ^«oo 
and one' ^ro;;.r ri«;/ief 0/ a Levite ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^,^^ „ .y.^^ q,^,^^ 
ri Chron. xxiv. 27], &c On a ^^^^, ^„^^ ^^^^^ ^^^i^ 

feminine proper name, however ^^^ ^^ ^ ^^ ;^ 

the Massontes remark ft^nn^N DIC^ « „ « 

^i«m^ 0/ a woman, as ni^ </i« ^ : p dd jopm j do 

princess of [Judges v. 15], **not 

extant, and whenever it occurs as the name of a woman it is like it." 
iTDlO means n^njil niDD the Massorah magna. Thus on ^'?D^5 
the chained [Gen. xxxix. 20], it is remarked, ** read ^T??f ^^^ it is one 
of the words in the alphabetical list in the Great Massorah [n"DD3]» 
written in the text wiQi Vai\ and read in the margin with JodJ"^^ 
There are some, however, who call the Great Massor^ ri'lDtD, and the 
Small Massorah n"DD. Thus I have seen in the book called " The 
Eye of the Reader,'' as follows : " These are the books which the 
Lord has given me, the Small Massorah [it'DID], the Great Mas- 
sorah [nV'DD], and other Massorahs from some good Codices." 
Thus far his words.^^ I have found that in some Codices the Great 
Massorah is called Mesag [a'Do], and the Small Massorah, Mesak 
[P"DD]i just as the '^ Great Book of the Commandments'' is called 
Semag [3"1DD =■• t>na niVD 1DD], and the *' Smaller Book of the 
Commandmcfits** is called Semak [p"DD = Jl3p niVD 1DD]." 

but simply 3"at3 T\^ not extant, proper names. The Snlzbach edition omits the word !d 
bufore 3 2G, which renders the sentence nnintelli^ble. 

The three instances in which ITTM occnrs with Kametz and Pattcuh onder the first 
and second radicals are, Exod. xv. 14 : 1 Kings i. 51 : Job xxiii. 9. They are given in 
the Massorah marginalis on 1 Rings i. 51 and Job xxiii. 9, and in both these passages 
the Massoretic remark is jn^i yop ")ia DitD "m, hut wherever it is a proper name it 
has Kametz [nnder the second radical], and is Milra^ and not as Levita states in 
the text. 

10 The alphabetical list referred to by Levita has already been given, vide supra, 
p. 118, &c. 

11 For the work entitled Tite Eye of the Header {vTim *T?), as well as for its author, 
see below, p. 257, under the initials »n"rr -- Jehuthiel b. Jehudah Cohen. 

u The author of The Major Book of the CommandmenU (Vna mSQ ^DD, called a'OD 
Semag from its initials) is R. Moses, the celebrated Jewish preacher of the middle ages ; 

K K 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



248 

r|"D« consists of the initials of pIDD PjIDV PuriK ma»n *»hi 5|"DN 
p^DQ t)1D n^riK Ethnachy and x9o/)/t nxiDp ^<♦nw nSo ^p pi nr lana st^i 
Pa*mA;. It is only put down on a ,pDSD nrw Dpo w ,j?^m im ,BpT niaj^a 
word which ha« Ka?n€tz, on account p^a ^poe ^D^ mriNa pn n^ mdh w 
of Zakeph, ReUi, or any other ^j.^t^ f?Di noBn n« f?Knr» '« ,rmi 
pause accent, and which has no ,-i.~« ,^^ , "1 ^l ^,^^ ,^ 
parallel, except in the said Ethnach 1^^ '?^ i^^n 7 ^ l "T' 
Ld 5oM Pai.«.^. Thus, nOBH the ^=^^ ''^'^ "^'^ ^°^^ '"^"^""^ ^ ^^ ^^^ 
i>«..ot;^r [Numb. ix. 2], is mL^ked, ""^^^ '^'^"^ f!"°« °^P" ^^3^ '^^^^"°" 
" not extant with ifflw^f^, and every '"'"^^"^ •* ^^^ ^"^^^^^ .' * "'^ d"di 
instance with Ethnach ox Soph ]""i ""*" oniz? panm ana o^pio o^am 
PflwwiA [5)'DN] is like it/* The same ^^^ P***^ '"""^^^ ™"^" P^^ |n impi 
is the case when the word occurs . -b'di n^nun rmit 

more than once, as TJ^ A^ perished ,D vfl ^7fi5^ DVK ma'n ^btki ri'DX 
[Isa. Ivii. 1 ; Micah iv. 9], which is ma ,]a pi-n ynv ♦s"pK pion nr )na laii 
marked, "it occurs twice, and every D^^n pno *a ^'v^h»n nmpna »nanaw 
instance with Ethnach or Soph nwroi: nxpa 'n«xo pt ; *^»d avK 
PemuA; [^"DX] is Hke it.'* In some ^eS ^.^^^ ^^^^l, ^^^^^ ^t.^ q.^^ ^^^,^ 
Codices, instead of 5"D«, they have ,„„Cj,^ *, »,«,, ,^,^ „^, ^ 
written the form of Ethnach and ,„ ,-,^, -^^ ^l^ l^ ^^^, ' ^ 

Soph PoMuk, as foUows: . *, and " '" "^ i^r..2^lT' ''''^' 
thfy say, -every . . is like it." '^ '""'^''^ f ""? '^'^^ ^,^^ T^^P 
Many have been misled thereby, ^'^'^o rQ*"^^'^ n^« k^« n^f?nn *f?W3 av« 
thinking that it stood for Cheth and '^'^^^ '"'"P ''^^'^^ '"'"^ '"^'^P *i^ 

xYmw, and read it |n peace, rest; «^^"^'^ '^^ "^^ °^^ '^^^^^ *»**•' ^"^K' ^ 
whereas they are nothing but the ^^"'^ ^^- ^P "'^^^5*' ^^^ ,d^>< p d» 
forms of Ethnach and iSo/?7i Paamk. Di« p ow rn»D ,n»niai yaw Vai n*^ 

n"DK is the acrostic of ^^B^D 3VN oi^in n^o rmn tth3M na^^n* omn ]iw^ 
D^?n t7oZ>, Proverbs, and Psahis. 

The Massorites assign this sign to these books, though they do not 
occur in this order, as I have stated in the Third Introduction, for their 
proper order is as follows : Psalms, Job, and Proverbs ; and in accord- 
ance therewith I have also found in some Codices the sign d"Nn. 
But they usually write n'lDX, because this mnemonical sign is more 
beautiful, since our Rabbins of blessed memory said, "always use 
an elevating phrase *' [Pessachim., 8 a]. Now on the word nbi&, with 
Tzere, the Massorites remark, ** it occurs eight times with Kametz, 
and throughout yp-m n"OK is like it." In this case n"DK does not 
stand for Job, Proverbs, and Psalms, but the whole of it consists of 
the acrostic of Deuteronomy [onmn n^x], Proverbs [^i?K>D], the twelve 
minor Prophets [ne^ nn], Chronicles [n"i], Psalms [D*S"in], Pro- 
verbs [rhnp], and Ezra [«irx;]. 

2 2^ is the acrostic of ^^ ^3 DIC^ name of the son of man, or proper 
name. Thus on mn« Ahuzzath [Gen. xxvi. 26], "not extant, and 
every proper names [y:^^] are like it."« It is a phrase used in the 



n^niDT 



* In the printed editions of the Massorah parra, on Gen. xxvi. 26, the remark is not 
IIDT 3"aw 7D1 TV^ not extant, and ereri/ proper name w like i7, as is stated by Levita, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



247 

the flesh of man it khall not be n"na pi *;io" nh m» nva ^ dd^ni 
poured " [Exod. xxx. 82].* Like- dd*ni rprrof? o'trm ,pw^ inpia»7 
wise in 1 Chron. xvi. 16, where it n"i ,|"»BfnDmp n^xn wiTD,m» pnxni, 
is pn?!? |n?-nc^^ a/ui ^w oa«/i to nonpna ^mxa nrt^a ,D*^n m^p' 
/»rt/i^, whilst in Psabn cv. 9 it is .^^^t^^j^ 

pnfe^.^ irn;OK«l written with a Sin, pjpa mf?D w j^a rnen »» nc^^l 
and the mnemonical sign is " and /^ ^la »»» nm n'^c p^h ina ;inipyT 
,^«';^* Zau.9/i^;/ " [Gen. xvui. 12] ; t^^^„, „,^^ .^ ^„ „,,„^^„ 
that IS, the Tzaddt is before the ^ . ^^^ '^.^.y ^^,^ ^ n^tno 
Sin, since Chronicles is before ' ..., ' '" '. "^ ^ ''i' ' '^ 

Psaims, as I have explained in ^ jl^?^ ^^^^ '"^^ ™«-^ 
the Third Introduction. FP^^ ^-^ ''«' '»" •'0'^«' 'B' p«i ,]D^ 

When the difference between two l^P" ^^"^P^ V^'^^^ P'^ '^^^^ ^^^ 
words consists in the points, they give i*5*?fi «3on to Tjn^n rwDTp pi ; nnoni • 
for a sign a word which contains the ppioe ]3i ' ; 3*t5« a«>nn |d*di ttp? 
two letters with the two in question. n^Da »♦» pn mSn "la w /:a j^dtt 
Thus, we have first T^^ to «<ay or<?r P*d i^ria »iD*rn m*niNa ptdh jnD ttm 
night [Gen. xxiv. 28], and then P^j> 1"^ »0"" ^^^^^ '=> i^ b'*"^ t"« poBa 
[tftirf. ver. 25], and the mnemonical n"""nn ietn^ D^porr f?a rm.— i naroa 
word for this difference is ^^^^n "^m dd'ki ,«"n ^Sa d^jto ta pt?in^ai 
AoirZ [Isa.xxiii. 1].« Compare also T^' '? "^^^T P^ J"^'^ °^i^ ^"^^ 
the first nnpyt> wneiZ e.rtinction 0Q''x^ ,iid' '^i r5Nn*f7ni nN3»3rj ,yn^ 
[Levit. XXV. ^23], and the second J ^?) ^?) tn3 ^3 WT HK^nnDKni 
nn^p-^ [?6«i. ver. 80], where the 

mnemonical word is nTpn/orr he it; and although the second Lamed in 
njvn has Kametz and not P attach, they made no distinction between 
Kametz and F attach ; also, the first *nn fA<? //riw^ [Levit. xvi. 20], 
and the second ^nn [ibid. ver. 21], and the signal word ^'^\^^ [Gen. 
xxiv. 5].'' Thus, also, in verses in which three or four words are 
alike, but in which only one word has a different servile letter, the 
Massorites indicate it by a mnemonical verse containing the two 
words in question; ex. gr,, in Deut. xi. 24 it is DipDH the plnce, with 
the article, whilst in Josh. i. 3 it is DipO place, without the He, and the 
signal verse is HJpD DhpO DIpBH rum and behold, the place is a place of 
cattle [Numb, xxxii. 1]. So, also, the first passage ^? iclien [Levit. xxv. 
25], the second ^?J and when [ibid. ver. 85], and the third '^^\ and when 
[ibid, V. 89], are indicated by the signal verse; ** and she said unto 
the tnen, I know that [*?], and that [^?y . . and that [*?1] Josh. ii. 9. 

* Here again the mnemonical sign dim TSn ^^ which contains hoth words, "wa flesh 
and DIM ntan^ shows hy the position of the two words that *i)Da is nsed in the first passage 
and DIM in the second. 

• That is, since in the word iVVn, we have first »*j and then ^ ; hence the first syllable 
indicates \h with Ckireh^ which occurs first, whilst Uie tecond syllable represents p^ mth 
Shurekj which ooenrs second in the Section. 

7 The change of the vowel-points in the word Tirr, having in the first place Segol 
nnder the i/ie, and in the second place Pattach^ is shown by the mnemonical expression 
3vmi, which has twice 2/ie, — the first with Segol^ corresponding to the Segol under the 
He in THl, in the first passage, and the scconl with Pattack^ corresponding to the 
Pattaeh nnder the He in «nn, m the second passage. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



246 

. T'3« are the initials of Kn^ni« ,D^K^33 .Nn^niK nn»n 'r^n y:H 

D^iro ,DWn: the Law, the Pro- ]M»h m nVn Sa f?p lana p ,D^2in3 

;?7i^te, and «A« Hagiographa ; and 'k ,D*K'33a '« ,pmnn 'h ,d*oj^3 'MtxDjrr 

they are noted on every word which ^^^ «;TOK p*D 'J ma ji:a ,D*3Vi2a 

occurs three times, once in the »,t3 ,nK ,3K .3'« p^p now mmw 
Law, onee m the Prophets, and .^^^^^ ^ ^,^,^^^ ^ ^ 

once in the Hagiographa; as n^? ^,^,^^, ^,^,^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ 

//i^ chose, occurs three times, the ^ ' 

sign being T3N .» In some Codices ^ P^ '""'^y^^ ^^^^ "'^•'^^ ^"^ \°V. 

these instances are marked yn 3"K °^^^^ ^^^ ' **'^ ^"^ ^^^ "'^^ •*"*"'^'* ^^ ( 
2''N which are the initials of nrw »:D*3^nai D*«'a3a V i p-:a onon 'n 

duiran nnK d^n^jd nn« nninn ,p^D piDD nnw ma»n ^wsst d-bk 

o?ice in the Law, once in the Pro- q^jj^^ q,^^^ iy ,^ ^a ,,„♦ ^^^3 ^,^,g 
^to, and owr^ m the Hagiographa. .^ ^^^ ,^ .^ ^j^a ,^ ,^ ^^^^^ 
When a word only occurs m the ^^,^ ^,^ ,^^ ^^ .^^ ^^ 

Prophets and Hagiocrapha, it is i 

marked y^ = D^Din^ D^N^Di ^A^ ' i l l 

P/-o;,/i^te, and t/i.^ Hagiographa ; as ''"''^^ "«='"'^=* P'^^ 'P*°^ P°^ 1"'^^ ^^^^ 
inNn ^A^ arA, which is defective '^^"^ ^^^^^ ^^^*^ I^«'^"»" '°"^=»^ ''^^J' 
in the Pentateuch, whUst in ao = *• T"^" ^^T^ ^^"' '3*» °b'«^ ^^^^ '^"'"^ 
the Prophets and Hagiographa, it r'^ ^7^ «3'in ,'^ 'm ^^' "» "«onp p^ 
is j»Z^£. Thus, also, ^^v> for 

ever, is marked " eight times defective D'03 = in the Prophets and 
Hagiographa."* 

D"DK are the initials of }D^D pIDD ^THM on« verse is the sign, that is, 
when there are two or three parallel things in one section, or in the same 
narrative, or in the same book, or even in two sections, or two books, 
and they only differ in one woi-d, the Massorites note the difference 
between them, and give them a verse as a mnemonical sign, as in 
the Section on Eliezer, the sefrant of Abraham, Here the first state- 
ment is ^27?? "* ^^^ midst thereof [Gen. xxiv. 8], and the second is 
^yT«3 iw tfie land thereof [ibid. xxiv. 87], whilst the mnemonical sign is 
**/, Jehovah, in the midst of the land'' [Exod. viii. 18].* Thus, 
also, Ps. Ivi., where in verse 6 it is v '^fe'3 flesh, to me, whilst in verse 
12 it is Y D^^5 7nan, to me, and the mnemonical verse [DD"K] is " upon 

> The three passages in which rXTd has Kametz under the Cheth, being in pause, are, 
Gen. yi. 2 : Isa. Ixvi. 4 : ProY. i. 29. In all other passages it has Chateph-pattach 
under the Cheth. The words ^ mini 'M 'trt»D a wnsn rvd> V* hVd to ^ lana p 
crninSl >< ; Jyvmi, are omitted in the Sulzbach edition. 

B The instances in which Dbl9^ is defective have already been given, vide tupra, 
p. 149. The Massoretic remark to which Levita refers is not to be found in the printed 
editions of the Massorah in the Babbinic Bibles. 

* The meaning of the passage and the mnemonical sign is as follows : — In the first 
passage (Qen. xxir. 8), ^vmg Abraham's own words, the expression linpl in the midst 
thereof is used ; whilst in the second passage {ibid. xxir. 87), which gives Eleazer's 
repetitions of what his master had said, the word in question is dropped, and ^2rttO in 
the land thereof is substituted. To indicate this change in the wordd, the Massorites 
selected the passage in £xod. viii. 18 as a mnemonical siga, showing that just as in this 
sign llpl occurs first and pMH second, so in the two passages for which it is the 
mnemonical sign, and where the two words are interchanged, M'^ occurs first and 
i!nM3 second. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



245 

initials of words ; but when they }n*^p pK»3i ,nnn '»ki^ nvnij «»n 
have not all marks, and it is only *»ii ,nnK n'^'\p^ )TTn«n mn ^p pi ,mip3 
the last letter which has one mark, ix ^n« mx tditi nnSr *n^3 nho rti 
it is invariably an abbreviation, and j-ilfen KXDn> pni na*nn cj^oa im' 
the word in question wants one or .,. , ^^^ -^ ainrnr 

two letters at the end ; as you wiU ^^^ ,^ ;^,l, ^^^^ '^^^t, ^.^^^ ^^yf^ 
find explamedm this Section „^^^,^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^, ^^^^^ ,^^ ^^^ 

Now I shaU begm by explaming ^,^ ^^ ^^^^,^ ^^^ ^,^^ 

the word n^7 .«o^ extant, smce the 'i ' r , 

MaBsorites use it more than any ^^ "^° 'T'' ?°^^ "*^"' ''''^ «^ ^^"^^ 
other expression. It is the Aramaic ""'"^ «^' •'^ '"'^ "*'J^ "°^^ ''^^3^ ^"^^ 
compound of t6 not, and n^N i«, de- "'^^» "'5'=» ^- ^ ^«^ °^J"«' P^ I ^ "o^ 
noting that the word or sentence on ^^^ P^ -r^o «"»a rr« kf? ,('o avK) 
which it is remarked has no parallel. d*o T^ onf? pH loa ^*S I'D^iino yn 
This is also its meaning in the a'Dmno D^oyDv ; N5*d tvh^ xanh n*^ 
Targum, which renders ^^ N^ there *<n*a "'^ ,to d» H? i»« n*^ j*k loa ,»h 
is not [Job ix. 88], by n*N K^, and lana naop moDai ;Kn^D ]Dn mn K^n 
which frequently translates the He- nra ntpn^ mipia Tm}^ T'dS n»^ Dipoa 
brew word ^^? wo<, not extant, by loipn naop moDa mx kxd3 kSi /S 
n^ (comp. Numb. xxi. 5), and only dk? pi no iddd tp mio irN«r n*iT 
rarely translates it vh (comp. Exod. Q^ope q,^l,^ ^^jfj^jn ^t^^ ^3,^1, .,.,31^ 
xii. 80). In the MassoraJi parva, ^^^^ ^^^^t, ^t,^ .t, ^^i^^ 

mstead of n^^ the Massorites wnte ^^,, ^^^ ^^,^^^ ^,^c^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^ , 
asingeL«m.e^withamarkoverit, ^ i ^ ^ ^ 

as follows : '?. And there is no / ' , .' ' 

other single letter in the Massorah '"^i^ P^"'" ^^*^ '^ °^P^=» '^ '"***^i 
parva but what indicates some num- • "'^"^ ^^J' P^ 

ber, except this one. Hence, when a word occurs thirty times, the 
Massorites do not remark on it h, lest there should be a confusion 
between it and r\'h not, but they note it by TOting out fully 
the word Lamed, Thus, for instance, ** the word ^D^'! occurs [t'd!?] 
thirty times ;"i **the particle ^^ occurs [TW] thirty times alone." 
In some Codices I have seen ^3 [= 20 and 10] instead of 6 [= 80], 
but the first is more general and more correct. 

1 Of the thirty instances in which r]Dn occurs, seven are jfiene (i. e. nwn), and 
twenty -three defective {i.e. TO^). Th^plenes are, Nnmh. xxii. 26 : Judg. xi. 14 : 1 Sam. xx. 
17 ; xxiii. 4 : Isa. vii. 10 : 2 Chron. xxviii. 22 : 1 Sam. xriii. 29. They are given in the 
Massorah marginalis on Numb. xxii. 2, and 1 Kings xvi. 83. The twenty-three 
instances in which it is defective are, Gen. viii. 10 ; xviii. 29 ; xxv. 1 : Exod. ix. 34 : 
Numb. xxu. 16, 26: Judg. ix. 87: 1 Sam. iii. 6, 8, 21; ix. 8; xix. 21: 2 Sam. 
ii. 22 ; vi. 1 ; xviii. 22 ; xxiv. 1 : Isa. viii. 6 . Job xxvii. 1 ; xxix. 1 ; xxxvi. 1 ; xlii. 10 : 
Dan. X. 18, The list of these is no where given in the Massorah. As an illustration of 
the various ways in which the Massorah annotates the words belonging to the same 
rubric, we shall specify the thirty instances before us. The Massorah parva annotates 
twelve passages out of the thirty. In the first instance alone, viz., Gen. xviii. 29, occurs 
the Xxp = 30, to which Levita refers; on Geu. xxv. 1, it remarks Von tin '^3 ** always 
defective^ except seven times ; " on Numb. xxii. 16, it states " it occurs twenty-nine (^'3) 
times ; " on Numb. xxii. 20, 1 Kings xvi. 33, Isa. vii. 10, 2 Chron. xxviii. 22, ** it occurs 
("bo "i) seven times pUne : " whilst on 2 Sam. vi. 1, it remarks, '*it occurs (t^n 2"«) 
twelve times in this book." The Massorah marginaUs, again, does not notice this 
rubric more than twice, and then only the seven instances of pleiie. which it gives on 
Numb. xxii. 2, 1 Kings xvi. 83, simply adding, that in all other instances it is defective. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



244 



THIRD PART; 

OB, THE BROKEN TABLES. 



:nini^ nnt:' lyc^ 



Thus, says the author akeady nrca nr« r»Kn pa ran nanon 10^< 
mentioned, the man known by his mw opsn ,»hw^ «Si narS rnni paa 
writings, who works for honour and ^yy\r^ n:n lyi /3D*'pi ♦3"nnr ,»"* nx 
not for shame, I now render praise mvv pk p^rar^nn mm'?n f?p -nanai 
to the Lord, who has preserved me, rnmi'^n pnnxi .n^iair-iDn anain 
and sustained me, and helped me 



hitherto, so that I have written the 
First Tables, and then the Second 
Tables, each consisting of ten sec- 
tions. In the one Section which 
I now add, I shall be able to 
explain whatever occurs both in 
the First and Second Parts of this 
book to the end thereof. 



,iN5na3 nnD8>:D mupai ,i^<3 m:nnN5n 
tar ,nrp p)»dik n»K thn TDKba wtm 
taa ,nDD'n ntpn^p no Sa niNjiant 
: Dom np nrn nson nai 
n»K Dvai ,DOT nrwa »at Bfp* nnyi 
lyK' iD» rw KipNi ,nimDa ncan ne' 
nnain ib iKaK 'a |p' ,nim7 ^^2C^ 
.manasi ni'mm ,Dna»3m nnxpn 



And now my soul rejoices in the nrcn ^T^a^ ,nian ♦rN^nai pp^-eua 



]wh Sai ,n3:nD na»n pna ,nripi 
xt nai ,n3Dpi ntn: mooa ,n3nBf3r 
no ]*anS ,iDBf k^ oat tpi ^D^n* D*an 
^»nnnn noipna ,naDn *nana naai ,naQ 
♦3DD1 ,man ona n»j^«i ^nn d» nrwa 
no D"pKi ,imn -|nN« kS ,nia»3en rrno 



thought, and in the name of Him 
who ordaineth true wisdom, I call 
its name The Section of the Bro- 
ken TahleSy because I shall therein 
explain the import of the broken 
and abbreviated words, and of 
those expressions which are written 
in notaricon, and in initials, in 
signs, in enigmas, and in diverse "=*^*^ '*"™* P^^ '"^*P T^^ vi'D*7nt 
phrases, both in the Massorah wnp^oa pmh nrw pawn Kixof? ,nn3i 
magna and parva. Now since Q^t "inao bon n*D» b<n» ,x»DrT 
there are not many who are learned : k^d^p ^otp^ 

in these matters, and who take jd»di tf?a -jt jnx onp ta D*11p1 
it to heart to understand their p man *r«na n»m3 \»n!9 nSnn Tant 
utility, as I have akeady mentioned p^nn lom nn'^r *nf?a N-n» nten 
in the Poetical Introduction, which ,^ ,^ ,^ .^ ^^^ ^^^ „,, .^^^^^ p^n^.^ 
you may there see, I shaU explain ,^^, ^u^o^ ^^p^ ;,„« f^i ,th^ nrm« 'i 
these things ; and, m order to 

save the public trouble, I shall not lengthen my Treatise, thus acting 
in accordance with the following saying of our Rabbins of blessed 
memory in the Talmud : '* one should always teach his disciples 
by a short method.'' Hence I now commence with cheerfulness 
to point out the reason for each thing, by the help of heaven. May 
the Great Name be praised, world without end. 

First of all, I must give you a rule whereby to distinguish a word 
which is described by initials from a word which is simply abbreviated. 
It is as follows : — When you find two, three, or four letters together, 
and each one has a mark on the top, they are invariably to be taken as 



. Digitized by 



Google 



248 



Here is the Table of Contents ^DVIVOn nPOniD D^aOBTI ^7 Kfl 

Of the ten sections in Part II. ^^ i« : nVJK^n ninibo DHDND PITW^ 

Section I. — Concerning Keri and yphnz'i janai j*npa pK'J^in 'IDNOn 

Kcthiv, divided into seven classes. : do'D npa»V 

Section II. — Concerning Kametz , ., ,^ 

and Pattach. • i'""^^ r»°P=» '^^^ ^»«^" 

Section III. — Concerning Da- ]»Dpm pom j*e^na ^K^^CJ^n 1D«Dn 

genh, Raphe, Mapik, and Sheva, :Hirn »3n mpai 

Section IV. — Conceminff MUeL . , , 

MUra,^diPemkim. ^^"^^ ^*'^^=> '^'^'^^ ^^^^^ 

Section V. — Concerning Eegis- : D*poDai 

ters. Groups, liesemblances, and ,^j^^^ ^^q-, 

Parallels. i i i 

Section VI. — Concerning June- '• ' 

tiotis, Severances y and Identical, jnTi*i c3»a*DDa ^K'Bn IDhWDn 

Section VII. — Concerning the :D*DTnDi 

Presence, ox Absence of Prefixes or fc..fc**— ^^...^^ 

5.;ti7... r«^o«'^ i« ]^:»^:^« ^l^^^B^n noNon 

Section VHI.— Concerning Cow- • l^^P^ 

jectural Eeadings, MUleadings, and j^poDi p'aoa ^J^DBTl IDISDH 

Exchanges. ; ]*Di^^ 

Section IX. — Concerning L^W^«, , 

Words, Expressions, Short Letters, V^^' r=»*"i !'"«=» 'J^^^'^ "»»«»" 

^cm//.s, Certainties, and Transpo^ :]nn^HD^ j^npioi pn-ni jwdi ir^pi 

«''<'"«• . K3»^*?a KnDoa wnpa n^K^n IDKOn 

Section X. — Concerning Scrip- . p^pQa v^y^^ 
ture, Book, Form, Connection, and 

Verse. 

Tho Second Tables are now ended, D*3innt)n nim^n ip*^0 

In the name of the Creator of heaven and ' , ' 

earth ; ,D*3innni D^iv*?]; Knia or a 

Anl in the name of the Lord, the God of n)ni"in 'H^ hn DVai 

Spiritai ' . 

I begin the Section of the Broken Tables. : mm'? na» ip» TV\BH 

166 These two lines are entirely omitted in the Snlzbach edition. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



242 

1^ Let me now explain the word '3 vi ; pioD nVo wtdk Pinjn .^ 

p^Da. Mark that the expression ,'Dt« p«fS •]« nap p»S i3*k piosprS 

pIDB is not Hebrew, but Aramaic, p»h^ h'l ,p ]*ojmr«D niiivS nanm 

and many words are rendered by it, Vin ids ,pin"Dn« ts^k jwSa ,npDDn 

that is, by the expression npDB, pn rta^ pi ,poB lounn mv*? nvn^ 

which IS m Oerman auf^oren. ppQ ^l,^ ^p, ^^ pog^ ^^ ^,, po^^ 

Thus, 7nn t^ c^flw^i/ [Gen. xvui. 11] "^ '" " ^ " ''^ 

is rendered in the Chaldee by pDS ; 
nSK'^l and it discontinued [Josh. v. 
12J, by PDW ; N^3?l anti he left off 

[Exod. xxxvi. 6], by PDB^ ; ^IDJ t6] 

and he did not add [Deut. v. 19], 

by -PDB ; lYIS* it shall he consumed 

by pDB [Numb. xi. 88]. Hence, a 

verse is called pIDD. Hence, also, 

the dividing space between the 

sections fc<pD^Q, as in the remark, 

" there are two sections in the 

Pentateuch which have no PUka 

at the beginning, i.e., the Pericopes 

Va-Jetze and Va-Jechi;^^^ and other two sections in the Pentateuch which 

have no Piska in the middle of the section, Le., Va-Jetze and Miketz,^^ 

There is also a Piska in the middle of the verse ; four instances of it 

are to be found in the Pentateuch, as Gen. iv. 8. *«* Some call this 

Piska by the name of N10a^"»B [ = vpayfui] , but I shall again speak about 

it in the Third Part, entitled ''The Broken Tables:' About the 

accents called Psak, or Psik, I have abready spoken in Section iv. 

[vid£ supra p. 209]. End. 

^^ For the division of the Pentateuch into hebdomadal lessons, see aboye, jp. 136. 
Va-Jetze (ms^) is the seventh of the fifty-four divisions, and embraces Gen. xxviii. 10- 
xxxii. 8 ; and Va-Jechi Orm) is the twelfth Pericope, extending over Gen. xlvii. 
28—1. 26. 

^•8 The Pericope Miketz (ypo) is the tenth of the fifty-four sections or weekly lessons, 
and embraces Gen. xli. 1 — xliv. 17. 

iM The other three instances in which there is a Piaha or pause in the middle of a 
verse in the Pentateuch are, Gen, xxxv. 22 : Numb. xxv. 19 : Deut. ii. 8. 



pioDH wnp: p ^p ; poa kS ip rna*. dtq 
pay p\hn DipD^ 3" J i«np nmi ,piDD 
m*wnD 'a no^p loa ,Npo*D nvne'? nvus^ 
,NV^1 DHi ,«»na «pDD pna n»^T mina 
HpoD pna rvh^ mina nr»nD 'ai i«;^n^1 
r» ]ai i«8;fpD1 »V^1 Dni ,nEfnDn pxoKa 
]iw ,nmna pn:o 't ,pioDn pxoKa »poD 
mra onvna 'H'i vnK San h^ yp td«*i 
TIP) ,«DanD IT «pD'D ]mp «f»i ^^ ; pm 
«np3n openi ; rwrrh nav ipra nnarx 
; r"); 't nonoa rmai laa p»DD ik poD 



Digitized by 



Google 



241 

another, contrary to its nniform rmn nho n^h^f nsTfixDv nVo ^j? nhn 
position. Thus, for instance, they BfDKfD np»OBr ]^vh fra ]ii3 ^nama wW 
remark, "all the expressions of the pi iM;b» ro^D »3w^*?3 a" p na ^ 
root jP^ to /i^ar, are construed o^Ton 't ]d na rw rD^D nD*rw wav'S ^a 
with ?«, except twelve in this form, p ^^ ^^t, 3i». D,I,p ^^jj^t, t,3 p, im-or 
which take t>y ;'M« or, - all the ex- ^^g^., ^^^ ^^^^l, t,^ p, leo. .^ 

pressions of nO^HK' <o slaughter y are * ' • • '^ . ' ^^ ^u**^, m t, »»^ ^^ 
construed with HN, except four, , , ^* ' 

which are without h« ; " -or, - in **^ '^ '^ ' «^'«=^ "^^ ^"^^« "'^^^ .» 
all phrases a» father precedes DK rD'^PEi 'n kj^d: n^npa pi pp ]irf? kxw 
w/otAer, except in four instances ;"!« ."^nn la iwdbt V'ni ; w pc^'ra j'rai 
or, " all phrases have D'i?n statutes, ^nppoi poy ma nmai ,D*aT ]iBfSa A*dki 
before D^l?BB^ Zajr«, except in eight ia nan miDDai ;l3D"ytr5 warn )irf?a 
passages ;"'i«i and many more like pn nf?npa j'omnD wop oiiin p»Sa 
them. RXDJB'ai ;pm pax p»V«inr pi: p»^a 

f^'^ I shall now explain the word ^n»pD nsa inwa ^"1 wy^pa miooa 
jC3*:y. Notice that the expression ^^cj^jpn nan n*S pi ,]'3pa) 'i teaa pja 
pay is only to be found in the book . ^3*3^3 h^q n»S 

of Ecclesiastes, where it occurs 

eight times, and always in the singular. But our Habbins of blessed 
memory used it very frequently, and even in the plural. It denotes 
business, transaction, in German ©efc^dft. Now in the Massorah 
it is used in the Chaldee sense of transaction, whereas in the Chaldee 
on Ecclesiastes it is simply rendered by HI J colour, fowu Hence 
when you find in the Massorah ><3^3y2, it denotes in this narrative of 
the transaction, section, chapter; as ^933 alone [Exod. xxi. 8], on which 
the Massorites remark, "three times, and in the section;'* so, 
also the remarks, "not defective in the connection," "not 2)lene in 
the connection." 

^^ The twelve passages in which the rerb 3^)D is constmed with the preposition ^ 
are, Gen. xli. 15 : Isa. xxxvii. 9 : 2 Kings xx. 13 : Jerem. iv. 16; vi. 7 ; xxiii. 16; xxvi. 5 ; 
XXXV. 18; li. 27: Ezek. xxvii. 80: >nio8 iii. 9: Nehem. ix. 9. They are given in the 
Massorah marginalis on 2 Kings xx. 18, and Ezekiel xxvii. 80. In both instances the 
Massorah gives a reference, mrr ")CD "WQ ^^Ty^ {i.e. to Isa. xxxiv. 16), which does not 
contain any snch c^nHtmction, and which must therefore have been inserted by mistake. 
Indeed Bnxtorf, in his edition of the Rabbinic Bible, who only gives the Massoretic 
mbric once, viz., on E/ek. xxvii. 30, has omitted this reference. 

uo The four instances in which the verb Tzmxn has not PM, the 'ign of the accusative, 
are, Levit. vi. 18 (twi e) : Isa. Ixvi. 8 : 2 Chron. xxix. 22. They are given in the Mas- 
sorah finalis under the letter Shin, p. .58 b, col. 4. 

100 This must be a mistake, since both the Massorah parva and the Massorah 
marginal! B, on Gen. xliv. 20 and Levit. xix. 8, distinctly state that there are only 
three instances in which DM precedes 3H. viz., Gen. xliv. 20 : Levit. xix. 3 ; xxi. 2. 
The last two instances are included in the Massoretic list of thirty passages, in wl ich 
normal construc'aons are abnormally inverted, and which we have already given (vide 
tfupra, p. 214). Why Gen. xliv. 20 is excluded from that list we cannot divine. 

181 The eight passages in which ♦!DCt>0 precedes *npn, contrary to its usual con- 
struction, are, Levit. xviii. 4 ; xxvi. 43 : Ezek. v. 6 (twice) ; xviii. 17 ; xx. 16, 24 ; 
xzxvii. 24. The Massorah also gives Ezek. xliv. 24 as a ninth instance. Bat since 
^n^fin intervenes in this passage between the two words in question, there can be little 
doubt that it is an addition by a later hand, and is therefore rightiy excluded from this 
list in the Ochla Ve-Ochla, section cclxxviii., pp. 54, 151. 

I I 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



240 



in* pa 7"n n^Da on nanK 
«fi»n ni^D ^a *?fna» «»'^a »♦ D:i 
r»i "«;K3Bf»Va a"* 'irx^ rira poa ,Kinn 
TTTK )»3p pn nn» vwa *?^iav rnvth^ 



is the distiiigaiBhing mark of the nifnD 'a i*n»rai ; ttik w^^^a Dni« i^f?a 
Hiphily is absent, the Massorites -ioq3 ,]i*inDa o^aivi Kbaoai anaca miv 
put them together under one rubric, nimf? nar oprai ,»3»»f? * ao 'a jn^^p 
When two words are written and ' 

pronounced alike, but differ in sense, 
they remark on them, " two of two 
significations." In the Third Part, 
entitled The Broken Tables, I shall r ^„» 

again discuss this subject under the '"'^ ^ ^=*~ 7^^ '^"^"'=» ^^^ '^" ^"^»*=^"' 
Stials h-n, with the help of God. "^^^"'^ *^**«' ^^^ *^ '^^^,^ «^«^'^=» '' V^ 
Moreover, the expression «3fi5«b r*P ^i*'™* "^-'i^ I^^^ »' n? »nra«^ 
is also used for a root, with all the "«» ^V ^otDi TPK' wn«fa jai i" ; wn»a 
forms which belong to the same. «^* "»P» P»^ i«» ^^ *3 ,K3»»^a n»^ onj?^ 
Thus, it is remarked, with regard lana nf? k3»»^ ^a D3D« ;mnK hKiin iS 
to the root DP*), '* twelve instances 

of this root" ^ The term K3k6d is also used for a rubric containing 
those words only of a root which have the same signification. For 
example, in the root '^V, they remark on ^^^ thine enemy [1 Sam. xxviii. 
16], ''seven times in the signification of enemy;'' for all the other 
expressions of this root have another signification {vide Lex., s. v.).^'" 
Thus, also, in the root "^P^, they remarked on D^?^^ measures [Gen. 
xxvi. 12], ''not extant in this signification ;" for eML the other expres- 
sions derived from 11^ have another meaning. The expression ^^tsr? ^3, 
however, the Massorites only use when a word is construed with 



Mnesorah xnarginalis on Levii. xxir. 12, and 1 Kings xiii. 29. In both those passages 
the Massorah gives inrrs^l [Lerit.xxiy. 12], which iaplene in the best Codices, as one of 
the seven defective3 ; whilst it omits mmi [Josh. iv. 8], which is really defective^ and 
is qnoted as sneh by Levita. There can therefore be but little doabt that the former has 
been substituted for the latter, through a clerical blunder. 

196 The twelve words which belong to the same root with He^ since in all other 
instances this form occurs with Chethy are as follows : — 



am . . 


. Ps. Ixxxix. 


11 


Dimi 


am . . 


. FiB. Ixxxvii. 


4 


anm 


♦aamn . 


. Ps. cxxxviii. 


8 


am . 


tram . 


. . Ps-xl. 


6 


am . 



*3a*mn Song of Songs vi. 6 
iam» .... Isa. iii. 6 
am ... . Isa. XXX. 7 
am Isa. 11. 9 



, . Pb.xc. 10 

. . Prov. vi. 3 
Job. xxvi. 12 

. . Job ix. 18 

They are given in the Massorah marginalis on Isa. xxx. 7 ; Ps. Ixxxix. 11 ; Job ix. 13. 
On Isa. xxx. 7, and Ps. Ixxxix. 11, Jacob b. Chajim, the editor of the Massorah, adds 

5Db ami intTl V"3 "W, "and it appears to me that am [Isa. Ix. 5], is one of these." 
ut tiiough this reading is to be found in Jehudah Chajug's Treatise on the Vowel- 
points and Accents [Tip3n XD, p. 183, ed. Dukes], yet all tne best Codices, as well as 
most of the ancient grammarians and commentators, read the word in question with 
Cheth. Besides, the Ockla Ve-Ochlay section cov. pp. 44, 124, &c., which also gives this 
rubric, does not include it in the list. Comp. also the remarks of Dr. Frensdorff, the 
learned editor of the Ochla Ve-Ochlay p. 44. 

^7 The Massorah mai^^alis on Micah v. 18, gives eight such passages, viz., 1 Sam. 
xxviii. 16 : Micah v. 13, 10 : Isa. xiv. 21 : Ps. ix. 7 ; cxxxix. 20 : Dan. iv, 16 : Jerem. v. 
8. The Massorah marginalis on 1 Sam. xxviii. 16, though omitting Dan iv. 16, and 
Jerem. xv. 8 ; and the Massorah parva on Micah v. 13, and Ps. cxxxix. 20, also state 
most explicitly that there are [iaai 'Xff^ tr] eight passages in which yj!9 denotes enemy. 
It is only the Massorah parva on Isa. xiv. 21, which, like jLevita, says that there are [ 1 ] 
seven such instances. The full enumeration of them, however, by the Massorah mar- 
ginalis, shows that the seven must be a clerical error. 



Digitized by 



Google 



289 

mean tjiat it refers to Zechariah ^aa p ,naf?m-Dn Vi w»,nnDoa d't 
alone, but to all the minor Pro- n^S wan rrritn na»oa ]^^ ^i^fn 
phets;^" or, when it is remarked, on ^nip naoa jai ;p"n ^aa Vn Ntnaoa 
n«Bn sin offering, in Micah i. 18, 'b rmr dj rjMi loa ,n»oro nso 3*3 f?f?ai 
•* it is not in the book," it means the .^,q„^ .^ ^] t^.^ n^man nirv *?ai d -i 
twelve Prophets. The same is the .^ ^^^^ „,^ ,^^^ ^^^^^ ^^,1^4 
case witti the book of Ezra which ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ 
also mcludes the book of Nehemiah. '^ ' 

Thus, for instance, when it is re- . , * ^„^ 

marked, -W and «;^, occurs nine ^^^^'^^2 '^^^"^ nte n«aK nnyi 
times at the inning of a verse, '=1"^ '«^^=» °;«»=» '^ o;^^ '" '^ 
and throughout Ezra it is likewise "' "^'^^ "™ ^^^ "" J «3r^ 'ra DTD«a 
so," ^ it also includes Nehemiah. "J^^ rjnno w ,-npia ]iBrf? imita men 
As to the ''Pattach of the book;* f?a r«^ lenx ,Tnx ]oa ix ,nw plana 
I have already explained its nature m^naj per *d ^» c|k ,Tm ]nn niten 
in Section ii., see p. 197. The : nmp:m nvnwn "wva 

" Piska of the hook;' too, has al- vf?jr iDoa )Tp j:a ^nn2*i bt51Dni .^ 
ready been explained in Section iv., ^^^ i,.^ ^^^^i,^ ^.^ry 't nam rvh 
see p. 209. . . ,, , '^<^ P^^?^. ttwi r^™??}l ]nD nnit ,^»pDn 

Let me now explam the word f^^^ann rv non jVaa^ 'Df^^-^lai «mr, 
&^3W. Notice that the Massorites 

use it in two ways : the one when they say £(^^3, and the other when 
they remark fc^^OT 7DD. If words are alike in form, having either 
some of the same vowel-points, or the same addition or omission of a 
letter, or if they belong to the same conjugation, they (the Massorites) 
ranged these words together under one rubric, though they differ with 
regard to the other letters and vowel-signs. 

1^ Thus, for instance, on ^nnan [Gen. ii. 15], the Massorites 
remark, ''not extant, and defective, seven times defective in this form,'' 
that is, tJie future HiphlL One of these instances is, ^nnp^l and he put 
him [Gen. ii. 15], D^nsj) and he put them [Josh. iv. 8J, ^3n3FI thau shaU 
leave us [Jerem. xiv. 9], &e.^" Now, because the Jod in all these, which 

in The other two instances in which DMi ocean at the beginning of a verse in the 
minor Prophets are, Amos ix. S, 4. We ooold not find them specified any where in the 
Slossorah. 

iM The nine instances in which ?imi begins the verse are, Levit. xxvi. 44 : Ezek. 
xxiii. 40: Habak. ii. 5: Ps. Ixxviii. 81: Job xix. 4; xxxtI. 16: Ezra v. 1«, 14 ; vi. 5. 
Thev are given in the Massorah marginaUs on Job xix. 4 ; xxxvi. 16 : Ezra v. 10. In 
the Massorah parva, on Ezek. xxiii. 40, and Ps. Ixxviii. 31, where reference is made to 
this fact, it is erroneoasly stated that there are six [ 1 ] snch instances, whilst on Job 
xix. 4 ; xxxvi. 16, the Massorah parva remarks that there are ten [ '^ ] snch passages : 
and there can be bnt little doabt that though this, too, is an error, the former is a 
oormption of the latter, since we have already seen that nothing is more easy than the 
oormption of Vnv into Jod^ and vice versa. The remark mmDl Vtrss ^\ is only to be 
fonnd in the Massorah parva on Ezek. xxiii. 40. It has to be added that the 
Snlzbich edition omits rron: -»DD D3 V'l rrm3i krny tai D"i *» rwi na ntn, i. c, r^Mi, 
AND EVBN, occnrs nine times at the heginniiuj of a verse, and throughout Ezra it is 
likeioise eOy including therein the book of Nehemiah; whilst the other two editions 
omit [ "oj niiie^ which we have supplied. 

^^ The other instances in which the Iliphil is defective of the Jod are, Qen. xix. 16: 
Levit. xxiv. 12: Ii Sam. xvi. 11 : 1 Kings viii. 9; xiii. 29. They are given in the 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



288 

Of they occur in a certain order in nai^ ]ir»ai^ in p iz ^^naii) mx5 nnp 
the whole Scripture, except in one p ^^ ^^^n vim nnp h^ ]y\ ; )Dn 'vnsT 
book, as, for instance, in all the isa . q^^-, '^iy^l^ ^tirr\ vam ^taw v^h nn 

except in one instance, where it is ' i_ . 

inverted n??? \\n^t? SMatism. "™ "^^ ,^ "'^^^ •'^^^'^ ^^ pinr t-« 

5a66atyi [Exod. xvi. 28] ; so, also, '^^^ ^^^J' ^'^^^ '5^«'^" °"^ "•''J^ '"^^^^ "^'^J 

it is in all the Scripture, we have «^^ ^'^^^"^ ^'^^^ ^^ ^»* ^"^^^^ '^'^ 

teKI ratf Am father and his mother, J^^^'a P« ^»om ;ii!fp 'in neo f?3 pDwo 

except in one instance, where it is '^ vSp tdd3 ,nf7pn «f? onxo nnero dmi 

V3N1 ItMC Ais mother and his father 

[Levit. xix. 8], and there are many instances like it.^" 

Herewith is also explained the expression M'^SD, which accordingly 
means the particular book wherein the word in question is to be found. 
It must, however, be borne in mind, that when the Massorites make 
the remark on a word in the twelva minor Prophets, which are Hosea, 
Joel, Amos, &c., "it is not in the book,'' or ''throughout the book it is 
to be foxmd like it," they mean the book containing all the twelve Pro- 
phets. Thus, when it is remarked, on D^^} and if, in Zech. xiv. 18, **it 
occurs three times at the beginning of a verse in the book,'' it does not 

pwi ]9« . . . Ps. Ixxii. 19 in all the other books . . 1P« ]P9 

en Job xxxix. XO „ Dyj 

jna rf ?i . .... Job XV. 9 „ ril^ 

nts^ ^2^ . . Prov. i. 1 „ .... nfeVtf na'i. 

VTi\ .... Prov. ix. 9 „ 7?^ 

rn^. .... Eccles. ix. 1 1 „ vr^. 

n^ .... Eccles. v. 12 „ rn^n 

riTj? .... Dan. iii. 27 „ nT5 

\ Dan. iii. Ti „ % 

-»;? Dan. vii. 13 „ -^p 

rtsrwa .... Dan. xi. 42 „ ^^3^«| 

T!& p^» yrV anj* tt^ . Ezra r^tJirp |n|^rr »T^rr an^rr vs*^7v 

]^|-Tn". " . " r . Ruth "„ '"'."*. '^. ■ ppinri 

^ ayp^ '3^n Song of Songs „ ... \3rwppi ^awn 

oiaa »nan .' . Lament, i. 1 „ f>?l 

rwoi D^jto^l .... Esther ,, .... D*Tto3p^ii«p 

ti5jri*; Esther ,, «)jli'2 

The list is given in that part of the Massorah finalis called Various 
Readijigs (piHnp 'D^Vn); p. 62 h, col. 1, sec. ii., and in Ochla Ve-Ochla, sec. 
cclxxii., pp. 52, 146, &c. The latter adds pj' (Ezek. i. 2), which in all 
other books of the Scripture is pjrr, and si^ (Dan. vii. 7), which is else- 
where aj, whilst it omits ^vt (2 Chron.). It moreover rightly has oan^ 
(Prov. ix. 9) instead of p^, in the same verse, since it is the former which 
is everywhere else Qjn^, with Segol under the Lamed, whilst p??^ also 
occurs in Proverbs. 

^^ The list which embraces thirty-nine snch instances has already been given, vide 
supra, p. 214. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



287 



We also find that certain words ^a p» ,n^ vjyhn »np f?3i n^o nn «ni» 
always occur in one book in the ba pi "i;rwron «»-)p bai n^nan n^rnna 
one form, whilst in all the other 

books they occur in a different form ; as, for instance, HK'lSn who 
appeared [Gen. xii. 71, whilst in all the other Scripture it is HK'Jsn.iw 

cclxxi., pp. 62, 146, &c. The text of the Massoreth Ha-Massoreth 
describes this rubric as follows : fei -m p ii rrnt)! veto tai «"3 p nriH rmo 
TH p "Q rrman rrt «np, a register of twenty-one words, wliich have parallels 
throughout th^ book, with the exception of one instance; whilst they have 
no parallel throughout the Bible, with the exception of one instance. The 
Sulzbach edition omits the second in p t^. But that the whole passage 
is corrupted is evident, from the reference to this rubric in the Massorah 
parva on Gen. x. 1, from its heading both in the Massorah finalis and in 
ttie Ochla Ve-Ochla, as well as from tiie whole context. We have therefore 
corrected the text. 

"* The words which always occur in a certain form in one book, but 
which in all other books of the Scriptures occur in a different form, are as 
follows : — 

nyjsn . . . ^ . Gen. xii. 7 in all the other books . . nMron 






n^wj 'sm nom Exod. xxvi. 16 



pm . 

'HJ - 
ni". . 

*W • • 

■rtnao . 

Trfe 



i5V ' 

^. . 
Tvarrs . 






Gen. xxxviii. 1 
. Exod. viii. 6 
Exod. XXV. 30 



Levit. xiii. 20 

. Numb. XV. 14 

Numb, xxxiii. 42 

Deut. ii. 1 

. Deut. iv. 11 

Deut. iv. 45 

Josh. X. 23 

. Judg. xiii. 5 

2 Sam. xii. 3 

1 Sam. xxi. 2 

2 Sam. xxi. 12 

1 Sam. xii. 8 

2 Sam. XV. 19 
2 Kings iii. 19 
1 Kings iii. 2 
. Isa. xlix. 4 

Isa. viii. 17 

Jerem. xxvi. 23 

Jerem. xxxvi. 22 

. Jerem. vii. 31 

Jerem. xlvi. 4 

. . . EzeMel 

. Ezek. xlv. 23 

Ezek. i. 1 

Minor Prophets 

. . Hos. i. 6 

. . 2 Chron. 

. . . Psalms 

Ps. cxv. 10 



DTTl 

■ . . "T^ 

. . D^33 D«hB 

. . . -n^^ 

.... T^3B 

. ^T\ ]??! 
. . 'rei:?rr'n5M 

. . . rrxp 
. . . . naa 
• • ■ V^^^ 

. . . 01*1^*1 



. *rnp 

. . *; 



rw^? 



Digitized by 



Google 



instances like it;*' D^B^|3 m thefe- hy\ H^-ipa n*^ xrtbijL cjbn ^ai ;n»ni3T 
male gender [Numb. xxxi. 18], " not i«; n'man onrn t» 

in the Scriptures, but throughout rr^ irv\ in h:n vc^ p nnit nov pi 
the Song of Songs, there are in- ^-m ]D la n^man «np ^ai ,n*man HiDoa 
stances like it," &c., &c.i" ^n )d na 11^1 n^wt^na neo *?a ]i3a 

The same is the case with the y^y^ ^v,p t^ar^iacn ttih n^aa if? ^iS*i 
register of twenty-one words which i^/ ,«, . ,1^,^^ ^.^^ ,,, ,^,,,, ^ ^^ 
respectively occur only once m one ' 

book, whilst in all the other Scriptures they are always so, except in 
one instance. Thus throughout the whole Book of Genesis the word 
'it: ^^^ ^''^y hegaty is used, and it is only in one instance that ^^^^.1 
and there were bom [Gen. x. 1] is found; whilst in all the Scriptures it 
is ^'I'J^!, and it is only in one place that -n^*! is used [Deut. xxi. 16].^** 



1^ Tbe sixieen words whicli hare no parallel in the whole Scriptures, except in one 
book onl}', where they have respectirely a parallel, are as follows : — 



MTDy Twn 
TTptsnn . 



Levit. xiii. 


61 


Numb. xxxi. 


18 


1 Sam. xTii. 


18 


1 Kings XX. 
. . Job X. 


27 


17 



9 



nnXQ ... 1 Sam. i. 
>33rt .... Isa. iv. 2 
vrrTff) . . . Dent. ri. 17 
QV^M ^Zth 1 Chron. xiii. 10 
^2yxyn . . Lament. V. 21 



°T. 




Deut. viii..l4 


viipi 




Deut. xiii, 7 


DTTtfruQ^ 




Josh. xiv. 4 


ITW ' 




2 Sam. ii. 22 


rr«to 




2 Sam. i. 21 


n:j^ 




Jerem. ix. 9 


D^tM 




1 Kings xxii. 27 


'tJpn 




Jerem. xxxiv. 14 


n;m» 




Jerem. xviii. 8 


unrfmro 




Ezek. vi. Hi 


*nj?ri 




Zech. iii. 10 


^3^. 




Jerem. xxxix. 11 


Tiai 




Malachi iii. 22 


vfDipn 




Ps. c^di. 30 






Ps. xxiii. 5 




Eccles. i. 1 


n^DTO 




Eccles. ii. 21 


Hp^m 




Eccles. vii. 26 


fW? 




Ps. cxix. 167 


'*! 




Ps. Ixxii. 20 



Scriptures except d^ 



rQM>, . Ezek. xxxvii. 24 
Uyv . . . . Ps. xlix. 15 
"imD«n 2 Chron. xxxiii. 11 
mo* vh . . Prov. xxiii. 13 
ypni . . . Gen. xxxii. 26 
mnn . . . Ps. cxlv. 21 
The list is giyen in the Massorah marginalis on Levit. xiii. dl, where, however, nine 
instances only are enumerated, as well as at the end of the Massorah finalis, in that 
portion which is denominated Various Readings iTlMnp ^m^r], p. 62 a, col. 4; and in 
the Ochla Ve-Ochla, section cclxx., p. 144, where all the instances are diily specified. 

150 Tjjg twenty-one words which respectively occur only once in a par- 
ticular book, whUst in all other books of the Scriptures they occur always 
80, except in one instance only, are as follows : — 

^T/}!! only once in Gen. x. 1, always so in aD other ^^J^ . Deut xxi. 15 
~ "" ~ " D^ . . Isa. ii. 12 

X'P . 2 Sam. xii. 12 
]vr^T30 Numb. XXXV. 7 
■frw^ . . Gen. xx. 16 
Tppo . Lament, iv. 20 
n^b . Gen. xxiii. 18 
0:9; . . Ezek iv. 17 
D^ttJcn . . Isa. Iviii. 6 
rqnn*M 2 Sam. xxiv. 16 
Dp^n^min Jerem. xvii 1 
"wn^n . Jerem. iii. 19 
2 Kings xvi. 15 
Job xviii. 17 
. Job xxi. 12 
. . Joel i. 20 
Levit. xxiii. 24 
rraana 1 Chron. xxviii. 21 
«p^^^n . Isa. Ixv. 20 
Tvyof 1 Chron. xxix. 18 
. '^ . . Isa. xviii. 7 

The list is given in that part of the Massorah denominated Various 
Readings {rwr^ "T^), p. 62 by section i., and in the OoMa Ve-Ochla^ section 



^1 






Digitized by 



Google 



285 



scripture, saying, " no scripture p*^ moKS ^N^ipo i^h piDB ^3^ i«np 



OniDO «npD l",lDllBfD ♦TD K3fr «npD 

QBf D'«mp pDnmr no *nnori "^K .^ 

»a^ -)« ,^n*KnBf nnDDn f?33 n? Sp aina 
Q*«»33n noH» no anr *d^ ^h tdir 

p hjf pn^om D» n«ipi ,nKnpn rw 
; KnpD nnnDD iNnpa 



oversteps its simple meaning,'* "'^ 
''this scripture is anteplaced/' &c. 

m^ I wonder how it is that most 
people give this name to the writ- 
ings of the prophets alone ; for I 
cannot find a reason for it in any 
of the works which I have seen. 
But my own opinion is that it arose 
from the fact that most of the pro- 
phets read what they had to say, - 
as we find, *' Go and read in the ^^^ P^ '= 'J^^ V^V ^a ^P«7 '^ V^) 
ears of the people" [Jerem. ii. 2J, r^H^invi nhn f?p hvnm ;itnpa w «np 
** and read unto her the readitig n*^ «^i .r^'^ n^Sp una nm ope pn 
which I speak to you " [Jonah iii. /iai n»DpD 'i w 'a nnxD^Bra pi ;Knpa 
2], and read there [Jerem. xix. 2], ;'iai tsnpa 'i m< ,^<npa 'a lana t<h 
&c. It is for this reason that their nDoin'? nhvi ir« ,p aina nxd:» onDoai 
books are called Scripture [^npo]. ^rnmn «f?D^ na jnaw mo^f? ik ,niR'a 

It is, however, to be noticed that 148.^^/^ rrmnn nmpna *nana» loa 
the Massorites do not always write t, c, ^^^^'^^t^ „^^3, 

the word Scnpture, or ^n^m/,. ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ,^ ^^^^^;; ^^^ 
whenever they give the im- ' , ^ 

,nnK njTD pn itxaa n^ onDon "wwai 
'3if?D noD ^31 Ncnpa n*^ n*f?p i3n3 



port and number. Thus, for in 

stance, on a word which occurs 

only once, they simply remark, ■ 

" not extant," and not ** not extant ^^ ^2^- ^l'^^^ ^"' P "™* "t«^ P" r^'ii^T 

in the Scripture." The same is the ^p^ ^^^ ^'^pa ^'^ ,{^"^ n'r«n3) -jt 

case when it occurs twice, thrice, 

or more times ; they do not remark on it, ** twice in the Scripture," or 

'< thrice in the Scripture," &c. In those Codices where you do find it 

written so, it has either been done to make it more explicit, or to 

ornament the writing by filling out the line, as I have already 

stated in the Poetical Introduction, which see.*^^ In the Massorah parva 

it is never found, whilst the Massorah magna only uses it in a few 

places. Thus, when a certain word occurs many times in one book, and 

is only found once in the other books, they remark upon it, ** not 

extant in the other Scriptures, but throughout such and such a book 

there are instances like it,*' as in the register of sixteen words, viz., 

ypril and he smote [Gen. xxxii. 26], on which the Massorites remark, 

** it does not occur in the Scripture, but throughout Ezekiel, there are 

Tiobna «rV« nawoa xff^ vnpni xa*^ vir\w d-i« idV^t rM7 'M^an, H. Tamhum h. 

Hanilai propounded that man should alwat/e divide his time into three parts: 
one-third he should devote to the study of the Scripturey one-third to the study of 
the MishnUf and one-third to the study of the Talmud. 

^*f The exegetical mle, that "no Scripture oyersteps its simple meaning," to which 
Levita refers, is to he fonnd in Sabbath 03 a, and in many other parts of the Talmnd. 

148 For the description of the manner in which the Massoretic notes were treated, to 
which Levita refers, soe above, p. 94. 



Digitized by 



Google 



284 

Is not certain, whilst Adonai is read fc^ipa 'HN ^snj ^•t^-mn nriMnp mi* 
as it is written, and its yowel-points iS wip -|3*o^ ,n»Hniin imip3i inaToa 
are certain, whence it is called the ,i''hp om ,yvn') n»3i jir^ai pK^^Ti or 
ceHain name (plural pj^li); and n*?iT wn'D ,pnm3i mn^ ^nn f?3 now 
of which there are one hundred mpm nvnw "t W dw imVn iiddw dhw 
and thirty. four instances. The i, ^ ^td rfai^i^^ p::, ,o^r6n r,n^p,2 
Massontes say that every nin» ^n« ^,,^3^, ^.^^ ^^^^^ ^^ i ^/„, 
</t^ Lord Jehovah, is likewise so, , ' / -,*.! l 

that is, except those to which is '" ^T"^=^' '^'"^•' ^^^ ''"ll'^f 'r*"' 
joined the tetragrammaton, pointed r«"" "^^ ^^""^ •'«'« ^arn Diponi 
with the vowel signs of D>n^§; as "=*"" ^^" '"=^ "^^"^"^ "^^° ^ '^^^ 
"VTV^iJ, [Gen. iv. 2; Isa.'xlix. ^" '"'^^^^ ^J^' 1"^ 'T^'" 'f" '^^'^ 
22]: I lave found two hundred "^"^^^'^ ^«:'^«^ nprVp nw^nDryani 
and twenty-two such instances, the ^^^ '^t^^P ^'^^ ^^ P*"^ f«^^ 'i» 
mnemonical sign thereof being l^'^f? ,pM3T 'jdd n"pin i*?'Dn ?|Van ^TX 
" the chariot of [33*1 = 222] the ^i«^3 n^iiph m^h h:3^n *a f Km p'fc^ 
Lord, &c., [Ps. kviii. 18] .1** "i^k ^sk ^niorm cVpon »^333 iwana 

The second place in which the ;l"a "^P^^ l*«i rr^^Ti 'na can t^"an 
Massorites employ the expression TDKoa 'niynD |nmtsoi ]*DTpio »n*Di 
psm, is with respect to words : v"v 'i ]*03 r»«"i 

ending with He, after ZcrpA, the ,|»^bD3 .J^^Tpn ^T^n IDKOn 
suffix second person smgular mas- ,t^^^ ^^ ^^^ : piDM W*3Pa .Wtr^b 
euune, of which there are twenty- ' r r 

one ill number ; as ^355x1 aW^/ ^^= '»*^-^P ^'^"^^ 5^^7^^ '^T^J^ h:^hmonn 
shall bless thee [Gen. xxVK 7], njn; Q^DW «-)pD TO^^nn ^^a ph m-ip» 
% /ia7id [Exod. xiu. 16], &c.,i*« °"»^ «''^' ^^^^^ '"^^^^ ^^ ^^ ""''" 
since in dl other instances the D3i.^*^;D'aT omoai ,«ip^3 r^fw vmair 
suffix second person is final Kaph 

with KametZy as ^^p ,^5J. They dropped the He because of their large 
number, for which reason they are not certain, since they may have 
Sheva, as I have explained under the suffixes of the verbs and nouns ; 
whilst those Kaplis which are followed by He are certain, and there 
can be no mistake about them. The meaning of '* transpositions " 
I have explained in Section i., class 8, of Pai-t ii., vide supra, p. 191. 

Section X., concerm'ng Scripture, Book, Fonn, Connection, and 
Verse. — The Massorites call all the tw6nty-four sacred books '*i75» J^^* 
as they are called by the Talmudists ^ipD. Thus, for instance, ^ey 
say, "we have run through the whole [KlpO] scripture,'.' **a man 
should always divide his time into three, devoting one third to [K'lpD] 
the Scriptures," &c.*^ They also call each separate verse Mikra, = 

1^ Thongli i^e Massorah finalis, nnder the letter Aleph, p. 8 a, &c., only gives 
one hundred and thirty-four, yet there can he no doaht that there are many more 
than those ennmerated under this rubric. 

^^ The twenty -one words which have lie at the end, after Kaph, of the second person 
nngnlar masculine, have already been given {vide supra, p. 177 j. 

1^ The maxim to which Levita refers was propounded by R. Tamhnm b. Hanilai, 
and is to be found in Ahoda Sara, 19 6. In its entirety it is as follows : — ^^3 Cin^n I'M 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



233 

the third passage. Thus on the ion imn ,niBipo 'ia rwxDii ,n*n3 'j 
words I'l^^"??*! they shall prolong, ♦ty'Sefni ,»3Bfn njn non 'jBfm ,|iwKnn mn 
which is once written P^*?^! [Exod. ,p*w a^na 'k p3n«j loa ,Dn*:Bf onon 
XX. 11], once I5^'?«! [Dent. v. 16], noDj'.pnM* 3»na 't«<i ,p^* a^ria 't^i 
and once ???«! [Deut. yi. a] ; the „,.,„ ^ ' ^, „.^, ^ ' ^ ^^^ 
Massontes remark, -It has once Its ,^^^^ .^.^ .„,^^,^ „,^ ^<p.Dp nm 
nana I = Jod\ cut off, once its foot , ' l 

[ = f rtv] cut off, and once it has „ ill 

both its hand and foot cut off." I '' "" ^ "^" *^*^*= "^^^ ^^^ ^^^'^^^ °^^""^ 
have already mentioned, in the ***=^'^^'^ J^^"*' "^"^ 'i''^"'^ ^^^'^^ ^ 
First Part, Section viii., other o'^'^^'^oT^os^" ^'^J^Q" P "^n** '^'^ «i" 
phrases whereby the Massorites are '^ "^ T'l^P^ i^^ "=*'" *^J^ °*3^ T^*'^ 
in the habit of describing such ^VO lltD IBDa Txan* nrxa ,|»DBfD 
anomalous words, t'zV^»M/?rrt, p. 166. ni^D narpf? pD»D i«np tan mm ;ri''pa 

l^As to the meaning of poB'D, loa ,f?UDa |n*nnan Sai nnaa nnipan 
it is well known that Pashta is the i« fjiioa nbjwr n«w f?a o ,po»D 'n njw 
name of one of the accents. Now i48 ^ ^xxm^^ hkv ^a o ,pQ9D '* ^ddh»i lai 
two such Pashtas are sometimes i^^^i ^ni ♦a pn» nan r«m K'lTDI 
pla<5ed on one word it is then p>,,,j ^^^^ j^^, ^^^ 

caUed "two Pashtin;' as I shall ,^^ naf? mono 'aa na itrD» miDoai 
explain in the Treatise, entitled, /, ' ' , / 

-Good Sense," with the help of /* VV« ana:n mn« '^r rnpn orn ^ 
the Lord. Now the Massorites ^^^ '^"^ ^^' J^^-'V*' ^''*^' ^'"^P^^^ 
caU Pa^htin some words which in a ^T^ ^^^ "^'"^^ '^ '"^ °» ^^^^^ '^'^^ ^^ 
few places are pointed with Pattach, T^^^p 1« ."b^ i"^« «D3^ r« *=» ^^^^^ 
whilst in all other instances they ,np"nDD in^np liSap p^ ^♦i'TO naaa irnK 
have5^//oZ. Thus ^^Vfff I shall h'i7ig ^3k ,rnrr -ja »Jtm mip:a -np: H^n ph 
up, is marked ** eight times Posh- . 

tin'' [i. e, Hiphit],^*^ since in all other passages it is WK with Segol 
[u e, Kal] ; also ^BDN^J and they gathered, is marked -ten times Pash- 
tin" [i, e, Kal], for in all other instances it is ^BDXJI [i, e. Niphaiy*^ 

As to the meaning of pNII, it is well known that it is the opposite 
to doubtful, and that the German for it is gcnji^. The Massorites 
only use it in three places ; one with respect to the sacred name of 
the Lord, which is written >3lfc<, and on which they remark -one 
hundred and thirty-four times J^^^l ^^ T^IJ-" The reason of this is, 
that the name nin^, being the tetragrammaton, must not be read 
as it is written, for it must not be pronounced with the lips, but 
is to be read under the appellation '^y^^, This reading we have tradi- 
tionally received from Moses our teacher, peace be upon him. Hence 
it has the vowel-points of ^3lK, as follows ^)^\- The reading of it 

^*^ The eight passages in which n^S^M is HiphU future are, Exod. iii. 17 : Jndg. ii. 1 : 
1 Sam. xxviii. 11 : 2 ^m. xxiv. 24 : Jerem. xxx. 17 ; xlvi. 8 : Ps. Ixvi. 15 ; cxxxyii. 6. 
Thej are enumerated in the Massorah mar^dnalis on Exod. iii. 17. 

148 The ten passages in which IGDM^ is Kal are, Exod. iv. 29 : Nnmh. xi. 82 : 
1 Sam. V. 8. 11 ; xvii. 1 : 2 Sam. xxi. 13 : 2 Kings xxiii. 1 : 2 Chron.xxix. 16 ; xxiv. 11 : 
Jerem. xl. 12. They are giren in the Massorah marginalis on Exod. iv. 29, where, 
howeyer, they are not designated Pctshtin, as is stated hy Levita, but (pnnD) Psachin. 

H H 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



282 



'With Jod;^^ whereas ^B?, in Pb. moa »h J^ mv^y i^,T'V]»np v»i 
xxiv. 4, is not given in the list, hh^rry :Kp*ep i*n «^ m*>jy»-m ,|nDj; 
because it has simply ** a cut-short *3 ,m3^ i"*in pn npnap m t iNip «^ 'a 
Far." As a rule, the Massorites ,*,, p^a ^-|nK nru» mp^-^ n^ wnp p 
do not apply the term cut-short to ^M^-'a ^wian «f?i Kna^TK VM nnn 
any letter but Fat;, and hence, also, ^nan' 3*«3 7-p i^mi ,-n «*n Hna-l?! 
they call it m one place Una. Thus, ^^^^ 'i ^^ jl ' ^^ ^x^ «.«,«^ ,.<^, 
the Fa. in «nm Fo/^otAa [Esther '^^ "^ u ' " "J ,. f^u 
ix.9], is caU^ "Jlo^^tMr and ?«• 1^ ^"«^^^«^ ."JV kS ,"«i H^^.m* 
not majiiscular ; since Faw majxiscu- . ' "^^^"J '^" P^^ .V"^ ™ 

Zar is the one in ?ini Z^% [Levit. "= w»b^ nf?Da>p^Dp nfea wdb^ niyi 
xi. 42], as you may see in the 

alphabetical list of the large letters, and the list of the twenty-two^verses 
which have neither a short nor a long letter, that is, neither Vav nor 
Jod^ as Ps, cv. 11, &c,"^ 

The Massorites also employ the expression V(ff*}^p = cut sJiort, with 
regard to a word which has three quiescente, and is spelled differently 
in three different places, wanting the first quiescent in the first pas- 
sage, the second in the second passage, and the two quiescents in 

1^ The words written with Vav, prenominal suffix, third person masculine, and read 
with Jodj mostly suffix, first person, are as follows : — 
TDiso . . . Dent. ▼. 10 nnncnn . . . laa. lii. 2 
XOpn . . . Josh. vi. 9 VT2» . . . laa. xlvi. 11 
131M ... 1 Sam. xxii. 17 ysino . - . Isa. Ix. 21 
M^ ... 1 Sam. xxT. 8 >npn . . Jerem. iii. 19 
1H310 ... 2 Sam. y. 8 Mvon . . Jerem. iii. 19 
rOBil . 2 Sam. xyiii. 18 i^bSM . • Jerem. li. 34 
1391 . . 2 Sam. xii. 9 i3Don . . Jerem. U. 84 
MXCn . . 2 Sam. xxi. 16 133^271 . . Jerem. li. 84 
13m ... 2 Sam. xxii. 83 133?^ • . Jerem. li. 84 
13«Wl . 2 Sam. xxiii. 8 13mn . . Jerem. li. 34 
Tcan . 2 Sam. xxiii. 86 vn . . . , Ezek. i. 8 
iVn . . . 1 Kings T. 17 vrnn . . Ezek. xxxii. 82 
TOTjyi . . 1 Kings XV. 16 111 ... . Hos. viii. 12 
1Mn3 . 2 Kings xYii. 18 MXCf* ... 1 Chron. ii. 66 
iknrr . . . Isa. xvi. 3 133 ... 1 Chron. Ti. 11 
run . . . Isa. xlyii. 18 133 .. 1 Chron. xxii. 7 
From this list, which is given in the Massorah marginalis on 1 Sam. i. 1, it will be seen 
that there are forty-eight such instances, and not forty-one, as is stated hy Levita. It 
is however to be remarked, that in both the Massorah mirginalis on 1 Sam. i. 1, and the 
Massorah finalis under the letter VaVy p. 276, col. 1, where reference is made to this 
rubric, it is also stated that there are only forty-one such instances ; whilst in the Massorah 
maxninalis on Jerem. i. 1, where the list is repeated, it is simply headed by " these are the 
words" {fro r^), &c., without specifying the number. The Ochla Ve-Ochla^ section 
cxxxvi., pp. 34, 106, &c., where the list is also given, states that there are forty-seven 
instances, and the whole number is duly given. 

1*1 The twenty- three verses which have neither Van nor Jod are as follows : — 
' Exod. XX. 13, 16 : Ps. cv. 11 : 1 Chron. xvi. 18 : Numb. vii. 14, 20, 26, 32, 3H, 44, 60, 06, 
62, 68, 74, 80 : Lament, iii. 66 : Josh. xii. 13, 14, 16 : 1 Chron. i. 24 : Ps. xix. 12 : 
1 Chron. xxiv. 14. They are given in the Massorah marginalis on Numb. vii. 14, 
where, however, the headmg of the rubric, as well as the Massorah parva, states that 
there are only (3"3) twenty-two such verses ; whilst the Massorah marginalis on Psalm 
ov. 11, which simply gives the heading, like Levita, most distinctly remarks that there 
are twenty-three (a"3) such verses. The apparent discrepancy is -to be accounted for by 
the fact, that the four commandments, which form in our Bibles four distinct verses 
(viz., Exod. XX. 13-16), are alternately counted in the Massorah as one verse, and as 
two verses, according to the two different systems of accentuation. 



WiTDl . 


2 Chron. xxxii. 21 


113 . . 


. . . Ps. xi. 1 


iTon 


. . Ps.lix. 11 


133n. 


. . Pb. cviii. 7 


iro . 


. . Ps. cii. 24 


lyii . 


. . Ps. cxix. 79 


i3mnpT 


. . P8.1xxi.20 


i3mn 


. . Ps. lxxi.20 


i-m* . 


. . Job XXX. 11 


loa . 


. . Jobix. 30 


i« . 


. Prov. xxxi. 2 


13m3M 


. . Dan. iii. 19 


IWJDv 


. . Ezra vii. 26 


TBJSn 


. . Ezra X. 87 


IT . 


. . Ezra X. 43 


13^1 . 


. Nehem.xii. 9 



Digitized by 



Google 



281 

alphabetical list of words with small ^a^ ^vnp miDoai "•^aop nrnw p a"«i 
letters. "* In the Massorah, every noa ,Kn»pT niaopm ,«naT m^nino nrw 
one of the large letters is called ;in^pT f|"^« «;;?»i ,«n3T n"^a n*«>w5a 
jnajuscular, and of the small letters vnn wnp «^"mp*nDn nmooa nam 
minuscular, as nnwna m t^ %m- ^^^^^ Ny^tDp r-i -jk htj^t m naopn 
fling [Gen. i. 1] is marked i^^r^ ^^ :^^^ ^ ,^^ .^^ ^^ 
vmjxmuUir, and «W and he calUd ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ 

[Levit. 1. 1] IS marked Aleph minuS' ^ ' , htwm vn 

cular,^ In the correct Codices the , , ,.J^L L^ 

smaU Far is not caUed tn^t = ^"^ n^nn h^ hv ^^ >nnDn) ^ 
minvsculur, but K^yop, that is, cut 'T^ ^. ^^^ «^n °^^ '^^ *b^«^ ^"^^ 
off from below. Thus, D1^ ;>.«c. ''"^^^^ '"^^^^ =^^"^=^ ^"'^^ ^^ '^^ 
[Numb. XXV. 12] is marked ** Vav "' T^ ^J'*^^ '°'"^^^° "^5^ «^" *^ P«« r«^ 
cut oflf;" iCTDJ /iwfiowZ [Ps.xxiv. 4] 'T *^i"^ '""^'^^ "^=»J^» ""^^ ™ P^ 
is marked '*Vav cut off," &c. P'«5^ T^ «*» op nma «vipi ;'rtp3 

l^* Now I am astonished that 
all the commentators whom I have consulted should take this word ^^\ 
his soul, as Kethiv, and remark that the Keri is ^W my soul. Indeed 
I have also seen some Codices of the Massorah wnich have the same. 
But there is no doubt that is a blunder conmiitted by transcribers, 
who confounded the word S^Pl in question with '^^^l, in Job xxxiii. 
28, which is '^l in the Ken, and which is included in the list of 
forty-one words, written in the text with Vav and read in the margin 

xnajnscnlAr letien. — would of itself be fatal to the mgenions theory proponnded by Mr. 
W. H. Black, F.S.A., in a paper read before the Chronolo^cal Institute of London, 
(October 4, 1864], that the sum total of the majuscnlar letters ib designed to give the date 
of the composition of the Pentateuch. We shall, however, show, in our forthcoming 
" Manual to the MasaaraJiy' other reasons why the majuscular letters oonld never have 
been intended as Chronograms. 

'^^ The alphabetical libt of the minuscular letters, is as follows : — 



«1p^1 . . 


. Levit. i. 


1 


Dn-inoi 


. Nomb. xixi. 24 


r\t^D2 . 


. Nahum 1. 


3 


an . . . 




16 


^n .. 


. Deut. xxxii. 18 


n3D3. . 


. Ps. xxvii. 


6 


B^al . . 


Job vii. 


6 


nma^i 


. aen.TTiii. 2 


r\w . . 


Lament, ill. 


86 


mx . . 


Prov. xxviu. 


17 


Kl-?. . 


. Lament, i. 12 


KnD-to65^n 


Dan. vi. 


20 


D«-ian3 . 


. Gen. iL 


4 


nnoo 


. . Deut. ix. 24 


nni!H . 


Jereai. xiv. 


2 


*^^y\ • 


. Ps. xxii. 


30 


mpio 


. Levit. vi. 2 




. Job xvi. 


14 


wh^ . 


Numb. XXV. 


12 


D>mntDi 


Nehem. xiii. 80 


Exod. xxxii. 


2.') 


K^B^ . 


. . Ps. xxiv. 


4 


Wa. . 


. Nahum i. 3 


»nvp . . 


Gen. xxvii. 


46 


«m^i . 


. Esth. ix. 


9 


\r\y\ . 


. . Prov. xvi. 28 


n^c'fc^ . 


Exod. xxxiv. 


26 


S|n . . 


Job xTxiii. 


9 


pTB^UJI 


Jerem. xxxix. 13 


KmjwiB 


. Esth.ix. 


7 


ryaiQ . 


Lament, ii. 


9 


■w. . 


. . Isa. xliv. 14 


KnKnDnD. 


. Esth. ix. 


9 



The Ust is given in the Massorah finalis under the letter AlepK^ p. 1 a, ool. 1, and in the 
Massorah marginalis on Levit. i. 1. La the Oclda Ve-Ockla^ section Ixxxiv., pp. 25 
and 89, which also gives this list, the following variations occur : ^33D V^ (Ps. xxvii. 5) is 
put under the Nun^ as having the second Atin smaUer, whilst yffi (Nahum i. 8) is 
omitted. The three instances which represent the final Nun are also omitted ; but thev 
are, however, given under a separate rubric (comp. section dxxviii., with the Massorah 
marginalis on Isa. xliv. 14 : Prov. xvi. 28 : Jerem. xxxix. 14). Neither does the Ochla 
Ve-Ochla give crropn (Exod. xxxii. 25) under Koph^ and mBTMD (Exod. xxxiv. 26) under 
Beih, which are also omitted from the list given in the Massorah marginalis on Levit. 
i. 1. Like the Massorah marginalis on Levit. i. 1, the Ochla Ve-OcMa rightly marls 
Mn«70*iD (Esther ix. 9) as having both a smaUer Reak and Tav. 



Digitized by 



Google 



280 



whereas nyn» ,tiiey employ to de- lira nainan n^o hjf p i-ton «f? na^n 
signate what is written down in a TDh na'-»n na^n hs nwr loa ,TDon 
hook, as, for instance, when they pi "^jnoioa ^<'^ n^ hian nn^nna 
say, " every word which requires «rK-i lOfr^j »^i ;iia»n ♦oo ^la^n »»^<i 
Law^J at the beginning, takes il^ at ,-,,. ,p,^,o -^ .^,t^ ,^10 ,r-nte 
the end,"^"' " the initials of words," ^rt^^h wb) Dn»3»a i^nan i«^ D^DipiDn 
" the end of words,*' &c. : but not ' ^ * 

ni?tD. Yet I have found that some J; , ' / 

grammarians make no distinction '™^' ™'*P ^'"'^ ^"^"^P ^^'^^ 
between the two expressions, and W '^^f "'^ ^^'^ ^'^'^ V^. ^" 
caU them both n^o, but I have "^ J*"^'^^ W *nv^a njo; pi ,pnn^ 
not found it so in the writings of ^^^^'^^ nvnw p a-K h»d3 »a pn» 
the ancients. 

The meaning of }^y^p is breaking off, cutting of; so the Jerusalem 
Targnm renders f ¥P^, ^nd he cut [Ezod. xzxix. 8] by yi^pi, and nte* 
he cleaveth [Job zvi. 18] by ytdp^. Now it is well known that there is an 
alphabetical list of words with large letters, "^ and that there is another 



letters, is as foUows : — 






DiK . . 1 Chnm. i. 


1 


lOaw 


rvwrO . . Gen. i. 


1 


•ny. 


n^anm. . Levitxiii. 


88 


n:pi 


*|nH . . . DenLvi. 


4 


TTTT^n . . Dent, xxxii. 


6 


^n 


HTirl . . Esther iz. 


9 


n»: 


TttT. . . . Mal.m. 


22 


0^. 


•nn . . . . Esther i. 


6 


niD. 



U7 The axiom of the Babbins, to which LeTita refers, has already been discnssed, 
vide supra, p. 178. 

us The alphabetical Ust of words in the Hebrew Scriptures, written with majnsonlar 

. . Job ix. 84 ^tOftO . . . Dent. li. 4 
. Numb. xiy. 17 vrSfiOtOl . . Dan. li. 20 
. . PS. ixxx. 16 H'oyrai . . Gen. XIX. 42 
. Dent, xxix.27 idV . . . . Isa. M. 10 
, . ProT. i. 1 p . . . Ps. Ixxxiv. 4 
. Exod. xxxiy. 7 inM . . Exod. xxxir. 14 
. . Rnthiii. 18 tS^ . . Song of Songs i. 1 
Numb, xxvii. 6 m^ni • . • Esther ix. 29 
. Eccles. xii. 18 
This list is given in the Massorah marginalis on Gen. i. 1 ; in the Massorah marginalis 
on 1 Chron. i. 1, howeyer, where the list is repeated, the following alterations are made, 
7lna (LeTit. xi. 42), is snbstitnted for «nr1 (Esther ix. 9) ; nO (Eccles. yii. 1) for SQytO 
(Job ix. 34) ; both ?TDD«?0 (Nnmb. xxvii. 6), and H^TDymi (Gen. xxx. 42), are omiitted ; 
and D*on (Dent, xviii. 13) is snbstitnted for nnam (Esther ix. 29). In the Ochla Ve- 
OchUt again, where the list is also given, section Ixxxiii., p. 88, jina (Levit. xi. 42) is 
snbstitnted for rfnri (Esther ix. 9). Qrhn (Dan. vii. 10), representing final Mem, is 
added ; n^a") (Ps. Ixxx. 16) is given instead of ns^ (Exod. xxxiv. 7) ; and Sj'TQyna'^ (Gen. 
xxx. 42) is omitted. The Oclda Ve-OehJa, moreover, (section Ixxxii., p. 82), gives 
another alphabetical list of majnscnlar letters contained in the Pentatench alone, which 
is as follows :— 

■pDK . . Dent, xxxiii. 29 Via* . . . Nnmb. xiv. 17 
n^VJMDl . . . Gen. i. 1 DrrOnnm Dent, xxviii. 68 
nbanm . . Levit. xiii. 83 ^31 or ^n . . Dent. ii. 88 
Trw . . . Dent. vi. 4 oaSen . . Dent. xxix. 27 
mrrtn . . Dent, xxxii. 6 rrtD . . . Nnmb. xxiv. 6 
]1na . . . Levit. xi. 42 D*vfyc .... Gen. 1. 28 
rmtan . . Gen. xxxiv. 81 n»3 . . . Exod. xxxiv. 7 
^y^DH . . . Qea. xlix. 12 \iareo . . Nnmb. xxvii. 5 
3lD . . . . Exod. ii. 2 Dm . . Nnmb. xiii. 80 
This extended list — and be it remembered that even this list does not give all the 



yo« . 


. . Dent. vi. 


4 


•jrtrvDT . 


. Dent.xxxu. 


5 


fjnDyrm 


. . Gen. xxx. 


42 


«V . . 


. . Exod.xi. 


8 


Y^' • 


. Exod. xxviii. 


86 


iP ' . 


. Dent xxii. 


6 


-rnH . 


. Exod. xxxiv. 


14 


Khy 


. . Deut.iii. 


11 


D^n . 


. Dent.xviii. 


13 



Digitized by 



Google 



229 

serve, and to Him thou shalt cleave, Di^nna r» rh unp vh^ ^^\n%^ "^^^^ 
and by His name thou shalt swear" mjm^ vhv na ,«nBiD -|« rdxo im rtw 
[ibid, X. 20]. "» This they do not :r« n^D pai ira 

call nx, which is the Chaldee trans- *3 piT ; |»a»n nte »nDK nnyi .^ 
lation of rtK, in order that it nanm ,n3»n rhn hJ^ wnp D»3iDipi 
m^lght not be confounded with the yy^ no tikxd «f?i dpd nh ^^th Ti^pa 
expresMon HN. , . ,, , d« 'a piooa own m K3fD3 itb 'r ,nt7n 

1^ Let me now explain the term . ^^^^.^ ,v«^,^.rm, nM*^ «»^r,^ .,, «^m^ 
pa>n words. Now it is well known .^^i^^^ ^^ ^3,^ ^3,^ .^ ^^ miocai 
that the ancients called every word ' , / lL l 

na^n, and I have .instituted great ^^^ '°^^^ ^'^ '^^ "^° ?° ^^^ '"^^^ 
search to find out the reason for it, «'''^" V'' '^ °'=»«'^" ^^^"'^ '=»j;«=» P"" «»^^ 
but could not discover the meaning • ^'*^^ ^^^^ P 

of it, seeing that this expression '3 ,Dn'3*a anon r* 'a uk 1DW1.» 
only occurs to denote the ark of i*bd dik k*xid» man ^p ^di3 nfe p»^ 
Noah [Gen. vi. 14-16], and the ,^*n nana nxoir loa ,]wf?n -jwna 
ark in which Moses was exposed ^a» ; |n*Dm n^ca nte inr« ]»3ij; om 
[Exod. ii. 8, 5], translated by the 

Chaldee Knn»n. The Massorites make the plural of n3>n to be pn^n, 
according to die analogy of the Hebrew \h'0 or D*!?D words, from 
n^lD word, which is only found in Job. Many, indeed, are of opinion 
that there is no diflference between the expressions T\y*X\ and nSo. 

^* Now I submit that there is a difference between them, since 
the expression rho denotes a word uttered by the mouth when speak- 
ing, as it is used in the writings by our Rabbins of blessed memory ; 
ex. gr., " and they repeated ^r him [rhti] word [n!?D3] for word,*' 

IM The Masflorah differs as to the nnmber of these instances. Thns, on Isa. i. 1, the 
MasBorah marginalis (as Levita in the text before us) remarks that there are four such 
pairs, and enumerates them as follows : — 

»a«n ycmi^ Ti»n ^nw Mrvn TnSt mnr* nw . . . Dent. vi. 13. 

M»n iDwa"* pain w nayn -^riM hiti yrhk mnr* dm . Dent. x. 20. 

XTVfrCD w Dny ira© 'D !j3? Dent. xvii. 6. 

Dny XTfdro 'd bo? iw ony wyo 'd ^ Dent. xix. 15. 

no« "\aM mVi Isa. xxriii. 12. 

mrr nnn yraw na« wb Isa. xxx. 9. 

IDMl yffwcs '30 ^ n^JDW Ezek. ix. 8. 

•>OM1 Tna Vlp p3?W1 »3D b» ^7Wt\ Kzek. xi.* 18. 

In the Massorah marginalis on Ezek. xi. 13, howerer, it is stated that there are seven 
sneh instances, and the following two pairs are added : — 

>Dy -Q© nw iHP>n . . . Jerem. yi. 14 I tiaan tVd m ^ • • nMwam . Ps. xxiv. 7, 8 
'oy na la© rw ii«nn . . Jerem. viiL 11 I TiMn pD m wrr ^ • • iwn . Ps. xxiv. 9 
There can therefore he but little doubt that the remark in the Massorah finalis, under 
the letter VaVy p. 285, col. 4, that there are ten C^) such instances, has arisen from a 
corruption of the letter Vav ( 'i ), than which nothing is more easy and common. In the 
Ochia Ve-OehUif section ccxxxiv., p. 188, the following two pairs are added, as being 
found (MHIIDOD lab) apart from those stated in the Massorah :— 

ibDWl vh DTT p . . . . Dent. xii. 16 I V^no D»arm ... 1 Sam. xxviii. 3 
b3«n «b lOl n« p . . . . Dtfut. XV. 23 I pMTl p »arpn ... 1 Sam. xxviii. 9 
It is also to be added that the pair which forms the fifth in the rubric given in the 
Massorah marginalis on Ezek. xi. 13, is, in the Ochla Ve-OcJUOf included in those 
instances to be found "apart from the Massorah." 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



DJ^JJ with the sign of the accusative n*a |»jMaD v^p tdo3 ,Tppi D>m ^a ip^i 
before it." So also on I^OiJ con- Vy »:dS ]3i ; a^ao onan f?3 anaob neo 
tinualUj [Obad. 16], the Massorites ;D^^^a anao^ noo n»a )*pDn o^"^) 
remark, "the scribes mislead by it t^h-vn rht^n m^noian nan '3t^ rwm 
in writing a"^aD round about;*' and .p,^, PP^^^ a^j^^ 

also on 038?^"^^ p^ over Jerusalem 

[Eccl. i. 16],/- they mislead here '\'^'^'^ 'P^^^ '^''^^^ "^-^^n 
by writing D^trn^a in Jemsalemr TO^P^OI 1^11 rDJTDI ^^Dpi .p^DI 
Now I have Veen the remarks of ^^ ""^O" ^"^ *^ P^"'' tonniKOI 
those Codices, which very correctly *b^ z^^'* 'W'P^ ^^hk ^a Rn*a KB*?Kn 
do not write pviDl ic/iicA ^rr, ,n»DaDi nninD Sip Sp p^oi niK KTir 

SeotionIa., concerning the terms ;mmH mpnS nrwn rn man prf^ai 
Letters, Words, Expressions, Short iRnp o^nDiDi mm« |*ai oya SnanS -jk 
Letters, Accents, Certainties, and pnNj jnf? ^^<^p miooai ; nrm^< jnf? 
rra?i*/>o«tM>7w.— It is weU known ^,,33n op p^ .pjn«S ,,^ ^,^^ ^^^^^^^^ 
that each one of the twenty-two o,B*?nnDi prmora pw o^pioD 'n n» 
letters of the alphabet is called niK .,^ ^y^ ^TO «nniKn paa ,pn4a 
81^, because it is a sign and mark J^' im.C^ U^in -.^r^JL «^^. 
for the utterance of the voice, and ^^^"^ [^^ ^ "^ °^ " ^^^ 
in the plural ought properly to be '"^^^ l^"'^^ "^** ^"^ ^«^P "^ 1^*'^=^ 
ninw. But to distinguish it from ^" "HDip^nBoa 'a 'a p |0)t 'n loa 
ninwtro7iJ^r«,?wtracZ^«,itisnvniK. "^"^ """^ "'^ tit j^ani ^w nw n'ro 
The Massorites, however, caU it I^n«, S?^?'? ^o^'' ^.^ ^"^1 H?n nj^DTp 
which is the Chaldee rendering of V^l^ '^^'^ '^^'5 ^"^« ^3*3^" .0 D*^3^) 
nirtK ^'^«^ [Gen. i. 14]. Thus, as 

in the case of the names where they remark, " there are five verses 
in which the same names occur, differing only (lin^nto) in their 
letters," viz., in the Pentateuch, and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel 
[Exod. vi. 18] ; in 1 Chron. Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel [xxiii. 12], 
&c;^*^ but when it is in the singular, the Massorites call it niN, just as 
in the Hebrew. Thus they say, ** there are four groups of words, 
each of which occurs twice in the same book, once with a word less 
and a letter more, and once with a word more and a letter less.*' 
The first of such a pair is, *' Jehovah, thy God, thou shalt fear, and Him 
thou shalt serve, and by His name thou shalt swear " [Deut. vi. 18] ; 
the second, '* Jehovah, thy God, thou shalt fear. Him thou shalt 

^^ The meaning of the Massoreiic remark vhich Lerita quotes is, that though the 
four names ^yttXS fnsn "Vl^^ UycB^ Amraniy Izhar, Hebroiiy and Uzziel, are exactiy the 
same in aU the five passages in which they occur, as far as the words themselves are 
concerned, yet the letter Vav or the conjunctive is placed differently in each passage, as 
wiU he seen from the following enumeration of them : — 

Snyi pram "trnn rmas nnp mi Exod. vi. 18. 

bH?w p^am VRn cnoy nnp »3ai 1 Chron. vi. 3. 

Srwi pnan nrnn dtq^ DnrmcoV nnp »3ai . . . Numh. iii. 19. 

Srwi pnam nnjr uica nnp 'aai 1 Chron. v. 28. 

bwTjn i^ran nny trca? nnp >aa 1 Chron. xxiii. 12. 

They are given in the Massorah marginalis on Exod. xvi. 18, where, however, the 
instance in Numh. iii. 19 is omitted, though the ruhric states that there are five such 
paasages. The Ochla Ve-OcUa, section oelxxxviii., pp. 64, 152, ice, rightly supplies 
this omission. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



227 

»3D hv "^K Tnon ; that is, there "vftf nrrA namj maornr 'ae ^ mpoa 
does not exist in the Bible the miooar pTao hs d^wido j5i ; *3p by 
phrase \3B ^g mj9o» tJce face of, for "? *d^ *5 ,»^ Kn^ao k^ ^aw ^mao |w^ 
which the conjectural reading sub- : pm j^anDD aina^ on^ rrn 

stitutes *?© 7? "TK^?^, tt'/t/c/i t//?on tfie ni^on nxp ^ loDiw niKreia t5^1 
/(flc^ o^. Hence they explain all uw ,p'aoi |»pdd i« ,1*^00^ pn^ao 
the expressions pTiD in the Mas- ,^a j^qo kxd3 ^a« ; iiR^a riDDin Kf?H 
Borah as con w<oy;mto7», but it does ij p^^ ,n*poDa ann f?p nn ,|»TaD 
not appear correct to me, since ,^^ th ,p)DD nioa pa D^poan d^ctdd 
according to this interpretation it JL^^ ^^ „m-, ' ' „, ^. ^lJ; ^ 
ought more correctly to have been "'^ , ' _ ^Lt*^ 

written pnnOD. °'P^°' " "^^?' ™^L" ^"^ "'"'^ 

There are Codices in which the Z^'^"" '^^° =^ 1=^ ^'r"=^ ]^^'^ 
Massoretic remark on some words w-1 o'-rji Dn« ,»D-n »na pna pptjon 
is, " imaginary readings and mis- '^^T^' "?l P*°i '^"^^ lSi?9 l^aj^ r"^"a 
leadings," or, ** misleadings and n*3»m ,nrin miwnn s)-a ,ioi^ rwn 
imaginary readings ; ** but this is |n itopoa pna D^poon n^poDi ; n»iDi 
nothing more than an additional : DDipc ]Ka itti ,'i'mi^ na-m 

explanation. The word mulradhtfjs, ^^i^ „,,., ,3,^ ppjj^ ,5 pp-rf? ^^ B^l 
however, occui-s sometimes without ^^^ ,^ -^ t^ ^^ ,33 ^^^^^^ 

the expression hwffiimn, reading ^^^^^^ ;^^ ^^^, ^^^^ t^ • ^^^ 

and this is mostly the case when it ^ _ ' ' 

refers to verses;' as, for instance, '"^^ 1=^^ '°*«"JP" ^ T^^^ °^«^^°" 
-the three verses in which the ,m ^^^ °^ ^V ^^^11, m^t^r^^,2 
scribes mislead with regard to ^""^M^^ :°^^31"9 anaD^nw ma n^Do 
the end of the vei*se, one is ' and 

to thy seed for ever* [Gen. xiii. 16], the second * and in thy seed for 
ever ' | Deut, xxviii. 46], and the third * and in thy seed for ever * 
[2 Kings V. 27]."^" To the same effect, also, are the four verses 
which mislead in connection with the priesthoood, '•* and the two 
ends of verses which are misleading with regard to Dagesh and 
Raphe, viz., 1^1?^ to curse thee [Deut. xxiii, 6], which has Dagesh, 
and 1^^i?9 cursing thee [Eccles. vii. 21 J, which is Raphe, and 
the mnemonical sign of which is HS^ ; that is, the first Kaph has 
Dagesh, and the second Kaph is Raphe. As to the veraes which 
mislead with regard to the accents, they are exceedingly numerous, but 
this is not the place to expatiate upon them. 

You must moreover notice, that the word pyt3td cannot mean that 
men en* in these words by reading them so and so, for it is the Hiphil 
which is causative. It denotes that the scribes mislead the reader. 
Hence, I have found it remarked in accurate Codices on DjIV their 
iniquity [Numb, xviii. 28], "the scribes mislead thereby in writing HK 

UB These Ihree instances are given in the Massorah marginalis on Dent, xxriii. 46, 
and in the OcJiln Ve-Ochla, section cdxyiii., pp. 52, 143. 

IM The four verses in which t'^ ' — ''" 

are, Jerem. xxxiii. 21 : 2 Chron. 
Massorah finalis on Jerem. xxxiii. 
section oclxxx., p. 151. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



226 

sons of, as in 1 Chron. iii. 19, P^ p^aoi "^vSn 'n pi "8.0^33^^ 
Ac.**® iv. The word ^^ which, niboapi "»;"r^ p»3DT>w3 '♦ ^D^^^ 
is in four instances supposed to be ^p jyD»* *ft ids ,mann m ]na tdhw 
'le^K? a« ii?Atc/i, and the ten in- p^ona pi ; fc*Vi in^aon p th h'B 
stances in which the reverse is the ^^,35^ .„ ,^3 .^^n niyowDD nrw nf?o 
case, the textual reading having i^^^ ,,^^ t^ ,3 ^^^ ^ ^ 

^^^ and the marginal conjecture 130.. ^^^ ^^j^^, ,^ ,; t^^ ,^^t„o 
being TK^tJJ® v. The words in which ' ' _. , l l l 

theFarcoiyunctive is wanting, as T^nDi jpt? '3 p« ,ntea nf^o p)!*.™ 

ftO f^ot [Exod. xxiu. 18], on which it ^g^ | ^ . . ^ iw * » *?» 

is remarked, "one of those supposed 'U* " l *^ ' U. , 

to be «?] and «o«. vi. The entire ' . .^ ^^^ ^ l, 

absence of a word from a sentence, 1 *ji. 

as the five passages which are '''^' '^'^=^° l^j^^ ^'^'^'^ l*"'^^^ '^^ , 
supposed to wa^tDN I/-, and wherein "^^ n= ni^n^ n^.^ rrn i^iaon ^d*? 
the scribes mislead, ex. gr„ Gen. P*'-" "' «3:03r Kin nrn triTsn pmor 
xxiv. 4 ; 2 Sam. xix. 8, &c."o vii. '» ?J^ wn pnop nwD id3 ,w jirba 
In the interchange of words, as the "*^ *^'"J*b ,»:d hv nrK I'aoi n»f? ^ktdd 
three passages in which the text 

has ^^^'0 from the face of, and it is supposed to be ^Bt?/rom the mouth, 
ex. gr,y Numb, xxxiii. 8, &c."^ viii. The nine passages in which the 
textual reading ^y upon, supposed to be ^V utUil, e.i\ gr., Gen. xlix. 13, 
&c. ;'® and ix. The two passages in which the textual reading is yV vpon, 
and the conjectural reading is oy uith, viz., Gen. xxx. 40; 1 Sam. xx. 8. 
Some, however, explain the word j>1^3D to think it proper, and submit 
that it means, ^^ correctly the reading ought to he so and so,'' This inter- 
pretation is strengthened by the fact that the expression occurs in the 
singular. Thus, in the Massorah on Gen. 1. 18, it is remaiked n^^ 

^^ The instances in which the oonjectnral reading sabstitntes ]ni for the marginal 
reading ^331, are not threCy as stated in the text of Levita, hut foury viz., Gen. xlvi. 22 : 
Numb. xxvi. 8 : 1 Chron. ii. 8: yii. 17. Neither is the statement that there are ^ve 
instances in which the reverse is the case correct, since there are six such conjectural 
readings, yiz., 1 Chron. iii. 19, 21, 28 ; iv. 17 ; yii. 35 ; viii. 34. They are enumerated 
in the Massorah marginalis on Gen. xlri. 22. 

1^ The four passages in whir^h the conjectural reading substitutes 1V7H3 for the 
textual reading tcm, are, Exod. xiv. 18 : Levit. vii. 36, 38 : Numb. iv. 49. They are 
given in the Massorah marginalis on Levit. vii. 86. The ten instances in which the 
reverse is the case are. Dent. xvi. 10; xxiv. 8 : Josh. ii. 7 ; xiii. 8 ; xiv. 2 . Jerem. xxiii. 
27 : Isa. Ii. 13 : Hos. vii. 12: Jonah i. 14 : Hag. i. 12. They are given in the Massorah 
maxginalis on Jonah i. 14. 

^^ The passages in which the conjectural reading supplies the particle DM, are, 
Gen. xxiv. 4 : 1 Sam. xviii. 25 : 2 Sam. xix. 8 : Jerem. xxii. 12 : 2 Chron. vi. 9. They 
are given in the Massorah marginalis on Gen. xxi^. 4. 

1*1 The other two passages in which the conjectural reading has ^DO for the textual 
reading ^3E)Q, are, 2 Sam. xvi. 19: Amos v. 19. They are given in the Massorah 
marginalis on Numb, xxxiii. 8. 

i*s The nine passages in which the conjectural reading has 13^ far the textual reading 
ba?, are, Gen. xlix. 18 : Josh. ii. 7 ; xiii. 16 : Judg. vii. 22 : Jerem. xxxi. 30 : Dan. ix. 27: 
Nehem. xii. 22, 39 (twice). They are criven in the Massorah marginalis on Gen. xlix. 13, 
where, however, the heading, as well as the reference to this rubric made in the 
Massorah finalis under the letter Aiin^ p. 49 &, col. 3, states that there are eleven such 
instances, though it enumerates only ninej which agrees with the text of Levita. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



fifth of which are without the Vav, ,*ii i"Ta ♦mp n*a»t in pioDa pan m^D 

whilst the third, fourth, and sixth n||5vn^TDiji -^-ja^ nop* rAw p'oi 

have Far, viz., l<^2{*'' ''^\ ^i 13^^*? ^^'^ nwm nh pioeai ^^^nw^ |i ^V^ai^ Tf&m 

>^np31 t'n iJ^ufc^fw^, d^d j, and ^Asher, ]^'0) ,Vitorn ^-rt«5 \nr^_ Siysn ^ -^pi 

and ZebuIuTiy Dan, and Naphtali O'n ♦^a on VtSiiJ srn^ riTD ;rup ^'\£^ 
[Dent, rxvii.18]. And, v. The verse n*»in op iKEfi 

nbni \y\\^ '^^??! ^"'^Sl ^^"''?, his pyooi pTaoa >3>DB^n iDh^on 

field, and his man sej-vant, and his natrniD |*3p Kin ]n»aD o pn J)*Dlb*rn 
wai(i servant, his ox, and his ass, in ,3^3 noTOi ac^in m^r V't jiatia 
Deut. V. 18, the mnemonical sign of ^^r^,,^ ^y ^^^^ t,^, ^ „,^, ^,n^ 

which 18 ^n-p .K^'^, i^djca^g <jhat ,.n^,n iiao mrn p^^a pi :ID3'W ik 

the words beffinning with the two ' 1 ^^^ , ' ' 

Shins, viz., ^nib to^Zrf, and W '^'''^"^ "^^ ^^ ^^' ''''' °^'^=^° 

/a^ o.r, are without Vav, whilst the °"'^ '^'^ '^^^ ■'«^' "i"^"^ ''^ P^ 'P^^' 
others have it. ' "^^^^^ »*«^^ '" V^^^^ ^^"^ "*« 

Section Vin., concerning Ima- '^a pn^aDir nnpca nann n^Sn w' p 

binary Readings, Misleadings, and 3*ip' i»« nona im ,p DrKi,p onr d-w 

Variations, — Know that the expres- |n*3DT 'i p in 13DD Sp now ,^200 

sion jn^lD denotes incon-ect opinion, i» ; n«Bfn pi ,napa yvtth nana ♦a ,n|i3D 

imagination, fancy, supposition ; ^^ noDi ,]nan ip rfa^ awa i^pn pi 

that is, when a man thinks or ima- >zi^ \y\ w . ^^^ pTaon 'n p in »to*i 

gines in his heart that it is so and QiVnai 'n -jDn^i p jn^aoi ': D'wn n 

s ri« 'it** 'irz"«s °^ ^"" »■ ■- ■" i— » 

same meaning in the language of the Mishna, as >n^^n lUD J^ believed^ 
Vn DniaD iA^y thought; in the book of Daniel, as '^?9'1 ^^'^ ^ 
thought [vii. 25] ; and in the Chaldee paraphrase, which renders the 
phrase, ** there is a way which is right in the view of man " [Prov. 
xiv. 12], by "there is a way which man [p^aDl] imagine, &c." 

Thus there are also many words in me Bible which men imagine 
ought to be so and so, but they are not. As, i The word ^3©t?/ro?» 
it [Levit. xxvii. 9], on which the Massorites remark, " one of Uie six 
instances supposed to be n|sp /rom her,'' since the noun ^'^^'^ a beast, 
is feminine. To the same effect are the other instances.^^ ii. The 
word t^ijl and he came, on which they remark, " one of the eight 
instances supposed to be ^*5i*! and they came,^^ iii. The expression 
\3Zl^ and the sons of [Gen. xlvi. 12], ** one of the three instances sup- 
posed to be 13 son of ;^' and vice versa, the five instances in which 
the textual reading has i| son of, and the conjectural reading is ^33 

1^ The six passages in which the conjectnral reading in the Massorah proposes mOD, 
third person singular feminine, inst^td of the textual reading 13DO, third person 
singular masculine, because of the antecedent to which it refers, and which is feminine, 
are, Lerit. vi. 8 ; xxvii. 9 ; Josh. i. 7 ; Judg. xi. 34; 2 Kings iv. 89 : 1 Kings xxii. 43. 
They are giren in the Massorah marginalis on Levit. vi. 8 ; in the Massorah marginalia 
on «fudg. xi. 34, where five instances only are given, there must therefore he a mistake. 

m The eight places in which the conjectural reading is plural, instead of singular, 
are, Numb. xiii. 22 : £zek. xiv. 1 ; xxiii. 44; xxxvi. 20 : 2 Sam. iii. 22 : Ezek. xx. 88 : 
Isa. xiv. 24: Jerem. li. 48. They are given in the Massorah marginalis on Numb, 
xiii. 22. It mnst be noticed that they are not all the future wiUi Vav conversive. 

a a 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



224 






serviles at the be^nning of a word, 'a hp nua ]nrowD ntei ,i nn f?y Dnea^ 

and especially to the Vav con- pa na»nn cjioa w ,na*nn wKnar nrnw 

junctive, whilst the expression Me- nriK pion Sy im ,nvirnr w nrro^D ]nr 

shmmhin is employed tg describe ni«noi3 »*ai ; »mKaw ^oa ,p3in nteo 
two letters at the beginning or end . ypr^:l^Ti ]y^\ ,TTDn nr ]na ninra 

of a word, whether they are servile ^^^^ ^,„^ ^i^o nN3« nnyi.^ 

or radical, as weU as to denote the ^^^^^ ,.,^^ ^ ^^ ^.^^ ^^^^^ ^i^^^ 
absence of one of the conjunctive ^^ j;^^^ ^,^^^'^^^ 

particles, as I have explained it. ' ' ^ , , ' 

Id some Codices, indeed, this ^ '^ ^^^ i"?? '"^^^ ^»^ '"\^° "» ^•^ ^ '"^^ 

order is reversed, but they are '''^ I"^** ^^ J^'^ '^"*^ ;^^ V^^P' '^^^ 

not correct. »r"^P ^ '"^ '^^b^ )ni« ^pi ,|»a'03 r^n 

Sj^r I BhaU now explain the ex- ]*KD^P 'a ,V^n 't "i p D'pioD '^ )ua 

pression Karchin = ^^ar^. It is rwniwi iD3,V'i p'03 puina 'ai ,|nnp 

the opposite to the word Nesibin, "■ ; ]rrDni f?^ p^ ,1% fa ,tdi:i oa^DW 

and ift' only used with regard to 'j ,|"nn p^D 'n pna n*m o^pioD "i pi 

the letter Vav at the beginning m np»i ,i"n a»Da njy^am ,]*mp pKDnp 

of a word, and then only when p^ m . ^^ i-,^ v^ vy^ ,na»DBiw 'run 

there occur in one verse, or in ,pnnp j^Koip pf?D V "nn '^an D*p-D 'a 

the same section, three or four ^,t^,^^ ^^^ ^^ .^^ 

words or more, some of which . _, m . in^> -rt-,-,* ^5ni, J^n^ ^♦^.^^ 
have F«. at the beginning and M^'i ^'^ifn?. ^na. i,.m, ,^ni| pDi:i 

some not. In such a case the Massontes mark those words which have 
Vav with y t'iti bin = with, whilst those which have not Vav are marked 
with Karchin = bare, without. Thus, for instance : — i. The six verses 
repeating respectively a word four times, the first two of which are 
Karchin = without Vav, and the second two are Nesibin = with 
Vav, viz., r?-1 r?^ r? r? between, between, and between, and between 
(Deut. i. 16], &c.^^ ii. The four verses repeating respectively a word 
four times, the first three of which are Karchin = without Vav, and 
the fourth is Nesib = with Vav,. viz., 'i^] ^nfe^ 'i^ 'n^ rulers of, 
rulers of, rulers of, and rulers of [Deut. i. 15], &c. ^ iii. The 
two verses containing respectively four words, the first of which is 
Karchi = without Vav, and the other three are Nesibin = with 
Vav, viz., '^ST\2^ ^Hl-I '*\St\2^ "Jjina in, and in, and in, and in [Exod. 
zxxix. 8], &c.^ iv. The six words in one verse, the first, second, and 

1^ The six yeraes which respectively have the same words four times, twice with Vav 
eonjimctive, and twice without it, are, — 
rai pi ra ra Deut. i. 16 ^atmi *:&ai '3Do »3DQ . . . Isa. xxl. 15 

bwi bMI ^ bn Deut. XX. 3 nrai nwi nya nya . . Jerem, xxxiii. 1.3 

01010*3 1 Kings xviii. 27 vh^ vhM^ vh Hos. xi. 9 

They are given in the Massorah marginalis on Hosea xi. 9. 

^^ The four rerses which respectively have the same word four times, in the first 
instance with the ^av conjunctive, and in the other three without it» are, — 

n«ji n«3 nw nw . . . . Exod. xviii. 21 I ^ Si ^M ^M Ps. xxvii. 9 

•nan no'nvi'n'm . . . . Exod. xviii, 25 | pTi -pi pi pi . . . Prov. xxx. 19 
They are given in the Massorah marginalia on Exod. xviii. 21. 

1^ The other passage in which the same word occurs four times, the first three 
times with Vao conjunctive, and the fourth without it, is *3D1 *3D1 *3D1 *3D, Ezek. i. 10. 



Digitized by 



Google 



228 

list of words which employ Al^h "^"m id3 fl'1 n'i .i"3 ,TH jn^DroT 
and Beth, Beth and Gimmel^ Gim- ^ ; 'lai n»S nVrn ^*^ V?a ^S waa /i^*? 
mel and Daleth, Daleth and if e, wiD^rn mn |na ]*« ainn ^ »3 nunn «f?n 
&c., as "^y??! .4^71^ [1 Sam. xiv. ;R>nn n^o »MDa prDvon f?*-) Kf?K ' 
60], marked ''not extant" where a^naf? linj pa-rn nite piom pirv fyp d:i 
we have Aleph and 5eiA commenc- ^^3,3^3 '3 i^ p yy^^ *, pj^ .pworo 

ing the word ; n*13a in the carcase ' ^^^^ ^l ^,„^ hm Mt^i»«% »>>»x-.-t 

"PpT -. • AV 1 a *, A »ri« woBfD K7 warn ,nK vdvo rwDip 

0/ rJudff. .XIV. 81, marked **not l ^^ 

eitintr ^?^. ^.a [Numb. vi. 5, ^^;^ .",.1, qt^^kh n^ n« nKDnp r^ 

Prov.rix.l9m^ked' 'not extant;'' '^ '^ 1^'" '^T '"''^^ ^' 

nnm rai^i^/ course.^ [Judg. v. 221, ^D-'a k^ w*:ni ,K^ rDBfO nKOip ,Kr3pa 
marked " not extant," &c.i» It is '^^ >*^*^"^ r'^PO*' ^^^ *<^ nitonp jua ^^ 
therefore evident that in most of ., "*:'3pDr 

these instances the letters are nDt P^^o^ par rnonn *a TOHI ^ 
servile, and that the Massorites ^p pn n«a »f? pa»03 rhnw Kin p»DrDV 
mean that they are employed in ,na'nn »Kna» riDwn nrnwD nrw mtt 
the pronunciation of the particular 

word. Moreover, the redundance and the absence of the conjunctive 
particle they likewise mark as Meshamshin. Thus, for instance, the 
six words which respectively occur twice in the same section, the first 
time with the particle riK) and the second without it. The first of 
such a pair is '^^ HK that which, [Gen. xli. 25], and the second "TK^ 
ichkh, without me particle HK [Gen. xli. 28].^ The four words 
which respectively occur twice in the same section, and which have 
in the first passage the negative particle (6, and in the second passage 
are without it; as the first ^^JJOB' 'blK t6 not my lord, hear me 
[Gen. xxiii. 11], and the second *i?w ^\lH my lord, hear me [Gen. 
xxiii. 16], &c.»« 

K^ As a rule, the difference between Nesibin and Meshaimhin is, 
that the term Nesibin is only applied to a single letter of the 

IM This list of words, oocnrring only onoe, represents another of the anagrammatic 
alphabets obtained by a similar process to the fore^ing, and is denominated Ahhag 
(32' 3m). The words ranged nnder tne alphabet to which Levita refers are as follows : — 



T3'a«. 


. . 1 Sam. xiv. 


50 


nnaa 


. Jerem. xli. 


17 


Via . 


Numb. Yi. 


6 




. . Jadg. V. 


22 


noirr 


. 1 Kings i. 


41 


inonn 


. Jobxxxiii. 


20 


»n^ 


Job xxxii. 


6 



niaon . . . Prov. vii. 16 
nriD Song of Songs viii. 9 
TO* , . . . Job xl. 30 

Vt^ Obad. 16 

Dob . . . . Job vi. 40 
WD ... . Prov. i. 16 
inD3 . . Gen. ixxi. 49 
i XSVffD . . Ps. cxix. 113 
They are given in the Massondi finalis nnder the letter Aleph^ p. 1 (, col. 1 ; and in the 
OchJa Ve-Ochla, section xxxvii. pp. 13, 48, &c. 

1^ The six pairs to which lioVita refers we conld not find either in the Massorah 
or in the Oehla Ve-OcMn. 

lu The fonr words which occnr twice in the same sentence, once with the negative 
particle vf)i and once without it, are as foUows : 



nnCOP . . Prov. viii. 26 
n'^'^D . . Gen. xxx. 87 
rip3r .... Isa. xxvi. 16 
}ktP .... Exod. ii. 20 
Dvn .... Dan. vi. 10 
»nw . . . Ps. Ixxiii. 28 
lann . . . Exod. xxii. 29 



^IH vh Gen. xxiii. 11 

»JTH • • • Gen. xxiii. 16 

*1Cn M^ ...... . Levit. xiii. 4 

pTDn. ...... Levit. xiii. *20 



Dnra» vh Ezek. v. 7 

Dn'*tn^ Ezek. xi. 12 

awra vh 1 Kings x. 21 

ycon^ 2 Chron. ix. 20 



They are given in the Massorah finalis um'er the letter Lamedf p. 41 6, col. 4, and in 
the Ochla Ve-OcMay section ccL, p. 138. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



222 

and He at the end, viz., H^DBfa^ "5?^^ P^^ ,n3*nn c)io3 TO prowm 

and in the valley [Is. zxxii. 19] &c. id3 ,c))Da in perDwDT pi ; Tpn ^D»n 

vii. Those which employ He and Vav y^D pi ^^^ ; p»Dm ^nppp>4i .^rnawn 

at the end of the word, as ^nWNJ ^i,^ l^ „,q3 q^ ^^DH w ,m'd'Wwd-t' 
a7id I shall exalt him [Exod. xv. 2J, . p^^j ^^, vvd^d lana 

&c. i« And ^u. The expressions ^^,^^^ ^ .^dto on. 

which terminate with Kaph Mem, , ^ , ' 

or If. Jtfm, or Lam.rf M.m,-^n Tf "^o"' °^^o P ^'^ ««^« pi:^ ,pi:»n. 

aU these the Massorites remark, d'Wd»^^ nmk pa:, ,.^i3i Ti B^O n"K 

jnroe^ «/i^ etnploy, and not pa^DJ "^^ '^^ *"'" ''' ""'^^P ^'^ '^^ "'^ •'' 
«A.y «aJt«. P'O ?o Jtn'3 Mfi^ pi u»;na nn /^ n»n 

^* It is moreoyer to be noticed, 
. that the Massorites not only mark the servile letters, as Meshamshin, 
bnt also the radical letters. Thus, for instance, the alphabetical list of 
words which employ Aleph Tav, Beth Shin, Gimmel Resh, &c., as 
nmlC company of [Gen. xxxvii. 25] is marked " not extant " where we 
have Aleph and Tav at the two ends; ^3^3 in the withering flsa. 
xxvii. 11] is marked "not extant'* where we have Beth and Shin at 
the two ends; 1?| rebuke [Ps. kviii. 81], is marked **not extant" where 
we have Gimmel and liesh at the two ends.^^^ Or the alphabetical 

p. 44 a, cd. 8, the Ochla Ve-OchUty section xviii., only gives two, vis., the fourth 
and eighth. 

^^ The words which occur only once with He and Vav at the end are as follows : — 



imaMi . 

nn32w . 



inn*©© 
inygy. 

innom 



Exod. XT. 2 
Exod. XV. a 
Dent, xxxii. 10 
Dent, xxxii. 10 
. Exod. ii. 10 
1 Kings xyii. 12 
. Jerem. y. 2*2 
. Job xxix. 16 
Ezek. xxxi. 4 
. Nahnm i. 18 
Ezek. xliv. 24 



I irn*3ttn 

I imfflm 

I iny»a©« 

; imriMi 



inn^roi . 
"irrnyam . 



irrniM^am 



2 Chron. xxii. 10 
Jerem. xlviii. 26 

. Job xyiii. 11 

. . Ps. xci. 16 

. . Ps. xci. 16 

. Nnmb. xi. 12 

. Ezek. xliii. 17 

. 1 Sam. xvi. 7 

. . Lam. ii. 16 

. Ezek. xiii. 14 

. Ezek. xiY. 8 
They are given in the Massorah finalis nnder the letter He, p. 22 6, col. 8. 

U9 It has already been remarked ivide supra, p. 190, &o.), that by bending the 
Hebrew alphabet exactly in the middle, and putting the one half over the other, a 
variety of anagrammatio alphabets are obtained, which derive their respective names 
from the first two specimen pairs of letters indicating the interchange. Here we have 
an alphabetical list of words which oconr only once, arranged according to this ana- 
grammatic alphabet, denominated AtKbaah (>d"nM), that is, the first and last letter of 
each word in question yields this alphabet. They are as follows :— 



Ezek. xviL 20 
Ezek. xxxi. 11 
. Isa. xlv. 18 
>rrrit}p3 Song of Songs v. 6 
irmyTQ:i . l Chron. xvii. 9 
inVowTi . . Job xl. 11 
^rrn«3W 2 Chron. xviii. 7 
>moiDMl . Jerem. xiii. 5 
XirhXk . . Ezek. XV. 5 
irrrmni . l Sam. xxviii. 24 



rrorw 

W7Q33 

tpa . 






, Gen. xxxvii. 25 
. Dan. vii. 15 
Isa. xxvii. 11 
. Isa. xl. 12 i von . 
. Isa. liv. 15 , ^T . 
Isa. xxvii. 9 — 
Ps. Ixviii. 81 



Song of Songs v. 2 
. . . Dan. vii. 9 
2 Kings xvi. 10 
. Job xl. 11 
. Isa. xvi. 4 
Ezek. xxxi. 7 
. Exod. iv. 26 
. Esther V. 9 

This list is given in the Massorah finalis nnder the letter Aleph, p. 16, cols. 2 and 8 ; 
and in the Ochla Ve-Ockkh section xxxviii., pp. 18. 49. The latter adds the word pmD, 
Dent. ix. 21, whilst the learned Hoidenheim remarks that Dm\ Prov. xxviii. 18, and 
b^, Isa. xvi. 8, onght properly to be included in this list. 






vn . 


. . Ps. xcvii. 


11 


D3n . 


. . Isa. XXX. 


4 


Drnn 


2 Kinffs xxii. 

Jndg. xvi. 

. . Hos. xiv. 


14 


fam* 


21 
4 


b33 . 


. . Job xxiv. 


24 


yo . 


. . Isa. XXX. 


29 



Digitized by 



Google 



221 

begin with Vav and Lamed, as pi *";Dr3 ^Mt) ,D»3»ri my^ ma ^y 
D^d;^ and for days [Gen. i. 14], P^ "*;'nKa wp^ ids ,D1 j^eforD noer 
Ve^*?1 ««(/ to rw^ [Gen. i. 18], r»'»»opi ii«nna T?:!?9S3OM*»0W5 
&c.'"** iii. The register of words Q*^ '3 P^ "^"iwn< n^^?"^ a»^ 
which begin with Fav, Meniy and 

Aleph, as TNIM aw^i «iwc<^ f/i«j [Exod. v. 28], &c."* iv. Those which begin 
with Vav, Mem, and Beth, as ^^3^31^ and thy W«5«^*5 [Gen. xxvii. 29], 
&c."^ V. Those which have Vav, Mem, Gimmel, as Hiy^ap^ and from 
Uw hills [Numb, xxiii. 9], &c."7 vi. The two words which have Lanud 



rcyM 



. Gen. xiii. 5 

Jndg. xzi. 19 

. .Isa.x. 17 

Jerem. xzxv. 4 

. Ho8. yii. 2 



nW ... Ps. xix. S I 'Tsrc^ . . . Isa. hdii. 2 

iwVV . . Job xxxviii. 89 I "jwiaVS . . Prov. xxvii. 26 

■ronW . . Prov. xxvii. 27 j wsSfi: . . . Amos v. 7 

Wh . . . Josh. xix. 47 ; na?*?"? . . . Amos vi. 12 

«r3^ . . . Josh. X. 85 13«J^ . . . Gen. x. 6 



WDt . 


. . Exod. V. 23 


V3«m . 


'I'HO'I . 


. aSam.xxii. 4 


p^nbwoT 


nnMQi. 


Jerem. iii. 19 


rrysHOi 


bDMOl . 


. . Isa. xxix. 18 


n««o> . 


noikwi 


. . . Jobv. 6 


'^MOI . 


nnjTwoi 


. . Ps. cvii. 8 


>«?3«D>. 


♦nbwDi . 


. . Isa.xl.27 


^)OiKi^ . 


nS«)i . 


. . Ps. Ux. 18 


nibDMDI 


D3DDK01 


. . Isa.lu. 12 


tnrMOt 



rrsTMnt 


. . Ruth i. 


5 


baMOi . 


. . EBther ix. 


22 


Tta«at 


. . Ezek. iv. 


10 


■nMDi . 


. Ecclfs. viii. 


12 


■'arwQi 


. Jerem. xxii. 


22 


■«t>rDi . 


. . Esther ix. 


3i 


nviMDi 


. . Jerem. x. 


2 


m«?«o"t 


. . Zech. X. 


10 


ISTMQI 


. Ezek. xxxvi. 


20 



It will be seen that this list contains fifteen words, though the heading of it in the 
Massorah states that there are efecen («"») such instances. Why Bnxtorf omits rr»V^ 
Amos V. 7, and how he came to make it fourteen (i'>), is difficult to divine. The state- 
ment in the text of the Massoreth Ifa-Maasoreth, that there are nineteen (td"») such 
words, must be a misprint. 

^* For the list of the one hundred and eighteen instances in question, we must refer 
to the Massorah finalis under the letter Lamedy p. 406, col. 3; p. 41 a, col. 1, as it is 
by far too long to be inserted here. 

U6 The list (rrav) of words beginniug in one instance only with Vav and Mem, is 
as follows : — 

. . Ezxaiii. 7 
2 Chron. xxii. 7 
. . Isa. xli. 9 
. 1 Chron. xii. 36 
. . Isa. xi. 1 1 
. . Ps. Ux. 8 
. . Habak. i. 16 
. . Prov. XXX. 14 
. . Isa. ix. 15 

The list is given in the Massorah flnalis under the letter 3feni , p. 44 a, col. 2. Of these 
twenty-seven, the Ochla Ve-Ochia, section xviii., pp. 8 and 31, &c., where this list forms 
the first part of a lengthy alphabetical register of words beginning with the letters Vav 
and Mem, only gives sixteen, and omits Nos. 2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 17, i 9, 20, 22, 24, and 26, 
whilst it adds nowQl [Dan. iv. 14] . 

lU The list (Tl^V)) of words beginning in one instance only with Vav, Mem, and 
Beth, is as follows : — 

, Dan. viii. 23 
. 2 Sam. vii. 29 
Jerem. xvii. 26 
. .Dan. xi. 6 
2 Sam. viii. 8 

These instances are given in tbe Massorah finalis under the letter Mem, p. 44 a, col. 2. 
Of these thirteen words, the Ochla Ve-Ochla, section xviii., only gives five, omittting 
Nos. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12, whilst it adds ]>D^:1Q1 2 Chron. xix. 7. It must be 
added that]TQ30') is not unique, inasmuch as, besides Hos. ix. 11, quoted in the Mas- 
sorah finalis, it occurs in Job xxxi. 8. 

117 The list (rrow) of words beginning in one instance only with Tar, Mem, and 
Gimmel, is as follows: — 






. Gen. xxvii. 29 

1 Chron. xvii. 27 

Job xxiv. 8 

. . Hos. ix. 11 









Numb. xxi. 20 

2 Sam xii. 4 

Isa. xliv. 6 

Isa. Iviii. 7 



nwaaoi 


. Exod. xxviii. 40 


«n3oi . 


. Numb. XXXV. 2 


DITDiaQ^ . 


. . Isa. H. 


7 


myuQi 


Numb, xxiii. 9 


^xcro32^. 


. Numb. XXXV. 4 




. .Ps. xUv. 


17 


maoi . 


. . Exod. iii. 22 


rpuroDi 


. . Josh. xxi. 42 


. Malachi ii. 


12 


"naon . 


. Numb, xxxvi. 3 


^yy^ . 


. . Job xxxi. 20 


■waoi . . 


. . Isa. Uv. 


9 



Of these twelve words, which are given in the Mafisorah finalis under the letter Mem, 



Digitized by 



Google 



220 

otherinstanceshavejfiTrtpA, asnn3D3 m'JDon ,n3Vinn rrnyipi paa ,e)«M i^» 

in tfie offering [Gen. xxxii. 21], 5'^n3 p^ iii;!?inD ,nmDD it^r f?3 o ,Vina 

in the sand [Exod. ii. 12], &c., n^*? in bi c)"ap3onD'f?D p a-K -|Dn^ 

for in all other instances it is ,^^3 ^ops ^^ ,153? neipn ids ^n*niaT 

nm03 05 aw offering, and ^n? i*nn '?pi i";S«X^3 ,ip33 tks? ^a '3 

rtjj sand^^ On the contrary, again, nD3T,|*D»w noai ,|»n»a KD^K-noa d*kxd3 

there is an alphabetical list of words v<h^^ ,pn»wn3 T'»i paciT p^D jd pju 

which begin with Kaph, and which n^DX ISD rHia pa»n3 I'yai ,i"*i T^w 

have no parallel in any other pas- rTTi-nn nonpna ^mai TBfN ,nt>DK1 
sa^e, as Tja? a^ in the morning :pD-npn Dnwoa ]nxp ^mat dj ;»«p 

[Job xi. 17], and ^^^^!^ as in hti ,piefD89D n'7a n»iaK nnjn,^ 

Ismel [2 Sam. vii. 23], being in all p nvmK 'a D»ma nrK pSo rn n^Ka 

other instances IpS? /» the moniing, ^^^^^^ ^^ ^,^^3 ^^.i^^ ^^^^ ^l, Dt,..-j^3 

and ^^yf!^ in hrael.^^^ As to the ^n ^ai pn^»na hh j'»d»d yhr^ d"' ji:a 
letter \ there are many alphabetical ^^^ ^^^^ ^^sV) dji p:a ,n^nia-T n»*7 
lists, rows, and registers of pairs, ^^^^^ t^ „.' , "«; inborn n^ibb 
of words which have this prefix and " ' 

which have it not. • All of these are enumerated in the beginning of the 
work entitled Ochla Ve-Ochla, which I mentioned in the Poetical Intro- 
duction, which see [supray p. 93] ; some of them I also cited in the 
preceding Sections. 

Let me now explain the use of the word pgnDt^D, which is as 
follows: — When words begin with two of the servile letters, Bethy 
VaVf Kaph, Lamed, and Mem, the Massorites do not mark them pi^DJ 
tJiey have taken, but \^^i^lCX^ they employ. Thus, for instance : i. The 
nineteen words which employ two Lamed^ at the beginning, and which 
have no parallel, as ^yy> to Lot [Gen. xiii. 5], ^}f<^ to Libnah 
[Josh. X. 82], Ac."* ii. The hundred and eighteen words which 

HI The brenty-nine words which occnr only once with the prefix Beth, and which in 
all other passages have Kaph^ are as follows : — 



nnam . 


. Gen. xxxii. 


21 


yinn 


. . Exod. a 


12 




Exod. xvi. 


8 


oyoca 


. 2 Chron. xx. 


29 


na-ua . 


. . Exod. X. 


12 


■ora . 


. Exod. xxxiii. 


-.^2 


nteoa . 


. 1 Sam. vi. 


12 


«*TOa . 


. . Isa. xvi. 


14 


wnpa . 


Jerem. xxxvi. 


13 


D'psya . 


. . Josh. xiv. 


15 



TD»IDa . 

"raiai 
t3i:rQ . 
D»a»ana . 
^»a 



. 2 Sam. xxi. 9 
. . Zech. x. 5 
1 Kings xTiii. 36 
. . Ps. XXX. 6 
. . Ps. Ixv. 11 
Ps. Ixviii. 31 



Dn*mp'?nm 2 Chr. xxxi. 17 
nipbnQa 2 chron. xxxi. 15 
Drnp'^noa 2 Chron. viii. 14 
DN^2nn31 2 Chron. xxxiv. 14 



Dbyca . . 

ina«a . . 

Dm . . 

nn3Dii . 



. Job xxiv. 5 
Prov. xxxi. 23 
. Isa. xviii. 4 
. Ezra ix. 5 
Nehem. ix. 29 
Ezek. xliii. 23 
. Prov. xi. 11 
Lament, iii. 4 
. 1 Kings i. 40 



They are given in the Massorah fiualis under the letter Beth, p. 14 a, col. 3. The OcJiIa 
Ve- Ochla, sectiou ccxv., pp. 45, 128, which also gives this list, omits DyOTUa (2 Chron. 
XX. 29), and crrmp'TnDn (2 Chron. xxi. 17), whilst it adds mmn (Gen. v. 1), and 
DrrntlD^M (2 Cbron. xxxi. 17). 

1^3 As the list, of which the above are examples, contains upwards of one hundred 
and forty words, making it too long to be given here entire, we must refer the reader for 
it to the Massorah finalis under ihe letter Kaph, p. 38 a, cols. 1 and 2, and the Ochla 
Ve-Oclila, section xix., pp. 9, &c., 34, &c. 

lis '9hjB Massorah finalis, under the letter Lamed, p. 405, col. 3, gives the following 
list of words which have two Lameda at the beginning, viz. : — 



Digitized by 



Google 



219 

which see.'^ The Massorites, too, irnDDn*f?paiiW;v''pD'3»DnpnDa»fr«tar 

employ this expression. Thus, three D»pDD 'i paa ^nten riNia d*j wdw 

verses are alike (D^BTniD), each one yo^) ,m»mH a-p nm in f?aaT d'dtiid 

having seventy- two letters; viz., 'n nn ^733 D^pwD 'n pi i« ; tDM ,Nn*1 

Exod. xiv. 19-21,i« so also the 03 vg ^^a ,nvmit 'a 'a p rD-mn ]'te 
six verses which are aUke, each mj..,^, ^,^, ^^ ^^^^ o^, „ ^^ 
having five bilateral words, as D? ^3 ^^^^^^ ^;^^^ ;^ "^ ^"^^^ ,; 

?? 1? nr [Gen. xxxv. 17], D? ^^ DJ ' ^' ' uo. ,*^,^,; „,„, ,^,^„ 

t6 ^S [1 Kings iii 26], &c ; - and ,^^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^ " 

the SIX words which are alike, each ' » l . «**^.%-«% 

having a ietter repeated thrice, as '""J^ ^"^^ ^^" ^^" '^ ^7^ '^'"^^ 

'^^?^pity me [Ps. ix. 14], &c."o ' "*"" '^'^^^ °i^"^ ^^"^^^ ^ P^ • °'«o 

"Section VII., concerning the D*3"*aa^ onaipa ?myh ]wh '?a pi 
Presefice and Absence of Serviles. Mvinnipon *7ait ;na*D3jiw^a pjiinD 
— Mark that T02 denotes taking. i"ii p-ona a^ pv^a omno ,n*npm 
Thus, in the Targum, nj57 /^^ fooAr : riwn 

[Gen. ii. 22] is rendered by 3^D3 ; ^"^roh mioon '^a una nam .^ 
likewise *ni5> f/t^ frt^t^r* of [Gen xix. nrHnajy wiD^rn nrm« f?p na»Dj prf? 
14], is translated in the Targum p:a ,dV'DU nrnw hv onoai /iia*nn 
^aD3. This is also the case with ^ai Nma»n vna n*»a ♦aoa j'teca 
the word n^npS» whenever it occurs 

in the preterite and participle, it is always rendered in the Targum 
by r\yOi to take; whilst the infinitive, imperative, and the future 
are always rendered by a^D, with the radical Nun omitted. 

4^ Now the Massorites were in the habit of marking the prefixes 
with the expression Nesibay and more especially the letters Betky 
VaVf Kaph, Lamed, and Mem, Thus, for instance, they give a list 
of twenty-nine words which have the prefix Beth, and which in all 

"^^ The " Section on the Different Kinds of Words " constitntes the second of the four 
sections, composing the work entitled ^* The Sections of Elias " (oomp. p. 54, &c., ed. 
Prague, 1793), a description of which has already been given, vide supra, p. 18, &o. 

liH From the fact that these three verses have respectively seventy-two letters, great 
mysteri s have been ass'gned to them from time immemorial. They have been identified 
with the Divine name, which consists f seventy-two words, or, according to Ibn Ezra, of 
the number seventy -two, viz.. ♦ 10 -»• rr 15 -»• irp 21 + mrr 26 = 72 ; or the tetragram- 
maton, with each letter written out fully, viz.. 'Tf 15 + Y^ 22 + Tf 15 -»• -n' 20 = 72. 
('Omp. Rashi on Succa^ 45 a; Nachmanides, Introduction to his Commentary on the 
Pentateuch ; Ibn Ezra, Commentary on Exodus xiv. 19-21 ; xxxiii. 21 ; Ginsburg, the 
Kabbalahj p. 50, &c. 

100 The other three verses which respectively have five biliterals following each other 
are, Oen. vi. 10 : 1 Sam. xx. 29 : Nehem. ii. 2. They are noted in the Massorah parva 
on each verse, and the whole list is given in the Massorah marginalis on 1 Kings iii. 26, 
and Nehem. ii. 2. The text of three editions of the Massoreth Ha-Massoreth states 
that there are six ( S) such verses, but as this is contradicted by the explicit declarations 
of the Massorah, we have no doubt that it is a misiirint. and have tnerefore corrected 
the text. 

uo The other four words in which the same letters follow three times are, m^DDQ 
f 8. cv. 18) ; toVdODI (1 Chron.xvi. 20) ; »a333 (Nehem. ix. '23); DOOTT (2 Chron. xv. 6;. 
Comp. Ochia Ve-OM.ay section cclxvii. pp. 52, 148. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



218 



•"^l*?? and thmi shalt be^ " without nmn rrnm ^rrmai n»^ n\tn rrrajn ^oa 
parallel/' ^IQ^ •"'f*^^. «wrf f/iou shall mteo nann pi i«; »^idi n^man n^h 
see, **ifl without parallel," &c. ^*^ vd ^n") ^°*,]»Tn* Y'dS ^n ids ,paTn 
The same is the case with many of p'om V?^,d«? D«,r?M*?)3i ^«»;jnTP 
the particles, as y^ to, occurs thirty : nun n'ai 

times alone ;!<» ^«\ and to, forty- h^hi ,D*DTnD nf?o -wan nnyi .^ 
six times alone ; ^« ^^?1 ^K, not and wipr loa ,D*Dixn mriTDi ,n*3van n^D 
«of, 0*^1 D^< with and with, |D) IP jnriDa d»i» dhi? mD»n ^a i^ona may 
/ro7/i and from, &c., &c. loa nnn ,non ,«Jq^ loa Koaoa D^aivi 

i|^ Let me now explain the word 
D^D1"l1Di which is a logical term, denoting connected, reseynhling, identical, 
just as those words are called synonyms which are identical in sense 
and different in sound; ex, gr., fiW^ sun, non sun, Din sun, as I 
have explained in the Section on die Different Parts of Speech, 

104 xhe ei./ht words which occur only once preceded hy rirwi, are as follows : — 



prwi nriMi Xnmb. xvi. 17 
nsTfco rmm . Dent. ix. 2 
rWTtDy niwi • . l Sam. xv. 6 



rws nrwi . . Judg. xi. 27 ^ma nrwi . . Ps. cxlv. 16 
rroyn nrwi . 1 Kingsy. 23 "ib hdmi . . Dan. xU. 13 

'3TM nnw . . 1 Kings i. 20 
They are given in the Massorah finalis under the letter Aleph^ p. 135, col. 2. The 
Ochla Ve-Ochla, section cclxii., pp. 51, 142, gives three additional instances, viz., 
D^^ npMI 1 Sam. xxv. 6 ; wen nnm 1 Kings v. 23 ; and "pajDa nr*n Ezek. xxxiii. 9. 
It will be seen that the two instances given by Levit i in the text are not included in the 
Massoretic list. Indeed, though mrm nriNl occurs only once, rmn nriMl is of frequent 
occurrence (comp. Exod. iv. 16 : Dent, xxxiii. 44 : 2 Sam. v. 2 : 1 Chron. xi. 2). There 
must therefore be a mistake in the text. The Sulzbach edition omits rTTT Tf rrrun r3> 
rrmSl rvh rmn nnMI 103 which renders the text of that edition perfectly unintelligible. 

^OB The list of the thirty instances in which ^M precedes words in an unparalleled 
manner is so hopelessly confused, that it would require more space to correct it than 
the limits of a note permit. We must, therefore, refer to it as it stands in the Massorah 
finalis under the letter Aleph^ p. 6 &, cols. 3 and 4. 

los The forty -five words which occur only once preceded by ^\ are as follows : — 



rroo bw! 
rwnSn . 
*mj bin 
crspin ^ . 

nriD Sn . 
mcH ^ . 
n:a« Sn . 



. Gen. iv. 5 

. Gen. vi. 16 

Gen. xviii. 7 

Gen. xxxvii. 10 

. Exod. vi. 3 

Exod. xxiv. I 

Exod. xxv. 21 

. Exod. xii. 22 

Exod. xxiv. 14 

Numb, xviii. 26 

. Dent. ix. 27 

. Dent. ix. 27 

. Exod. vi. 13 

Levit. xviii. 20 

1 Sam. xxvi. 14 



*fl}»a« bMI . 1 Sam. xxvi. 6 
333 bw. .1 Sam. xxvii. 10 
Vn-WD Sn . Ezek. xxxi. 13 
. ISam. X. 14 

1 Sam. XXX. 1 

2 Kings iii. 13 
. Isa. Iv. 7 
Isa. xix. 8 



tT»3 bwi 



irryoTO btry Jerem. xxix. 24 
rmrr ^ . Jerem. XXX. 4 
irroT b«1 Jerem. xxxix. 16 



Isa. xix. 

. Isa.U. 

Jerem. iv. 



D»nbM bm . 
mrrSn. . 

Daiy Vw. 
rm bwi . 
dbbtr\ . 
nD"a Vw 
■im|7Db»n 



Ezek. xliii. 

Ezek. xl. 43 

. Joel iv. 3 

. . Jobv. 8 

. Ps. XXX. 9 

. . . Ps.l. 4 

, Ezek. xxiii. 42 

. . Hos. iv. . 8 

Jerem. xlvii. 7 

. . Ezek. xi. 21 

Nehem. ii. 14 

. . Ecd. i. 



_ r Vw Jerem. xxxiii. 4 

lM2nT)ta3b«l Jer. xxv. 9 

tST« bw . . Jerem. 1. 18 

irrpTSf bMI Jerem. xxix. 21 
It will be seen that the Massorah marginalis, p. 6 6, col. 4, gives onlj forty-five such 
instances. There must therefore be a mistake in the Massorah mai^inalis on Exod. xxiv. 
14, where, in referring to this rubric, it is stated that there t^re forty -four (T'o). In the 
Ochla Ve-Ochla^ section Ixxxv., pp. 20, 89, &c., where this rubric is given, the heading 
describes it as containing forty-five (n"o)» and the rubric only gives this number ; jet it 
mentions two instances not contained in the Massorah finalis, viz., rrVO ^ (Numb. 
xxxi. 12) and irrpis So (Jerem. xxix. 21), whilst it omits two instances, viz., vrrwD So 
(Ezek. xxxi. 13) and r]in bMl (Jerem. xlvii. 7), which are given in the Massorah finalis. 
There can, therefore, be but little doubt that the To = fortv-four in the Massorah 
marginalis on Exod. xxiv. 14, the n"a = forty -five in the OMa Ve-Ochla^ and the 
V^ = forty-six in the text of Levita, are cormptionB of the original i"o = forty-seven. 



Digitized by 



Google 



217 

kinff lire, is always like it. More- ^^^ p'TW mhn 'a wra pi ; mmaT 
over, when two words habitaally -nann vn t<h:i miwt<in ,TnNe posa 
occur in the same verse, the first nnw wmiv oipo Saa ,i"»inopn»3rni 
without Vav conjunctive and the ^,-v, ,t,a nman n^js'? ]*t<i ,i"nn oj^r 
second with Ffli? conjunctive, then '. ^j^-p^, ^-j, ^^ j^,^„ ^t^^ t^ ,3ria 
wherever the one with the T^ar occurs, ^^^ ^i^ ^^ ^^^, .^ ^t^ ^^^ i^^^^^ 
and Its companion without the ]av ^^^^ '^^^^^^ ^ ^ ^^^ ' ,^^^ 

does not precede It, the Massontcs ^^ ,.nt</ipD^ n t^^mt, pDD f^a 

note on the word in question the ' , ' __. ^ 

number of instances in which it is ^^^^^< n,n. ns. t>.Tn ^) .Da ,rr^man 

to be found alone. Thus, for in- f '3?^ P' ;p'Dni ^D^ pa^-iK* ]rp^ 

stance, onlPO^ and in order that, ^^' ^«. W pan .Tp'nt ^31^ iDa ,rKTn^ 

the Massorites remark, -it occurs "^^ ^-^?> "^"^^^^"^ ^^^ '•"^"^^''^ ^f^'^^c^ 
nine times alone, as Exod. ix. 16, • ^^^^^ '-^??1 

&c ; ^01 and when Vl'oh is followed n^on nxo Dn*m*o o^nnpan o hn ^) 

by 1??^^ it is the same," that is, «"♦ rrn« jija ,nQM nt j*ki ,rT»tK naooin 

in every verse where IVD? occurs, HMH nn« ,n^mai n^^ nt nnwt loa ,|n*n* 

and is followed by jVp^'^ it is like /l^n^ '" "?>?} P^ io»; »^ia1 rrmai ir^ 

it, as ^^^^« nin*. nx* Nvn jypS . 

^^DJ JDIK^ jyop^ that thou jnat/est fear Jehovah, thy God, — no that thy 
days may he prolonged [Deut. vi. 2], &c. Thus, also, ^?B^1 and before 
the face of, ** is sixteen times alone,*' as Numb, xxvii. 21 ; and 
wherever *pB? before, is followed by ^JB?^^ and before^ it is like it, as 
nrjJ^K ^3D^1 nWD ^^Zjh before Moses and EUczer [Numb, xxvii. 2].i« 

There are, moreover, some words which are called unique, because of 
the word with which they are construed, and which construction has no 
parallel. Thus, HJJK thou occurs eighteen times alone, as HT nriX 
thou this, ** without parallel;" njnn nnK thou shalt be, **has no 
parallel," kcJ^^ Also nnxi and thou, '* is eight times alone ; " as njlKI 

101 The nine passages in which p?oV) occnrs are, Exod. x. 2 ; ix. 16 : Dent. ix. 5 ; 
iy. 40 ; xi. 9 ; vi. 2 : l*s. xxxi. 4 : *i Kinppj xix. 34 : Isa. xxxvii. 35. As these nine 
instAuces are distinctly given in the Massorah marginalis on Isa. xxxvii. 35, and as hoth 
the Massorah marginalis on the different passages in q estion, and the Massorah finalis 
onder the Lamed, p. 43 &, col. 1, emphaticnllj state that there are vine instances, we 
have corrected the text which had six ( 1), and which has evidently arisen from a 
misprint. 

103 The sixteen passages in which »3D^1 occnrs with Vav conjunctive, withont being 
preceded by *3Db, are, Levit. xvi. 14, 15; xix. 14: Numb, xxvii. 21 : 1 Kings vi. 2(): 
isa. xlviii. 7 : Ps. Ixxii. 6 : Prov. xv. 33 : Ps. cii. 1 : Prov. xvii. 14 ; xviii. 16 : Job viii. 
12 : Exek. xlii. 4 : Job xv. 7 : Jerem. xUv. 10 : Nehem. xiii. 4. They are given in the 
Massorah marginalis on Nnmb. xxvii. 21. 

108 The eleven words which are preceded by rmM, and which in this constmction 
occnr only once, are as follows : — 



rrnn nn« . . Gen. xli. 4() 

Pn nrw • • Gen. xxvii. 24 
nnn nrw . . Exod. vii. 2 
nm PTn« . 2 Sam. xvii. 6 



^ nnw . . Jerem. xlvi. 28 
p nn« . . Ezek. xliii. 10 
btriD nnw . Ps. Ixixix. 10 



W*Hn nrw . 2 Sam. xii. 7 

rrp nn« . . 2 Sai). xx. 6 

mow nriM . 1 ICings i. 24 

yown rmw . 1 Kings viii. 43 
They are enumerated in the Massorah finalis, under the letter Aleph^ p. 9 6, cols. 1 and 
2, and in the Ochla Ve-Ochla, suction cclxi., p. 142, &c. As both the Massorah and the 
Ochla Ve- Ochla leave it beyond the shadow of a doubt that there are eleven such 
instances, we have corrected the text, which in all the three editions has (IT^) eighteen. 

F F 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



216 

for in all other instaMces it is pre- iw ^a o »jn«Tn» n'r ^intr ^ftw njn. 

ceded by nin* Jehovah, ii. A word D^ionm ; h^-w mVr< nit^a* niPI^ 

wanted in the middle, Tiz., "^9^ nb ^^ »3 »«,D»Trr 'i njrp ip-ja* ids omnK^ 

^^Vrff) ^\P9 *^)*^^t thus saith Jeho- ;rrmsTm^nn^3i ^'j^mir-iaia* nwr 

vahf the Almighty of Israel^ which tp -jt^tr h^ »a ^I'^r'n' 'o crt«r!"» pi 
*' occurs twenty-five times alone,"" vt . nrn orn 

as in all other instances it is ,^ w._^x ,,,^ ^„ ^» i „.^^ «,.. 

thus satth Jehovah Sa^'^th tj}^ qw WD ^HkS ,nMJ>nbnt6 t-f,yi 

Almig/Uy of Israel. And m. With- t. i «« 

out a word at the end, viz., pi3^ T}^^^? '^''''^"' n-mrpi :D*3n 
njn^, J^AoroA Wm f/t.^, ma^ke^ ^V^nTr fei loapKrrr 'a tt p ;rmiDT 
"four times alone,** •« as in all 

other instances it is njH^^ ^???* I^D^R Jehovah the Almighty bless 
thee, except in the Psalms, wliere it is likewise so. The same is the 
case with D^'n 1? till tJie day, which is marked "nine times alone,***' 
since in all other instances it is Hjn DVh *7Jf till this day. 

^^Such severances are also to be found in the case of one word, 
as ^*}^i to the tent, which is marked " five times alone ;**" and nny 
law, and "^Jfio assembly, are like it — that is, not being n^1{?n vi ^^ '^ 
tabernacle of our testimony, and ^J^©? ^D^? to the tabernacle of the 
congregation, which are the most in number; thus, also, H^H^ he shall 
live, " occurs eighteen times alone,* and HJ^PIJ VH living, Jie shall live, is 
like it ; '* also, ^n^^ let him live, is twice alone,^"' and ^J©? ^D\ ^t the 

^ The twenty-five timea in which bww* vfj» mm 10M TO occnrs without rVttQS are, 
Exod. ▼. 1 ; xxxii. 27 : Josh. zxIt. 2 : Jadg. vi. 8 : 1 Sam. x. 18 : 2 Sam. xii. 7 : 1 Kings 
xi. 31 : 2 Kings xix. 20 : Isa. xxxvii. 21 : 1 Kings xyu. 14 : 2 Kings ix. 6 : Jerem. xxi. 4; 
xxxTii. 7 : 2 Kings xxii. 15 : 2 Chron. xxxiv. 23 : Jerem. xxxiv. 2, 18 ; xlii. 9 ; xIy. 2. 
They are given in the Massorah finalis under the letter Aleph^ p. 45, cols. 8 and 4. 

w The four passages in which mm "pTa* -occurs without Ifrh/k are, Numh. vi. 24 ; 
Deut. XT. 4 : Jerem. xxxi. 23 : Buth ii. 4. They are enumerated in the Massorah 
marginalis on Numh. vi. 24. 

*7 The nine passages in which uxn ^ occurs alone, without mrr, are, Gen. xix. 37, 88 > 
xxxT. 20 : 2 Sam. xix. 25 : 2 Kings x. 27 : 2 Chron. viii. 16 : Ezek. xx. 31 : 2 Chron- 
XX. 26 : xxxY. 2«'>. They are enumerated in the Massorah marginalis on 2 Chron. xx. 26. 

98 The five passages in which ViMb occurs hj itself are. Exod. xxvi. 7, 14 ; xxxvi. 14, 
19 : 1 Chron. ix. 19. The Massorah marginalis on Exod. xxvi. 7, whic^ treats on this 
ruhrie, is hopelessly erroneous. The only correct signal words, wherehy it indicates the 
passages, are the first and second, viz., OIT mrr iTWn [Exod. xxvi. 7 J, D^W mn* W3n 
[Exod. xxxvi. 14]. As to the other three, they are as follows : i. piDon DM D^ DVll, 
that is Numh. ix. 16, where it is mm WV, which is not to the point, ii, myro «nn, 
which is equally wrong, inasmuch as of the five verses which commence with these 
words, viz., 1 Kmgs vii. 48 ; viii. 65 ; xi. 6 : 2 Chron. iv. 18, 19, not one has the word 
^rrwh. And iii. mmb "pan inpn, i. e. 2 Chron. xxiv. 6, where it is nnm Vnwb, and is 
Ulrawise not to the point. 

^ The eighteen passages in which mm, the future, occurs by itself, that is, without 
being preceded by mn, the infinitive absolute, are, Qen. xvii. 18 ; xxxi. 32 : Exod. xix. 13 : 
Numb. xxiv. 23 : Deut. viii. 3 (twice) : 2 Sam. i. 10 : 2 Kings x. 19 : Ezek. xviii. 13, 22, 27 ; 
xlvii. 9 : Ps. Ixxxix. 49 : Prov. xv. 27: Nehem. ii. 3 : JIabak. ii. 4 : Eocles. vi. 3 ; xi. 8. 
They are enumerated in the Massorah finalis under the letter Cheth^ p. 31 a, col. 4. 

w The two instancefi in which TT occurs by itself are, Deut. xxxiii. 6 : Ps. xxii. 27. 
They are given in the Massorah finalis under the letter Cheth, p. 31 ft, col. 1 . 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



215 

Also nVrjJ 7K nWD ^laip, and Moses ;nfi5'D ^k 7])7y nain t«» fe ♦a n*i»T 
fpoAv to Jehovah [Nmnb. xxrii. ^irm DipoaD nm* nSna ^t<xni DN1 
16], is marked ** not extant so ian») |i» ,p3»0DT -]3i "la Dn»f?p lana 
joined," for in all other passages it n's ta^ tdk»i »\]'Dn»T 'i ryriht* 
is n^ 7K njn-^ nain^, an(i JehovaJi Tos5*i ^nin^ nai') n^r ^a o » j*anDoi 
fP«*« to Jlfo«««. ^ mp'i-TDn niNnDua o noKPn ; nin» 

When these constructions occnr ,^ ,3 i^a^DOT lana vh la^mte 'a onva 
more than once, the Massorites ^^^'o ,^^„', ,3^ ^ «^ 

distinctly mention the number of •«▼■»» 1 ^. 

instances, as on DWK"iai|l and tA^ " ' .^—^ 

Almighty spake, they say "three ,^„, ,^ „„,,„„ ^^^^ nnm ^T^ 
times toge11ier;"« D^n$K noN\ j^^'«''^* ^^^ .P^' PP ^«=^« "J^J^^^ 
ami tA« Almxghty said, "twenty- , , ' 

fiye times thus joined together/' ^^^^^ 'T^' T^^^ P^^ ^^^^^^^^ °ipo 
«since in aU other places it is rn'jD iit nte -ion ,pxDK3 7k jh^tik^ik 
n^n^ -I31J1 and Jtf^oroA «paA^, P^P ^a"^ °"^ 1^°"^ ^^i"!" ^ P'^^ 
rtVnOK'} and Jelwvah said. In- P^^ 'l^'^ef? nf?t) piona ^Brnm ;|n*m 
deecl, Vhen there are only two mn^ -riw ^a ♦a ".r^^'in* r a binfe? vfej 
words, the correct Codices haye "^pw ni loa ,p]fDK3 o^Tonm ; ^k-w* *n^ 
not written down the word O^DDl, 

since the circle between these two words is sufGicient, as D^^7K*K^ 
the Almighty created, "occurs three times** [Gen. i. 1]," and there is 
no necessity for saying " three times thus jomed together,** as I haye 
stated in the Introduction. 

^* Let me now explain the meaning of Jechidain, Jechidin, or 
Mejuchadin, for they are all the same. Mark, that whereyer words 
occur joined together, and if a word, or two words, or more, with 
which they are thus mostly joined, are wauting either before them, or 
after them, or in the middle, the Massorites remark on them y>TT\^ = 
severed. For example, i. A word wanted at the beginning yiz., ^n7|f 
^^y^. the Almighty of Israel, which "occurs twenty-four times alone,**** 

forty inBtanoes, adding D*3Wn "jaa [ProT. xxvii. 14] whioh otherwise is ipai D*3W1. 
Properly bM ^ [Job xxrii. 2], ab Dr. Frensdorff, the learned editor of the Ochla Ve-Odda^ 
rightly remarkif whereon the MaBsorah parra states " not extant " ( "^b ), belongs to this 
mbriOf since in all other jMusa^es it is tt St. 

91 The threepassages in which D^n^ mm occnr conjointly are, Oen. viii. 15 : Exod. 
Ti. 2 ; XX. 1. They are given in the Massorah marginalis on Gen. Tiii. 15. 

M The twenty-fire passages in which Dmbu noMn occurs, are Gen. i. 8, 6, 9, 11, 14, 20, 
24, 26, 29 ; Ti. 18 ; ix. 8, 12, 17 ; xxi. 12 ; xvii. 15, 19, 9 ; xlyi. 2 ; xxxv. 1 : Exod. iii. 14 : 
Nnmb. xxii. 12 : 1 Kings iii. 5, 11 : Jonah iv. 9 : 2 Chron. i. 11. They are given in the 
Massorah finalis under the letter Alephy p. 8 &, cols. 2 and 3. All the three editions of 
the Mcusoreth Ha-Maaaoreth have tioenty-four (i"3), which we hare c({rrected, as it is a 
manifest blunder. 

M For the three passages in which trr6M MTQ occurs, see above, p. 189, note 115. 

M The twenty-four (1' 3) must be a mistake for twenty-eight (n"3), since the Massorah 
marginalis on Exod. xxi v. 10 distinctly enumerates twenty -eight instances in which 
Virrvr vh^ occurs without mrp. They are as follows : Gen. xxuii. 20 : Exod. xxiv. 10 : 
Numb. xvi. 9: 1 Sam. v. 7, 8 (thrice), 11; vi. 5; i. 17; v. 10; vi. 8: 2 Sam. xxiii. 8: 
1 Kings viii. 26: Isa. xxix. 23; xli. 17; xlv. 3, 15; zlviii. 2; Iii. 12: Ezek. viii. 4; 
ix. 8 ; X. 19, 20; xi. 22; xliu. 2: 1 Chron. v. 26: Ps. Ixix. 7: Esra iii. 2; ix. 4. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



214 



posed in a verse, as nSK^ l^nai^ ]in|i^ loa ,piDfi3 onnwDm o^Dipion 
SahbcUism, Sabbath [Exod. xvi. 28], nnv hD >s ,"]»dot n»^ mn»^ »ip ra^ 
on which they remark, "not ex- n*^ njrr ^k ntfrnari pi » pniK' nnK' 
tant so joined ;" since in all other 
passages in which these two words are joined, they are inverted.^ 



are sixteen Bach, instancee, it only gives fifteen^ whilst one of the passages adduced is 
wrong, Tiz., viiT) ISl 2 Chron. xxxi. 5, inasmuch as it oocnrs twice in Chron. and Dent, 
xx-riii. 51. The Ochla Ve-Oehla^ section oclii., pp. 50, 138, &c., which also gives this list, 
rightly snuplies the two deficiencies, viz., DH DID Gen. x. 1; and riTYlsn rnVvis Josh, 
xir. 12. Properly speaking rTD3«Pf nfTDnn Levit. xi. 19 ; and pQH pDT Ezra vii. 17, 
belong to this mbnc, and it is difficult to diyine why the Massorah does not indnde 
them in it, seeing that it includes the other instances from the mhric given on p. 212, 
note 87. 

^ This is but one of thirty-nine instances ennmerated in the Massorah, which occur 
in this constmetion, since in all other passages they are inverted. They are as follows : — 
. Exod. xvL 28 everywhere else 
Exod. xxix. 18 „ „ 

Exod. xxxvi. 17 „ ., 

. Levit. xii. 8 „ n 

. Levit. XX. 26 „ ,, 

Levit. xxi. 2 „ t, 

Levit. xix. 8 „ „ 

. Dent. vi. 18 „ „ 

. Deut. xvi. 18 „ „ 

. Josh. xxiv. 14 „ „ 

2 Sam. xiv. 15 „ „ 

2 Sam. xxiv. 18 „ „ 

2 Sam. xxiv. 24 „ «, . 

Jerem. xliv. 6 „ m • 

. Hos. xiii. 15 „ „ 

. Job xxix. 2 „ «f 

1 Chron. xxii. 15 ,', „ 

1 Chron. xxiii. 80 „ >? • 

1 Chron. xxviii. 10 „ „ 

Job xvi. 11 „ „ 

. . Job XX. 17 „ ,. 

. Dan. xi. 88 „ „ • 

. Bnthiv. 9 „ „ . 

Fs. Ixxxix. 51 „ „ 

. . Dan. i. 5 „ „ . 

Josh, xviii. 1 „ » • 

. Jndg. vi. 4 „ „ . 

1 Sam. xxiii. 23 „ „ 
. 1 Kings i. 21 „ „ 

Ezeh. xxxvi. II „ „ 

2 Chron. vi. IS „ 
. Levit. xii. 8 „ 
. Levit. xvi. 6 „ 
Numb. xxxi. 22 „ 

2 Sam. xviii. 9 „ 
St . . 2 Kings xix. 2 „ 

Jerom. xxi. 3 „ 
Hos. ii. 2 „ 

. Zech. ii. 6 „ 

Levit. xxiii. 21 „ 
They aro enumerated in that part of the Massorah finalis which is entitled t^arioua 
Readings (nwnp 'BlVn) p. 62 ft, rubric 8. In the heading of this rubric, as well as in the 
Massorah margmalis on Job xxix. 2, where reference is made to this list, it is erroneously 
stated that it contains thirty ( *)) instances^which has evidently arisen from the dropping 
of the letter td [= 9]. The Oehla Ve-Ochla, seetion cdxxiu., pp. 53, 147, &c., gives 



DtDOn Wffi 

nKiDr6 "TTiKi nVp^ thh 
f^TMi nonu 

vajn TOM 

pis ^ssnsQ 
na«nt troni 
^■wTbpn . 
TOTO mrrt Dpn 

B*W3rT CTTp^ 

mi Dnp . . 

DTp 1TP3 

pina??TMn. . 
b«bM. . . 

iTHDITI XB11 . 

DM28> n*ai . 

V17D D*3V . 

nvnas v*^Mm 
Ttv) Tnsn 

XSm IHTYl . .. 

Tvcho »3ai . 

T1D1 UTI . . 

xcrfw moHi . 
Twnarh mm rtrs^ im 
rwi nH D^m yny\ 
npan n>n amrr rw tm 
yTMH pt D»own p 

npin Tmy\ m^aa Ta 
Sntr »3ai rmrr »3a 
roiM rto^^ nam noa 
oa^nawD Vaa dVc? nptr 



. . . pna«? raw 
. . . mrp^ mn moH 
• • • Twrh mofOTi 
. n^ Tmn n«tDrrt tpm 
. . • . nonaai ppw 
YMh vaM^ 

tDMl vaM 

Turm a^isn 

TQCWD1 pns 

.... onara^ no«a 

"JorT'Diw 

. . . mrrt nana Dpn 

. Dvpv vnofon 

. . . . namVi notA 

Dnp nn 

Dip 'DO 

p»1 P 

. . . . wTiVi brib 

nwi nrw 

bMlw 

.... wa-n nwan 

arnai rpaa 

p^T p^no 

crai D*ar 

^2X0 XSnTO 

. . . . pwnn«aa:i 

tTCBt\ yvoy 

"jHrn tm 

^a nobw 

la-n Y« 

mow xchv) 

. n^ mm rwonb ttw 
. . . onaa rroa ymt 
. . amn rw rpan nn 
. DnawT pn Y^tun ra 
M»a3n V^OM p ''HW w 
. n*iB3 ynm np in "ra 
. mrr '3a"« bww 'aa 
. nam nraai na-w noa 
. oa^nawQ Vaa Dymnh 



Digitized by 



Google 



218 



being joined in this manner, and if nis kyd3 »h dk ,)dim iniMS -^z»n^ jan 
it only occurs so in one place, the ,1^^^^ ^''^ n*^P ^a'ls fTn^ Dipna pn 
Massorites remark thereon, ** not }n *imv Sd ♦d ,yDQi n»^ tJVrrn |aTi pu 
extant so joined." Thus, on ]yi\ p, aB.p^ ^^q^ ^,3^ ^.,, ^* ^^,^1 
Kn*ni anrf com, and wine [G-en. ^k^ b »3 -|nDDn n*^ non^oa n:«> inwS 
xxm 87], they remark, '^ not ex- niteap, i;iia'nn ,-1 op n^^DB^ 
tant so jomed, smce, m all other ' 

places where these two words occur, the word l^*^ corti has not the Vav 
conjunctive;* and n^ TDKf briers^ tJioms [Is. xxvii. 4], is marked 
''not extant so joined,'* since in all other places it is with Vav 
conjunctiye. ^ The same is the case with words which are trans- 






^ The MaBSorah gives a list of sixty-two pain, both words of which have Vav 
oonjnnotiye, and are without jparallel ; viz. : — 

vrrmn ]rry <ien. xrrii. 87 

ypSD ]H2m Gen. xxxiii. 18 

*1TI pyo«1 Gen. xxxv. 23 

fyyxn -OXOtcn Gen. xxxv. 23 

^mn psm Gen. xlvi. 9 

*03n *»« Exod. ix. 27 

n-jm priHl Exod. xTii. 12 

rrD«n orron .... Exod. xxviii. 20 

rmao"? nVn Exod. xxx. 9 

tr D^ttTin rrtym .... Leyit. ix. 22 

MW rhtn Exod. xxxviii. 26 

rron "n«n Levit. xxii. 23 

TnOMI payi Levit. XXV. 44 

WDm >p fey nn .... Numb. xiv. 26 

pnm nrwi Numb. xvi. 17 

n^rSn pawm . . . Numb, xxxii. 8 

biJ) prvm Deut. iii. 17 

srnDom nnwm Deut. vii. 19 

trnDoai nirwai .... Deut. xxvi. 8 

wall tpv^ Deut. xxvii. 12 

rmxm rrruat Josh. xv. 45 

p^on yiO) Judg. vii. 12 

wo^ mn Judg. viii. 10 

msoi bODl Levit. xxvi. 1 

mom «rm 1 Sam. xxvii. 11 

rmm Vrwn 2 Sam. xi. 11 

nrTKl D T^a-w i 1 Kings XV. 10 

nrTMl uvhvcn .... 2 Kings xxii. 1 

TWrnm l Kings xx. 22 

^rOJ) TB^m Josh. xiii. 11 

DV'aam trarom ... 2 Kings xxiii. 2 

am aim Jerem. V. 12 

|J«n "Vai 1 Chron. xii. 40 

The list is given in the Massorah finalis under the letter Fav, p. 28 a, cols. 2 and 3; 
and in the OcMa Ve-Oehla^ section ccliii., pp. 60, 139, &c. The latter omits six which 
tiie Massorah enumerates, and has fifteen instances which are not given in the Massorah. 
69 This is but one out of sixteen pairs, without the Vav conjunctive, which have no 
parallel. They are as follows : — 



nrooi nan Jerem. xvii. 26 

. . . Jerem. xxi. 6 
. . Jerem. xxvi. 5 
. . . Jerem. xxii. 2 
.... Ezek. iv. 14 
.... Ezek. ix. 6 

D'\ircai a3"Q^ Ezek. xxvi. 7 

rrorm moSn .... Ezek. xliv. 22 

npm IDWJOl Ezek. xlv. 9 

D'inn moVw Zech. vii. 10 

Dmaa^ om ...... 1 Chron. ix. 23 

xovn W^sncn ^ Chron. ix. 18 

OVCiTi '\xav\ 2 Chron. i. 12 

I3»m3ai l^'aat .... 2 Chron. xxix. 9 

TTsfytcn D^Wvn Ezra ii. 26 

U*y([n D'yad Nehem. vii. 8 

rwa"wi n^vfnsn ... 1 Chron. vii. 7 

U*ycay DT?a"Wi Nehem. vii. 62 

D»3«n unvn Nehem. vii. 31 

TWO unvyffy Nehem. vii. 37 

"^TTMI vsat Ezra viii. 18 

rrr\i\ r^^iyi Nehem. iii. 6 

^zvy^^^ ^yn'ro^ .... Nehem. v. ft 

nws^ "nawVl Nehem. x. 80 

vmaat vaai Job i, 

Tmm -iSwan .... Job xxxviii 
mtn Dma>n . . . 



13 

3 

Gen. xviii. 11 

nm "nm Job xl. 10 

now tarn Prov. xiv. 22 

pm •^fmm Esther iii. 16 

nanVl nnVl Esther viii. 11 

•m Tyi Esther ix. 2S 






Tionaai ma Gen. ix. 10 

T^aiTDW Exod. i. 3 

I p Josh. xix. 7 

>T» Josh. xxi. 40 

nra? TOW Isa. xxvii. 4 

TTTW ^M Isa. xxi. 6 

D^Vb D>3?TaV Isa. Ixvi. 21 

]rap?> Ezek. xxxvi. 3 

It will be seen that, though the Massorah states in the heading of Uub rubric that there 



tjnw 1^ Hos. viii. 10 

m» xcryoj Habak. iii. 10 

nriM noo Micah vi. 4 

boaa 1^ 2 Chron. i. 11 

«mn pi 2 Chron. xxxi. 6 

Dn*3a Drrv3 Nehem. x. 20 

nav a*Dxan Nehem. ix. 6 



Digitized by 



Google 



212 



pairs. Thus, for iBstance, they ,i*n j'a'Oi pmo 'a ,]^vq^ pji? 'n pas 
remark "there are five parallel ^rfh n»wi3) ]Viap -ntivi nKDip ]i:d 
pairs of words, which respectively o'piDD ^ai *"|d pi Wj^v^j-^w j^rani 
occur twice, once the two words »biq h^» p»DT d^didd 'a paa ,p*DT 
have the Vav conjunctive, and once ^yryp^ 0^^^ ^^nt^ rm p'^DD |inna*n 
not," as the first, P^IM "O't^ij^l and ^h) ;'? cam 'lai orrappi onnapi ,idui 
Issachar and Zehuluii, [Gen. xxxv. .^i'?!! poo' »a wa' ns'sinVKSK p^Di 
23] ; and the second p^43r TDK^. t^, „ l,^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^l, ,^ l,^,^^, 
Issachar, Zebu'un, [Exod. i. 8j, d^piod 

&C.**' Thus, also, thev sav that -^m.! J^ 

such and such verses are parallel , ^.J.^1 , J~^r 

U^^O^l as - the two paraUel verses ^^ '"^^ ^^ n niDn nn-na nh .niD| ^«r 
[ron] in which all the words ;|irri3^PIinM^nniDlDn*ripvn^Dn^r33 
terminate with the letter Mem,'' ^i^^ Tit^^a nsoinf? n'?^ p^K an oai 
viz., Gen. xxxii. 15, and Numb, r^^ i^i^^n "lo^po 'iJfpa 1« .mDipon 
xxix. 38. The expression p^D*7, • ""P^ '* noNoa nKin TWKa 

however, is only used epexegeti- p.^,p,^^ .pD^DDa ^tren "lOt^on 
cally, since it would be sufficient ,^ ,«».«•-» «-»*y^r^ »M«.t, ... >,^ M^n-ri^ni 

without it. As a rule, the Mas- l l 

^ , 7 . loa ,npon anp pr^o «in moon »'7j;a 

Bontes never employ p>D1, except ' ^ "^ ' , l l Jl 

with respect to groups knd verses '"^T^^ ^''' ^'^ '^ I^^ '^"1^° ^^ 

I®- 1 shaU now explain the 1^°° ^''^^^ '"=^"'" ^=^ ^^^'^ ^"" ^^f 

meaning of n^n^lDl. The Chaldee • °'^'^ ^^^^^ '^' ^^"^^ '^»°^^ '"^*«'"' 

E phrase renders JinlD3 like it ^« "SDina -inv w mf?D 'a laoD^rs mm 
1 ii. 2] by n^nilDI ; ' so also P***' ,n^o cjif?^^ ,nf?D ik ,mH jnona 
„ )3 /iA» uwto them [Ps. cxxxv. 18] 
by phn^Dl. It, too, is simply used as an additional explanation in 
most places ; in a few instances, however, it is really wanted, as will 
be seen in the Tenth Section of this Part, God helping. 

Segtiok VI., concerning Junctions, Severances, and Consecutives. — 
Mark that the expression nD^OD* which the Massorites use, denotes 
approaching, belonging together, connected, &c., as is the meaning of 
1)00 in Ezek. xxiv. 2, which has no parallel in the Scriptures. It is, 
however, frequently used by our Rabbins of blessed memory, as in 
the phrases, it is close (^IDD) upon dark, it will soon be dark ; this 
section (nD0D3) is contiguous, &c. Now, when two or more words are 
associated together through the addition or diminution of a letter or 
word, or by the interchange of words which are not in the habit of 

W The five pairs of words which rospectiyely occur once with the Vav oonjanctive, 
and once without it, are, — 



nD3Hn iH^v. i .... Levit. xi. 19 
rfD3«pn rrponm .... Dent. xiv. 18 

pm py Josh. xix. 7 

pom rv\ Joflh. XV. 32 

pOM pDT Ezra vii. 17 

pDMl pDTl Ezra vi. 9 

They are given in the Massorah finalis under the letter Far, p. 285, col. 1 ; and in the 
Ochla Vt-Ochla, section ccli., p. 138. 



D'Oaa "raw 2 Chron. i. 11 

0^0331 "^ran 2 Chron. i. 12 

p^1^ n3«7ttr Exod. i. 8 

l^^1X^ "O^wn Gen. xxxv. 23 



Digitized by 



Google 



211 



of the same import, as a number of pia ,TnK yypn onai npin tdi^ nm 
verses, pairs, or words which are jna »»r ,ni^D ik ,]*aiT m ,D»piDD dod 



iKnpi ,|n'nvmK3 w ,|mip33 no nimn 

m^D )K ,D»pioD ^» yup fe 9?^n^ 
wnp ,i»n'3 KD^KH -no ^p |r«r ,'ht nain 

D*r357 ^w |*o*iy D*KXD3i ;nmr nivyn 
■^3 w ,j»3n "jai 13 |o nD»ef p« ,D'ai 



'3^ |D W1TD ^131Tn p ^ap» MO^W 103 

'a^ p^m TDonn »a piTi ;D^an »T23^n 
;d ,? ,n ,1 ,ts TiD3n ;ttd3i jit o^phn 
h"! i3»mani ;»^iai » ,n ,i ,t ,a aiim 

D12MO /I131T *nD3 13»«» HDOD ^3^ imp 



alike either in vowel-points or let- 
ters. Such a number they called 
Shita [= catalogue, register, list, 
or rubric]. 

The rule is, ^at every collection 
of verses or of words brought 
together, which is not alphabeti- 
callv arranged, they called Shita , 

[i. I, catalogue or register] ; and I 1"'^* 1^^ '^^'"^« '"^ ^'^^ ^»* '°'P°» 1=;] 
nave received it that such a Shita :DK*an7 

has not less than ten lines. These ^^ ;r^i" ^^' V^V "O "»»«a« •"'W^ <9 
registers are of diverse import, "ro^ hv omid pi ,D*Mr mn ai? ono »3 
There is a register of so many pairs Saw ,Dtina Tip3 mm ,|»'>3ni3 a^i ome 
of words, or of so many verses, or ^«n nanai ,popDn mn pniva 'r\pyn yn 
of so many words, or of so many ; j,i nro nh »^i an nn3 ^af? ]3i ,p^»Dn 3« 
letters, which it is not necessary to n,^,, o,^^, ^ ^l^b^ Ma^xi ^ noKi 
illustrate by examples. 

1^ Let me now explain the 
meaning of Sug and Sugin. Mark, 
that the proper meaning of l\t is 
a pair, two. Thus, the Chaldee 

paraphrase renders a pair by 3^1 , , ... 

[2 Kings V. 17], with ChoUm, but l'"'^^ )^a,ni3iT nnr* «^ nwn SaH^ jtS 
«T with Shurek means a 6«ZZ, and, '^ain i^n nat moDn *^pa f^aw ;mai 
in the language of our Rabbins of d'3» ^ onan na^ ts^i ^na? pr^a ; 
blessed memory, a pair of phylac- w /3 'a ^» onai i^^dk o ,3it iKip D'3» 
teries ; thus, also, the phrase " to ,p3it m-ip ,mB'p ip '^3t 'n 'n w /n 't 
every one thou givest a pair [air], |»K3tD3 pi ;n^n3 mooa man n^wai 
but me thou diJst not give a pair." j,, ^n-j ^^t^n )*te p iTi^a Kofwi ,w^ 
They call the plural, although : non dh^ |^y tdi^ ran 

mascuhne ni;iT ; as the phrase „^^,^ j^,,^^ 

niann jO ^^pK^, which means re- " ' ' ' 
c<?/v^f/ /row rit'o 5a^^s. It is well known that the numbers are divided 
into two parts, namely, even and odd; the uneven are, 1, 8, 5, 7, and 
9, whilst the even are, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10. Now, the Rabbins of 
blessed memory call every number which is not uneven ni;iT,=joair», 
ex, gr.y **one should not eat even [man], nor drink even [man]," 
always in the plural feminine ; whereas the Massorites always use 
the plural in the masculine gender, and not only call each pair by the 
name Sug, but even things consisting of twice three, twice four, or 
twice five, up to ten, they denominate Siigoth, There are numerous 
instances of it to be found in the Massorah magna. There are also 
registers and alphabetical lists of words which have no pairs, that is, 
wMch have no parallels. 

In some Codices the expression p^DT = parallely is added to paiT 



Digitized by 



Google 



210 



and BO forth in all the books of the mpan open «in ^wn |*Dm W;DnDon ^aa 
Bible." The second is the accent tdti ^a« ,wdd poD nioia Rim ,n^D")3^. 
called Le-garmiahj which is in form d3 ,i3KXDn DytD 2\0 IDDai ;p*3n vtih 
like the real P«iA:, but it is always ; ,3 ^a^^ nini^ na» -ijrra 

followed by the accent Rebia. You 

will find it in the treatise Good l^OII pin ptD^t^n ^C^DnmDKDH 
Sense, as well as in the Third Part P'^^=» ^^^"^ ^■'f'', "=»"'" tpnnilDII 
called the Broken Tables, where I ;™*^™<nD*w ,^^^hL hv no^r DiDKa rm^v 
shall speak about it. P»^ n»*^o 'npi* k^i ,-TiDf?nn no^r pi 

Section V., concerning Registers, *nKXD -jk <» ; iK»an nh inyn byn d3 ,»in 
Groups, Parallels, and Analogous nanpa r»n^ piooa nn^rn i*» m^ina 
Forms. — Our Rabbins of blessed |a*na n*Dp^ ann ]'3a« 'm^ pin .onan 
memory frequently use the word pi ^kdou naj »o*»^ pDT ,|'D*r "irpa 
SAfYa, saying, "a iSAtia of such .^^ ^^^^ y^,^ t,p, ,*.„ npn noo ^pi\ 
Mid such an one," " another .SAifa," ^,.,,^1, ^^^^l, q^,^^, ^^^iian iKip pi ; 
&o. To the same effect is the iwe .^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

of Shita m the Talmud, and I do l , , , 

not know from what laniniaffe it is '' l , ' ' ' 

derived, neither does th^^thor of "^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ '"^^ ^^ '™T ^^°* 
Aruch^ give it. I, however, find ^^ '^"^ "^"^^ ^'^^ '^^ "7 TFB 
that the Chaldee of the Song of '^^ ^^T P^ '"JP**' "^^ n^f? rP^ 
Songs paraphrases '^ his cheeks are f'TD*r 7*11 inip» no? no'B' miDDn 
like beds of balsam" [v. 13], by 

** the two tables of stone which He gave to his people were written in 
ten rows [Shittiyi], resembling the rows or beds [Shittrn] in the garden 
of balsam.*' Thus, also, the Targum of Joseph translates, '* noted 
it in a book" [Isa. xxx. 8], by "register it on the lines [Shittin] 
of the book.'* Thus, too, our Rabbins of blessed memoiy called the 
lines of a book Shita, when they say, ** it is necessary to leave four 
empty lines [= Shittin] between each book," **the beginning of a 
line [ = Shitay "the end of a line [= Shita],'* &c. They also 
remark on P»9^^S^t? Chedorlaomer [Gen. xiv. 9], that it is to be 
separated into two words in one line, but it must not be separated 
into two lines.^ The Massorites likewise call that Shita which our 
Rabbins of blessed memory called Shita, that is, a register of things 

M The number of Piskin in each book of the Bible is as follows : — 



Genesis . . . . 


. 29 


Isaiah 


. 80 


Song of Songs . 
Ecclesiastes . . 


. 10 


Exodns . . . . 


. 14 


Jeremiah .... 


. 31 


. 3 


Leviticns . . . . 


. 8 


Ezekiel .... 


. 28 


Lamentations . 


. 8 


Nnmbera . . . . 


. 22 


Minor Prophets . . 


. 10 


Esther. . . . 


. 6 


Denteronomy . . 


. 22 


1 and 2 Chronicles . . 


. 63 


Daniel . . . 


. 8 


Joshua . . . . 


. 17 


Psalms .... 


. 40 


Ezra-Nehemiah 


. 13 


Judges . . . . 


7 


Job 


. 6 






1 and 2 Samuel 


. 48 


Proverbs .... 


. 8 




479 


land 2 Kings . . 


. 45 


Ruth 


4 







They are enumerated in the Massorah finalis, p. 63, &o. 

^ For the author of the Aruch^ i. e., R. Nathan b. Jeohiel, see above, p. 2. 

w The Talmudic discussion on the orth(Mraph^ of the proper name Chedorlaomer, 
to which Levita refers, is to be found in OhtMti, 65 a. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Tbey call Shurek, MUriL, in op- nnsni yop" *Ti3 Vp^>d pnirn Itnpl 
position to Kametz^ Pattach, and ,^*3;Vd v^iDDip ne'j^ 13*odb' id3 ,n*xni 
T«^r« ; as ^^\0^ they judged us naj? >p^ '?«»•? nan ,pnte liate 'i2id&^ 
[Dan. ix. 12], is Milel, ^OBC^ /i^ D'DinD«'!rn^»pf?DnTT3i«nT dk ,pf?''3Qi 
jn^ed]'^ [1 Sam. vm. 20], is md; ^^^^^ ^.,„ ^.^ ^,j^^ ^;„ ' .^i^ 

^Ti'i^'^t^'r^i m. [Lam 1 19], „^ ,^^ ^ t^ ^^^^^ ^^ „;:^„ ,^ 
IS .Wm. ;^Dn A. rf.mr.rf ,.. [2 Sam ^^ ^ ^^ ^^^,^^ ^^-^ 

XIX. 271, is Mura; «*n' f/i^/ shall '^ ^ ^' ^ , ' ' 

/.f u. /L [2 Kings vii. 4], '^MUel, '\'^'^ '^"'« "^^ ' '3^^ ™«^ °^ 
«^!n^ ^^ tri7Z make m live [Hos. vi. 'T""^" '^"=^"^«' ^»= 'J^"'^ f^]"" "^^^PP 
2], is 3f/7ra. The Kibbutz again >*J^^ «°"'=' P "TO io=> ^'P? nriDn n« 
is Milel, in opposition to Tzere and ^'P' ^^92 ore ,v')h yD2i mrv nnprr 
C/arcA; as ^^jnin t«/om w,* [1 pnte «in yoprf *d' pK pi ; p^ to ♦nnw 
Sam. Ti. 2], is Milel, ■liVnhn teach h^vhn «in mn ,*n3nDr loa ,p-nwn T33 
MS [Job xxxvii. 19], is Milra ; OnbxS 'ip'i) r^-n p-ii ,f?'pf7D ;p5 hh id3 ,n'jtn naa 
according to their nations [Gen. xxv. )*rD 'aa vnaief no ^a o pii ;pn^ («"♦ 
16], isaWW, DnteN!? fo «/iWr mothers rnooa ^aK ,n^n3 mooa n^k Mm ,iWn 
^Lament, ii. 12], is Milra. Now, K^ ono nrw diw ^p una t«<^ nyap 
though Kametz-Chatuph in oppo- ® : n^^ pi pi^d t^^i ^'yte 

8itiontopo/^;/^isM//m,asIhave ^, ^^.^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ nnyi.« 
already shown, yet m opposition to "^ 




11], is Milra: ^\ his falling [1 F^^«T^^ 1 ^^r^v^ , crriSi »n;?n 
Sam. xxix. 8J, is Milel, ^bw /,« PS=>1 ^^o ^^"^«»r)3 p ^^ ^KIBOT KpDD 
>/Z% [2 Sam. i. 10], is Milra, n^^rKna -iDoa ]i« ,mioDn *D '^p r3D3 Dm 
Thus, also, Kametz, though Milra P^ JPPOB B"* ni»3r nDoai ,|*pD D-a 
in opposition to Shurek, as I have 

stated, is Mild in opposition to Tzere ; as XHT if w soicn [Ps. xcvii. 
11], is Milelj y^"lT sown [Levit. xi. 87], is Milra, It is to be borne in 
mind that all which I have stated about these two kinds is only to be 
found in the Massorah magna ; in the Massorah parva the Massorites 
have not remarked upon a single one of these instances, either Milel 
or Milray but they simply say, **not extant." 

Ig^ Let me now explain the meaning of Piskin, There is one 
accent called Psak or Psik, which is a straight line ( | ) between two 
words. It consists of two kinds, the one is a Psik not followed by 

the accent Bebio^AB in DV ^i«^ I D^n^K Vn^^\ and God called the light 
dag [Gen. i. 4], n7| I ^i^f they have done it, they have accomplished [Gen. 
xviii. 21]. This is called by the Massorites Psik of the Book, because it 
occurs in every book of the Scriptures, and is enumerated in the Mas- 
sorah as, in Genesis there are twenty-nine Piskas, in Exodus nineteen, 

^ 'The instanoes which illnstrate all the remarks of Levitaf made in this paragraph, 
are contained in the alphabetical list of Jlilcls and JUilras given in note 82 of the 
preceding page. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



wherein those which haye Cholenif Y^^p iK ,pn» 1K ,QSin inaer n^^hnr^ 

Shureky OT Kibbutz, orecBMedMUel; w ,fpn ^p im ,^p jna T»in ,hjhQ 

whilst those which have Kametz, -iokj k^ nn ; pte p-rn ik ,nx ik ,nnD 

KametZ'Chatephy Pattach, Tzere, ^Brj^ni ; yhn d*3» o^ar f?^ niJii f?y ot 

or CTir^ft, are called MUra This, nniam of^mn nnnn nite 'a vn^D 

however, is only the case with groups ^^ ,^,p ,,,3 ,^ ^^p ^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 



of pairs. As, for instance, when a ,^11 . Jl' # l l l ' 

word occurs twice, once .dth Cho^ '""^^^ ^''' ;T^hn in^n^h^ph^ of^mar 
hm and another time with Kametz, '"^^ ^''^ ^« ^n^nf. ^f^D i^dd -^h 
Kametz-ckateph, or T^^r^; the "i^- '^^ "'"J^^ "«^ '^^'^^ "'=^" 1?:^ 
Massorites caU the one with Cholem, "7" '^-^ '^^"^ °'»^P "^^^^ «-=?^^ ^^^ 
MiUl, and the rest MZra. Thus, Q*^«J?o»' nn^h >ipte o^rm n^mh ,pn'7D 
^?« [Gen. iii. 11] is MUel, ^K ^"^1 !r^7 ^^^tt^d odd l^^ifen ,pnte 
mting o/jT>eut. xii. 28], is MUra; ":pnfe 

^^7^. it^haU drop [Eccl. x. 18], is 

Mii^Z, ^^1* JicUaph [Gen. xxii. 22], is JfiZra ; ^3^^ t^ are quenched 
[Ps. cxviii. 12], is Milel, ^Jf^ [Isa. xliii. 17], is MUra; rtnik, ^A^ 
travellers [Isa. xxi. 18], is MtZ^Z, nnnVc a company of [Gen. zxxvii. 25], 
is MUra; PlJ^n fo rwfe [Judg. ix. 2], is Milely /fi^OH «o rw/^ [Job 
XXV. 2], is MUra.^ 



TDM. 



^ The alphabetical list to which Levita refers, and which illnstrateB all his remarks 
on the second kind, is as follows : — 

^Xffnnn . . 1 Sam. vi. 2 
iay*Tin . . Job xxzrii. 19 
•V\sy\ . . 1 Chron. t. 20 
W3') . . . Isa. xix. 22 
U^T^'^y) . . Esther riii. 8 
Dnn3l . . Esther iii. 12 
Dl^ . . Eccl. xii. 4 
pH . . . . Ezra ii. 5» Dph ... Job xxii. 28 
b3M ... Esther i. 8 17CQ1 . . Jerem. xxx. 21 
^*rSKi^ . . . Zech. ix. 10 
m . . . . Ps. xcvii. 11 
yni .... Levit. xi. 37 
pn . . . Gen. xxxiii. 6 
I3n . . . . Isa. xxx. 19 
. Habak. i. 13 
ProT. xxii. 11 
2 Kings vii. 4 
. Hos. Ti. 2 
. Eccl. X. 18 
Gen. xxii. 22 
Ps. Ixxviii. 72 
. Isa. xriii. 5 
. Gen. xxT. 16 
Lament ii. 12 
Isa. Ixi. 1 
Joeliv. 8 
1 Sam. xiv. 6 
nnan . . . Joel iv. ll lanyo . . Prov. xxv. 28 
The list is given in the Massorah finaUs under the letter Alephy p. 2 a, col. 4-2 6, 
col. 2', and m the OcMa Ve-Ochla, section ▼., pp. 5, 13, &c. The latter adds nrc^S 
(Zech. xiii. 9; Ps. Ixvi. 10), as not being included in the Massoretic list (Mn*i1Di3D Sib), 
whilst it deviates in its description of nnarr and pa. 



p». 



D3M . 

twa 
lama 

T33n 

to«n 



. Dent. xii. 28 

. Gen. iii. 11 

Ezek. XXT. 8 

Prov. xxv. 7 

. Isa. xxi. 13 

Gen. xxxvii. 25 

Nehem. vii. 61 

. Ezra ii. 59 

. Esther i. 8 

. Dan. iv. 6 

. Ps. xxvii. 2 

2 Sam. XV. 6 

Nehem. viii. 6 

Josh. xxii. 22 

Job xxxvi. 14 

2 Sam. xviii. 12 

Nehem. ix. 37 

Gen. xlvii. 18 

.Ps. cxviii. 12 

. Isa. xliii. 17 

Ezek. xxviii. 9 

Job xxxiv. 31 

.l8a,lv. 2 

Micah ii. 7 

Jndg. ix. 2 

Job xxv. 2 

Dan. V. 20 

Joel iv. 11 



"VTO 



nrr. . 

ona 

Dna 

Dno«b . 

DnoMb. 

onawb. 

Tiaryo . 
lama . 



2 Kings xxi. IS 
Isa. xxviii. 17 
Dent, xxxii. 18 
Ezek. xxviii. 9 
Isa. xxvii. 11 
m»«0 ... Ps. xix. 9 
|na . . 2 Kings xxiii. 11 
»na . . . Gen. xxxviiL 9 
fna . . . . Judg. vi. 28 
yna . . 2 Chron. xxxiii. 8 
Ona . . . Hos. xiii. 14 
Dna ... 1 Chron. iv. 19 
iboa ... 1 Sam. xxix. 8 
l^a . . . .2 Sam. i. 10 
'n»a» . . . Ps. cxix. 71 
*n'a» . . . Ps. XXXV. 18 
nwJ . . . Isa. iv. 4 
nH3 • • ' Szek iv. 12 
^aMlp . . . Isa. xlix. 1 
'a»«np .... Job iv. 14 
^aiOT . . Lament i. 19 
'aon ... 2 Sam. xix. 27 
^rh^XO . . Gen. xliii. 14 
»ntaw . . Gen. xliii. 14 
laiBDV} . . . Dan. ix. 12 
larsDttn . . 1 Sam. viii. 20 
naiMTI Song of Songs iv. 6 
^«n Song of Songs vii. 4 



Digitized by 



Google 



207 



one of which is MUel, and the other 'mi h^hn '« p»na c^'d yhn 'a 'a |0 
Milra, as ^nto «^ //mj t^« [Isa. xl. Ti ^? r'^T^^o na»S Vnto ,pi'70 
22], 3fiZe;/and ^Hto [Isa. xxxviii. ''^ T^^ 'a 'a p |uit a-a ]ai »;r^D 
12], MUm;^ the twenty-two pairs >'»^ T" H?^n ,Pi^ '«i ^*P^ '« ]n^»*ia 
of two words, each beginning with ®^ : pi^ "]'D» "]^Dn iH^in 

Far, one of which is Mild, and ,nmp3n i«iy ^p id«3 win 'an pDHI 
the other MilrUf as ^9^!1 «»wi ^ ^Hlp9 nVna mooa «n*a kd^ jno rn 
desired [1 Chron. xi. 17], Mi7«Z, 
and ^^'J?^. ctnd he shall desire [Ps. xlv. 12], MUra, &c.^i 

The second kind comprises the other vowel -points. Of these, 
there is an alphabetical list in the Massorah magna giving words 

They are given in the Massorah finalis under the letter Beth^ p. 14a, eols. 3 and 4; 
Massorah marginalis on Isa. viii. 1 ; and Ocfda Ve-Ochla^ section xlix., pp. 15, 56. 

w The alphabetical list of words banning with Kaph^ which only occur twice, once 
Milra, or with 8heva as its substitntiye feeble vowel, and once MUel, or with the real 
Yowel, is as follows : 

Qiro Song of Songs iv. 8 



nmD3 
nmD3 
mnD3 



. Ps. Im. 17 
. Isa. Y. 25 
Prov. i. 27 
. . Isa. y. 28 
Ps. Ixxxiii. 12 
nTiW Song of Songs v. 11 
-f^ . . . Lament, ii. 4 
-,5f3 . . . . . Isa. V. 28 
"SrVPQ • • • Job zxrii. 7 
j^tro • • Gen. xviii. 25 
rwi^j . . . ProT. i. 27 
n«lt)3 . Ezek. xxzriii. 9 
n3>inV3 Song of Songs ii. 2 
n3tn«3 . . Hos. xiv. 6 



^nM3 . . laa. xxxviii. 12 

^riio . . . Isa. xl. 22 myrr^ . . JudgT xvi. 12 

DTVO . . Numb. xxiv. 6 pro ... Ps. xix. 6 

D'rwa . Song of Songs ▼. 15 pro . . . Isa. Ixi. 10 

pajO • • .laa. xxix. 5 nVrO . . . Levit. iv. 26 

paH3 .... Isa. V. 24 3^ . , . Ps. cxix. 70 

maa • 2 Chron. xxxiv. 82 -naD3 . . . Isa. xvii. 13 

nniD . . Jerem. xxxi. 82 -nn33 . . . Ezek. iiL 23 

biQaa . . . Ps. oxxxi. 2 niaa . . . Ps. xxxi. 13 

Vioaa . . . Ps. cxxxi. 2 noD . . Numb. xii. 12 

apTQT . . . Prov. xii. 4 riDIQD . . . Ps. Ixxi. 7 

aproi . . . Hos. V. 12 nD"t03 . . 1 Kings xiii. 5 

TD^ai . . . Ps. xvii. 12 nai'Toa . . . . Isa. i. 8 

I^DDDI . . . Hos. V. 14 n3l^D . . . Isa. xxiv. 20 

This catalogue is given in the Massorah finalis under the letter JTapA, p. 88 a, 

col. 1 ; and in the Ochla Ve-Ochla, section xi. pp. 7, 19, &o. The alphabetical order 

will be seen after the letter KapK 

n The twenty-two words beginning and ending with Vav, each one of which occurs 

twice, once Milra, or with Vav conjunctive, and once MUel, or with Vav CvUversive, 

are as follows : — 

. . Isa. xlv. 8 ia3ttn . . Ps. xxxviL 29 
. Gen. xlvii. 27 ^:atcry . . Gen. xxv. 18 
. 1 Kings xxi. 10 yoy^ • • • Job xii. 15 
. 1 Kings xxi. 18 iionn . . . Isa. xl. 24 
. . Ps. xxii. 27 ipsn . 1 Kings xviii. 84 
. . Hos. xiii. 6 ip^n . . 2 IGngs iv. 4D 
. 1 Sam. XXX. 22 ijrsn . . . Ps. IxxiL 16 
. 1 Sam. XXX. 2 rrm . . . Ps. xcii. 8 
. Levit. xxii. 2 iM»n . . Jerem. xv. 1 
. . Hos. ix. 10 i«2n . . Gen. xxxiv. 26 
. . Amos ix. 1 I'orn . . . Gen. xii. 85 
Isa. xxiv. 18 inaan . . Exod. viii, 10 
Exod. xxviii. 28 TT^TSn . . Jerem. v. 28 
Exod. xxxix. 21 irP^ . 2 Chron. xiv. 6 
Jerem. xxiii. £2 
. Kehem. xii. 42 

They are given in the Massorah finalis under the letter Vav, p. 295, cols. 1 and 

2 ; and in the OcfUa Ve- Ochla, section xlv., pp. 14, 52, &o. It will be seen that though 

the Massorah states in the heading of this rubric that there are twenty-two such 

instances, it gives twentif -three. This arises from the fact that the word I373vn (Ps. 

xxii. 27 ; Hos. xiii. 6), which is an addition to this rubric, has inadvertendly been mixed 

up with it. In the OcMa Ve-Odiia it is rightly separated. 



iKnn 


. . P8.X1V. 


12 


ITin . 


i«n^ . 


. 1 Chron. xi. 


17 


iiin. 


yrvarvy . 


. . Job xxvi. 


11 




inonn . 


. Gen. iliii. 


38 


imon 


TVI'l 


. Numb. xiii. 


2 


wn^ri 


"nrn 


. Numb. xiii. 


21 


iMwn 


oom . 


. . Job xii. 


15 


lanan 


i2Dm . 


. 1 Sam. xxv. 


12 


lamn 


ITPI • 


Ezek. xxxvii. 


9 


man 


ITPl . . 


Ezek. xxxvii. 


10 


VT131 


lacn 


Ps. cxxix. 


5 




MCt*y 


Ps. Ixxviii. 


67 




inKan. 


Habak. i. 


15 


IDbTl 


iriDDtn. 


. 1 Sam. xiv. 


52 


1D3T1 


lanan . 


2 Chron. xviii. 


14 


yff'rs^a^ 


lana^ . 


. 1 Chron. v. 


20 


"iratn 



Digitized by 



Google 



206 



ocftura twenty-one times," and y^V*^ '^'^^ o^'"! °^ '^P"^ ^ ",Ne''3 vn^. 
shall know, nineteen times,'* which ,b*DjrDn anp *3BD f?*p^D dpud v^v »*Dp« 
according to rule ought all to be ,|roin» mmt rr ^« ,n^ htj^ jynpn "]Tn im 
Milra; and though some of them mon^n pa }^^<|y 'ef? ,Tan hid nai k^ 
are Milel, because of the proximity . nmpsn 

of the accents, as ^^\ it 8hM he , ' ' _ 

calUd [Isa. mv. 8], XHI A. ,/iaZZ ^^ "'^''^ moDa h,03 ^a JHI^ 
know [1 Sam. xx. 81, they do P^ .^^P^" nmn hv «'«r pif?Di f^^^^D 
not say a single word inasmuch ^«*^^ ^^^^^ "^^ ^mp:n ni3n»n f?p 
as no change of vowel has taken '^ ^^ °"^ ^^^"^^ P^ ^'*T«' ^'^ ^"^ 
place in them. ' Y^^ 

S'Mark, moreover, that a kind of ]vt^v yhm 'a jd tstm ^^^<n J^On 
Milel and MiZra .occurs in the Mas- ^jn^Kn rwiaw V'»in w ,yh2 nrnw 
Bordi magna, which does not refer nmanai t<^v:i nnipa m rnM nteai 
to the position of the accents, but to l ,^^p^ j„,^ ^.^ rr^^n^ ^„, ^^a 
the change of tiie vowels. Thisisthe onipn nJoa *nana n^na ,^^.1 prn 
case with words which occur twice, ^ ' A 

and which the Massorites denomi^ ^'^' 'l^^"^;" •**^"" ^^ •'l^^^*' ^^f"^ 
nate pairs. They are of two kinds. "^^^J 1" ^^'^ P^ ^''' ph ^^ytt, T.n^ 

The first class consists of two Tti f?'p^D nn piT k- p:a f^rom :Ta^ 
words beginning with the serviles '^"V ^^1^. ^'^ ,pn»na n'»ai pnte 
JTop/i, iaw^d, and Bethy before the a'^< P^ '»; Pif?D r^fw n^ia >pte 
preformative Aleph^ Jod, Tav, and 

Nun of the future, one word of which is pointed with Sheva, and 
the other with Pattach, followed by Dagesh; as is the case with those 
words called Dagesh and Raphes as I have explained in the preceding 
section. Normally there is no difference between those called Dagesh 
and Raphe and those which they call pairs, except that the latter 
only are arranged in pairs. Thus, for instance, the eleven paii-s, one 
which is MihU and one Milray beginning with Beth; as riiyo'ja. 
in tears, Milel [Lament, ii. 11], and fliybia, Milra [Ps. Ixxx. 6^, 
&e. ;'' the alphabetical list of double pairs of words beginning with Kaph, 

77 The twentf-one instances in which VTXp* occurs, are as foUofws : Gen. ii. 28 ; xvii. 5 ; 
ZXX7. 10 ; zxi. 12 : Namh. xxiii. S : Dent. iii. 13 ; xxii. 6 : 1 Sam. ix. 9 : Isa. iv. 1 ; 
siy. 20 ; xxxi. 4 ; xxxii. 5 ; Ivi. 7 ; xxxv. 8 ; Uv. 6 ; i. 26 ; Ixii. 12 : Jerem. xix. 6 : Isa. 
Ixii. 4; Ptov. xyi. 21 : Esther iv. 11. They are ^yen in the Massorah marginalis on 
Jerem. xix. 6. It will be seen that two of the instances, viz., Nnmb. xxiii. 3 ; Dent* 
xxii. 6, are not from Hnp, to call, 

78 xhe nineteen passages in which W occurs are, Josh. xxii. 22 : 1 Sam. xx. 3 ; xxi. 
8 : Isa. vii. 16 ; viii. 4 ; lii. 6 : Jerem. xxxyi. 19 ; xl. 15 ; xxxyiii. 24 : Job xiv. 21 : Ps. 
xxiy. 8 ; xxxix. 7 ; xcii. 7 : Proy. xxiy. 12 ; xxyiii. 22 : Eccl. yiii. 6 (twice) ; ix. 12 ; x. 14. 
They are giyen in the Massorah marginalis on Ps. xcii. 7. 

7* The eleyen pairs of words beginning with Beth^ which rcspectiyely occnr once 
Milra (t. e., with Sheva^ or its snhstitntiye feeble yowel) and once MUel (t. e., with the 
real yowel), are as follows: — 





. . Pb.1xxx. 6 


nViSQ3 


Ps. cyii. 


24 


yaan 


. . Dent. xxiy. 


8 


IT0MD13 


. Lament, ii. 11 


rfnsoa 


Zech.i. 


8 


»a:a 


. . Leyit. xiii. 


8 


rrn . 


. . Ban. yii. 12 


ro^ooa . 


Isa. xix. 


2 


nhwn 


. . Exod. xxyii. 


7 


"na . 


. . Job xxiy. 22 


rx^foai . 


Amos ix. 


8 


nN«?a 


. . Leyit. xiii. 


10 


Dina . 


. . Isa. viii. 1 


"pDl . . 


Ps. Ixxiv. 


5 


"ti3ra 


. Leyit. xxyi 


2 


T£nm . 


. Exod. xxxii. 4 


^301 . . 


Gen. xxii. 


13 


•^i3na 


. . Leyit. yii. 


9 


rrtyid 


. Esther ix. 16 




. Amos iy. 


2 








manoa 


Lament. L 1 


riTTDn . 2 C 


Iiron. xxxy. 


18 




Digitized by vJiC 


)0 



si 



205 



shalt water it [Deut. xi. 101, on "lonf? nrw no^v pi » ; ^^te n*f? "]f?r)3 
which the Massoretic remaxK is, 'n««nKnaniD3,^»p^Drpnn3n*?3ipnte 
" not extant, Milel ;" ™ and also an- /a fp\y\ pi w jhdd^ »nrK jd'di ,jnte n^h 
other register — ^in which the reverse p^ '//n fppi jai ^sp^^o '«, ^♦p^o '3 
is the case— of words, which in one ^^^^ 1,^^03 on t^^pf;,^ q^ ivk w f?'pf? 'ai 
instance only are MiZm, whilst in ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ,^ t,p ,^,^^3 ^ ^^ ^ 
all other passages they are Milel, 
as t^^f} come now [Gen. xxix. 21], 
noted "not extant as Milra,'*'^^ 
They also remark on ^dVi and he added, "three times, twice Milel and 
once MUraf"^^ as well as on ^?1^ she shaU add, ^^^yb times, thrice 
Milra and twice Milel" ^ Those which are Milel have iS^oZ, whilst 
those which are Milra have, according to grammar, Tzere; and, in 
consequence of this change, the Massorites counted them, and have 
given the marks of the passages ; whilst, with regard to those in which 
tiie said change does not take place, as ^^, it shall he called, which 



;o»3BD jna »n:i Dm« i3D on ,nn nianrn 
paa ,^*33 man^n |na j»kw nite ^a« 



7B The thirty-eight words which respectively have in one instance only the accent on 
the pennltima are as follows : — 



rnvn 
mi . 

rrsp. 



nmTQ 
Dpn 
no* . 

cnn. 



. . Dent. xi. 10 
. Deut. xvii. 12 

Gen. xviii. 20 
. . Oen. zzi. 6 
. . Levit. XV. 13 
Nnmb. xxi. 5 
. Jndg. xviii. 28 
. . Ruth iv. 15 
. 2 Sam. xxiii. 1 

Judg. xiii. 21 
. . Ezek. xiv. 12 
. 2 Kings vi. 7 

Isa. xxviii. 20 



mv . 


. Ezek. xix. 14 


rro^ 


. Job vii. 20 


mtDi . 


. . .I8a.vi.l8 


»» 


. Prov. xi. 26 


"O© 


. 2£ingsvii. 6 


mp* . 


. Prov. iii. 15 


sno 


. 1 Sam. XXX. 6 


pnn 


Prov. xvii. 10 


nainnnn 


. . Ezek. xl. 19 


To«ni . 


. Prov. vii. 18 


TOISTfT? 


. 2Kingsxvi. 18 


nw'w . 


Prov. XXX. 24 


nyi . 


. . Isa. xxiv. 19 


no'ffT . 


Ezek. xlii. 20 


mam . 


. Isa. xxxii. 11 


ysa 


. . Prov. i. 19 


rrm 


. Ezek. xxiv. 11 


•an . . 


. Job. vi. 22 


v^i . 


. . Isa. Ixiii. 12 


tnw. . 


. Job xxiii. 9 


P3r . . 


. 2 Kings iii. 11 
. . Job xix. 17 


yott) . 


. . Ps.cl. 6 


mi . . 


::rmn . 


. Eccl.iii.l6 


•ns 


. . Jobxxvi. 8 







nan 


Gen. xxix. 21 


rvtto 


rmo 


. . Gen. XXX. 1 


nrrw^ 


HT . . 


. . Gen.xU. 33 


Drt. 


yccm 


Gen. xlvii. 11 


m . 


'nxD . 


. . Exod. X. 1 


warw 




. . Exod. xl. 4 


iQXon 


mram. 


. . Levit. XV. 29 


xcrw 



They are given in the Massorah finaUs, under the " variations between the Easterns and 
Westerns, p. 62 a, cols. 8 and 4. The Ochla Ve-OcMa, section coolxxii., pp. 61, 171, 
gives seventeen additional instances, whilst it omits some which are contained in our list. 
7^ The list of words which on the contrary occur only once with the accent on the 
ultima is as follows : — 

. Levit. xxiv. 6 Dmo . . , Isa. xlix. 15 
Numb, xxvii. 13 Tpia . . . Amos vii. 14 
. . Judg. V. 8 yoim . . . Ps. Ixxi. 4 
. . Judg. vi. 8 "ttW . . . Prov. xxiii, 7 
. 1 Kings xvi. 9 mi3 . . . Job xxiiL 7 
. . Isa. vii. 4 irro , . . Job xxx. 80 
. . Isa. xl.24 

There are also two others, about which there is a difTerenoe of opinion, viz., mtm 
Numb. xxxi. 27, and n^vn Zech. vi. 11. They are enumerated in the Ochla Ve-OeMa, 
section ccclxxiii., pp. 61, 172. 

7S The two instances in which rp^ is Milel are, Prov. i. 5 ; ix. 2. ; and the one 
insfance of Milra is in 2 Sam. xxiv. 8. See the Massorah marginalis on 2 Sam. xxiv. 8. 
78 The three passages in which rpn occurs MUra are, Gen. iv. 2 ; Deut. xiii. 1 : 
Ps. civ. 29. It wlU be seen that in tne first two instances it is the Hiphil future of 
W to add ; whilst in the third passage it is Kal future, second person singular mascu- 
line for nOMD &om riDM to gather. They are enumerated in the Massonih marginalis 
on Exod. iv. 12, and in the Ochla VeOcUa^ Section iv. of the additions, pp. 62, 178. 
The two passages in which it is MUel are, Exod. x. 28 ; Deut. iii. 26. Comp. Massorah 
marginalis on Exod. x. 28. 



Digitized by 



Google 



204 

Dageshy as "ipp? the tithe of [LeTit. ,n"iDT i»«r ^di '^,^^3) pnn -itop im 

xxvii. 80], &c.,'^ and in all other pni ,-|)n nfe^ im rme tpna ^"i 

instances it is Raphe, that is, with : iip Mxt^ri) 

Chateph'pattach, as "^^ tA^ ti^A^ jn^D3) ^^M ^3nn *TDl*Wn 

o/ [Deut. liv. 28], &c. Examine, j^pjan ba na*n ^f? ]»« ^a pn :D*pDB) 

and you wiU find it so. ,^ p^^^^ ,^ ^^^^ ,^ „«^ ^^^ 

Section IV., concerning Milely _,„,„ r^,„^L ^^^^^ x^^ ,^^^, ' ,*• 

3ft7ra, and P«A.-Mark that there L "f °^ u '^ ^^^ '^ " 

is not a single word in the whole iP^;"^" 'l^cTX.^'j:^'''' ' ''''^^ 

Scripture without an accent either ^^^ =»"^ '"'^^° ^ '^''"^ "^^"^ 

at the beginning, middle, or end. r«^ » ^^^^ ^« •'''^° ^«^ ^O""!" «ini 

Now, the Massorites call the place ™=^^^ ^^^ nf?pBf?D nvturw tsna nanan 

on which the accent rests by two nawK-m nwa oponva «^ /n»n c)oa 

Aramaic names. The one is ^*pte ^^'P^o ^^ ^^<^p ,jrxDK3 iK na^rm fw 

MiZtfZ, which is the translation of ; pi^o ^h wnp na*nn cjioa mn i^ioi 

the Hebrew n^yoSlD /rowi a6or«; cpoa . Ton nvn^ oj'-nr ni^D »♦ nam 

and the other is jn^o MiZra, and Qjnr »m ,p-)f?B ntsn dj»t» w»i ,f?»pVD 

is the translation of the Hebrew f^^t, ^^ ^^ o^Dj^ef?! h^hn onapef? 

nOD or nnno/roi^i behw. By this ^^^ Qpi^ 3^53 ^^Da^ ; q^^md if^Ne 

IS not meant i^at the accent is i^i^^ ^,^,^ f?a 1•^HU^nnan wr 

either above or below the centre of ^,l ^^^^ «.«,.«. ^,^^^ .,»^ ^« lL 

the letter, but when the accent is ' l r 

either on the first letter of the -rpit^vr^p^nm^^i^inhm^onn^hj,^^^ 

word, or on the middle, they caU l l_ l •°V^'°*' 

it Milel, and when it is on the end ™ ""''^ ™ ^ ^=^7^ •*' 7 ^^^"^ 
of the word they denominate it ^"^T^ ^"^T^^^ ^^ 'J^'O w ''P'O nopo 
MiZra. Now there are some words ^« PV^^ ^nr 7}m pa \r'w m^on njfpa 
which, according to rule, are always T^o n*^ )& tvft< nor pia ;|n*np3a 
3I?7eZ ; and there are others, again, ni?^ pw ,pi^o rrnnan ^ai ^^te 
which, according to rule, are always 

Milra; whilst some, again, are at times Milel, and at other times MUra. 
Still there are exceptions to all these. In the book entitled Good 
Sense, which I have determined to compose, all these rules will be 
explained, together with all the other laws of the accents, if God 
permit.^ It must be added, that the Massorites make but very few 
desultory remarks on this subject. 

As a rule, they do not note every single word, whether it has the 
accent on the penultima or on the ultima, but only very occasionally 
mark some words which are anomalous, either in their accents or 
points. Thus, for instance, they give a register of thirty-eight words, 
which in one case only have the accent on the penultima, whilst in all 
other passages they have the accent on the ultima, as H^jp^ni and thou 

71 The three instanoes in which ' w y P ocoors with Dagesh = with Sheva under the 
Jjin are, Levit. xxvii. 82 : Nnmh. xviii. 24 : Levit. xxvii. 80. They are given in the 
JkuMflorah finalis under the letter JjiUt p. fil by col. 2. 

n The Dissertation on the AccentSj to which Levita refers, appeared in 1589, within 
twelve months of the pnhlication of the treatise on the Massorah (vide supray p. 63, &c,) 
The discnssion on the tone accents, oxMilel andlft7ra, is contained in the sixth chapter 
of the dissertation in qnestion. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Let me now give you the ,i ,3 ,k ne* p^o ']h rim nnv) J9i 
letters ^^A, Beth, Gimmel,Daleth, «in nafin VH129 mr ^a ^"n '«i :n t 
and H/? as a new and appropriate 'a ^nra ^"i 'a :»3^ »tw5 loa ,k3 hw 
mnemonical sign for it. Aleph[= ije^rn m pwnn ;ia'nn'p»2»3 |w» 
first] means that whenever Sheva is ^,^,b ph^i h"i '1 ;mY ;m^ ids ,573 
mider the first letter of a word, it is .^•, „, ^,„ „l,^, ' ' 11 ' ' ' >•,«• i,^ 
vocal, as ^?a yW hear my son [Prov. ^_ l,,, . . ,,^,^ nv,«*^ ««w, «««* 
i. S]; bA[L two] means that :!" l' ^ ' ^"^^^ °^^" '^*^- '"f 
when two Sh^a^ occur in the mid- "^^ '"^^ ^^^ '""^^^■' ^^^ "^^^ •*^«' ^^ 
die of a word, the first is silent and ^ ^'"*«^^ ""'^"^ ^'^^ ^"^ '" > l"'^^'" 
the second is vocal, as ^VOK^ t% ^^=^'5^^ ^^^ ^^^^ naiwnm ^tidh nvm» 
shall hear, no^t they shM ham, o"fi^n«.m m^ m)»inn ifi"Vn»r ^rn-^ 
&c. ; (^imwwr/, which is the initial P^ 'P''^^^ '^«f maps pa kiwi mp 
of nSna ^^, means that whenever "' ^'^^^ » V^""^^^ '^ "»^=>3^2 '^ «^»" '.^^'7 
5A^'a follows^ a long syllahle it is • *^^" ^^^ *2 injDxm ,p'on 

vocal, as ^"^ they kept, U^]! and ^^n ^h |rwi ^wiarKin hv ntw Pl^ni 
t% dweUed^ DWin t^ coming, ^^ rn^ob:! mxm ;»ii iKnpr Ki»n «?p 
&c. ; Daleth, which is the initial of lO^ ^B^e^B «i»a f?"T ,«rjna HD^pn p»^ 
Dagesh, means that whenever iSA^ra p*'^ ^3 pi ; p'om ^ta^. d^ dki 
is under a letter with Dagesh it is ^"^h tdik ^norw ■]D33 ^x3 id3 ,»3T H^DH 
vocal, as ^*iaT </itfi/ «po/c^, nns*? a ppna ^"i p'iBT 'n p \m ,]n*Dni wp 
irorrf, &c. ; whilst the letter He, ^^^p^ npro »"n loa ,^i:o c|Bn3 w nriD 
which is the initial of niDnn ,D»»m':'ieT;DnD«pi TOj^antsnwmx 
alike signifies that when two 

letters which are alike come together, and the first has Sheva, it is 
vocal, as in aj??/n HaUelujah, where, though the first Lamed has no 
Dagesh, yet it is called vocal Sheva hecause of the two Lameds, and 
*?3n behold I, in which Sheva is vocal because of the two Nuns. 
Bemember this mnemonical sign, and treasure it up, for it is useful. 

I shall return now to my first subject, and give you an example 
of a Sheva, which the Massorites call Dagesh, They make the 
following remark in the Massorah: ''the expression iiD^y to con- 
ceal, has always Dagesh;'' that is, it is always with simple Sheva, 
as ^D^^^ D^^n hiding they shall hide [Levit. xx. 4], &c. They also 
say the word n^DPI to trust, has always Dagesh, as "^^^K / shall 
trust [Ps. Ivii. 2J, ^pno my shelter [Ps. xci. 2], &c., except in six 
instances, in which it is Raphe, that is, with Chateph-pattnch or 
Chateph'Segol, as HDno refuge [Joel iv. 16], '^^p? I shnll trust [Ps. 
xviii. 8], Ac.'® They also remark, KS^ tithe, occurs three times with 

70 This is snrely a mistake, sinoe the Massorah marginalis on Ps. Izii. 9, enomeratefl 
nine instances in which TTDH is Baphe^ or has Chateph-pattach. They are as follows : — 



nono . . . Ps. Ixii. 9 
rOTO . . . Ps. ilvi. 2 
rOTO . . . Joel iv. 16 



*DrTO . . . Ps. Ixxi. 7 
*Dno . . Jerem. xrii. 17 
niDn^ . . . Ps. cxriii. 8 



niDnb . . . Ps. cxYiii. 9 
niDTl^ . . . Rnth ii. 12 
rron ... Ps. Ivii. 2 



The Massorah, moreover, adds that nOTTM 1^33 VJtai «'ba 'Cn "1131 nOTTM V3"i, the future 
noilN is Ukexoise Raplit^ everywhere except in one instance^ viz., Ps. Ivii. 2. In the 
Massorah finalis, nnder the letter Cheth 32 a, ool. 2, where reference is made to the 
^ord in question, it is also distinctly stated that it is nine times Raphe. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



202 

the Section on the Servile Letters, a"^ V^. ^,]^'\ i"b n^ ids p^riarn 
ex, gr. ^W*\ and he wiU send, on Tjapa p-n»a ni'ipi k*w3 p) «;pDi 
which they remarked, "fifteen times loa ,«ira nnipan )n"^« ^er |"i)i i"»n 
Baphe ; " ** ^7^1 ar^rf it sAoZ/ 6^, n»^ |vxa "^3^ ",DnDi 'a ^mw* wra 
** thirty-two times Baphe ^^ Or «7:»Dn\ 

when the said Fat; is pointed with „-,-^-, ,,^1^^^ ,*',,, t,^ ^^^-l^ a^ 
Shurek, on acconnt of Taw and iVwn ' ^ ' ^ *^ 

with 5L;a, belonging to the pre- '^'""^ ^^ 'P^"" ^"^ '"^^"'^^ ^^P^ 
formative letters Al^h, Jod, Tav, J^™^ 'T °'''' ^"•''' ^" '^'"'' ^"^ '""'P 
and lYun, whereby it is foUowed, ^^^ P^ ^•*''P "* '""^^ ™"^"^ '•'f ^ 
f^^y^y^ and thou Shalt ^eak^YMch '^^ '^ V^ M"^ "^^^^^ ^M ,rhtx\ 
is marked ** twice Baphe'' [Is. xl. T*"" ^^^ *3 pnapiDn on 'apiD-m ijd 
27] ; ®* n^BD34 and we shall declare o^mnDjni ,"]iDnn »''ii on |n"^Kn wnar ' 
[Jerem.li.lOJ, ** not extant, Baphe" ,o^y2i *3dd jhik i3D Kf?i ,jnnnK wm > 
&c.*7 ^p ,jn"^»n c)"^ ♦3DD D'xiDp |nra ^a« 

1^ The rule is, that whenever • ; '} yl^^ « 'd o^ipm loa ^onw wd ann 
Fav preceding the future is pointed „ini ,iyn' i^ mipv hw |>d »* o pni 
with ^W, C;«r^/f, or Shurek, t^st ^vbtp ,m ,nrn« nnnw mn Mivn 
they call it Baphe, except when it f,,,o'«>nn inc nne nonm ,|nt)ni 

occurs m pairs, one of which has .,^JV „,.,' L,n^ ^^ ^t,J ,>,l ' ,^u 
5A^ra and the other Pattach. In '^^7™* '''^ ^^^1. '^"^ 

such a case they call it MM and '^ " ''''^^, "^"^ i^^=» TnpT^" ''"^ 
Mi/ra, as I have stated above. : m nf^i ]^3 «i.rn mp onai ne^ona 

Mark that they always counted the 

instances in which it is Baphe, because they are the fewer, since 
in most cases in which Vav precedes the letters Aleph, Jod, Tav, and 
Nun it is conversive, and has Pattach, followed by Dagesh. This 
Vav conversive they did not count, because it is the most frequent ; 
but when it has Kametz, because of the guttural A^eph belonging to 
the prefonnatives, Aleph, Jod, Tav, and Nun, they generally counted it, 
as 0^9 J and I shall put, on which they remark " nine times ;"" y^fi?1 
and I shall know, ** three times." ^ Notice, also, that there is a kmd 
of Sheva, which they call Dagesh, namely, Sh^va quiescent under the 
gutturals Al4*ph, Cheth, He, and Ajin, as in Y^^l ^^ ^^<^ covet, ibn^ 
he shall desire, &c., whilst they call Baphe, the Cliateph-pattach and 
Chateph'Segol, because Dagesh never follows them. I have already 
stated in ** the Poetical Dissertation," poem viii., that in five instances 
the Sheva is called mobile, and not quiescent. 

M Neither can we understand thia remark, since ^4^ only ooonrs once, Tiz., Exod. 
vi. 11. 

M The thirty-two instances in which vn occurs with Chirek under Vav conjunctive 
have already heen given. Vide tupra^ p. 141, note 122. 

^ The two passages in which nnmi occurs with Shureh are, Isa. xl. 27 : £zek. xziv. 27. 

97 The single instance in which mBD3l occurs, is Jerem. li. 10. 

« The nine instances in which D^Vin occurs with Kametz under the Vav are, C(en. 
zziv. 47 : Dent. x. 5 : 1 Sam. xxviii. 21 : 1 Kings viii. 21 : Isa. li. 16 : Jerem. xiii. 2 : 
Malachi i. 8 : Job xxxviii. 10 : 2 Chron. vi. 11. 

^ The three passages in which rikn occurs are, Isa. 1. 7 : Jerem. xxxii. 8 : Ezek. x. 10. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



201 

<* fonr times iiop^d," » 3te3 «mne 't t^? ,ytn 'i itfaa »Q^rin la 
times Dageshedr ^J? itAtf an etigle, i3»»m ^^3» d'jb' mJit jrofai *; D»«>m 
*| four times Raphe';'' "»^|3 " seven ,pif?Bi h^hn nnh wip ,i'win 'm pen 'a 
times Da^eshed.^ "When they hap- Dn'jrMi ;m nrwi^ itw^a n«3« nrna 
pen to be pairs, that is, two with p^Tpa naioa ,^^ ipna loa |»3na 
Raphejmd two with ^a^«8^, they ,;;„„ ^^, ' ^^^;; ^i^ \'^ ^^ ^^ 
call them Milel and MtZra, as I 11^.--^ ,k» „L^,^ w^«„ „,, . ' * \, *J 
shall explam m the followmg Sec- ^^. .^ 

tion; aSd when both areTqnaUy ^P^^. )" ."^^b-'J^T nne ^t^a n-,,p:n 
nnmerous, as T3'^3 Tl'ia in the ^^ ^=^P«n .«bi n*^ ,Ct n^wia) *3» to 
tray, nantS)? naiSll in'the desert, '3BD nrnnc Kwa pt<« ;kdi ry^yi^n 
Tya n^yV "m tA^ dty, they neither ^^^^ r""^"^ P^ '^^ "^ ^"^T «^ ^V'^it^ 
counted the i2ajD/i«« nor the Do^esAes, n^^ ^»i«'' "i???? rrmea rvf? '3iD3 «>»wn 
because they are very nmnerons. rnnea 

The exclamatory, or interrogative ^^^^ -^^ viDvn V'»i^ oa ^a Pll 
H<?, too, which is pointed with .^ „^e„^ ^^^ ,jj^ ^^^^p |j^«^j( ^,,^,j^ 
Chat^h-pattach, is called i^a;?/*^ ; .„ ^^^ „ ., ^^^ ei„^BT 

as ^DiK^n t/i^ keeper? FGen. iv. 91, ' " ' «. 

is marlTed "nof extant, Raphe;^' ^"^ P'''"' "■"?' •""'= '".'J""'!"' 
Q^n the judge? [Gen. xyiiL 25], P^" ^'^^ '"'^'^■' '"^'*" ■"' 
is ** not extant, Raphe'' ; but when 

it has Pattachy on account of being followed by the gutturals Aleph, 
Chethf He, and Ajin, they do not call it Raphe, but Pattached; as 
B^«n a man/ [Neh. vi. 11], is "not extant with Pattach;" nngn 
a servant? [Jerem. ii. 14], is "not extant with P attach;' &c. 

It is also to be remarked that the Massorites likewise call Raphe the 
Vav conjunctive which precedes the letters -4^A, Jod, Tav, and Nun; 
as ^if^\ and I shall hear, is marked "twice Raphe ;"^'^'Q^'^^ and he 
shall say, "six times Raphe ;"^ ^^^^) and hear thou, "five times 
Raphe,"^ The same is the case when it is pointed with Chirek, 
because of the Jod, belonging to the preformatives Aleph, Jod, Tav, 
and Nun of the future, whereby it is followed, as I have explained in 

^ The fonr instftnces in which ^^^^ is Raphe are, Levit. xxvii. 10 : Ps. xxt. 13 : 
Eccl. ii. 1 ; vii. 14 : and the nine passages in which it is ^^^1 with Dagesh in the Teth 
are, Gen. xx. 15 : Dent, xziii. 17 : Isa. vii. 15, 16 : Jerem. xxix. 82 : Ps. dii. 6 : Job xxi. 
13 ; xxxyi. 11 : 2 Chron. vi. 41. The former are enumerated in the Massorah marginalia 
on Levit. xxvii. 10 ; and the latter, in the Massorah marginalia on Isa. vii. 15, and 
Job xxi. 13. 

00 The four passages in which *wy^ is Raphe^ that ia has Sheva under the Kaph, are, 
Dent, xxxii. 11; Habak. i. 8; Prov. xxiii. 5 ; Job. ix. 26 ; and the seven passages in 
which the Kaph has Pattachaxe, Jerem. xlviii. 40; xlix. 16, 22 : Hos. viii. 1 ; Obad. 4; 
Micah i. 16 ; Ps. dii. 5. For the former, see the Massorah marginalis on Dent, xxxii. 11. 
The list of ike latter we conld not find any where in the Massorah. 

^ The two instances in which the Vav HUTHI, Eal future, first person singular 
masculine of M«», has Sheva are, Ps. Iv. 18 ; cxix. 48. 

o The six instances in which the Vav conjunctive is noM^I Eal future, third person 
singular masculine, has Sheva are, 2 Kings ix. 17 : Isa. xliv. 16, 17 ; Iviii. 9 : Haba^. 
ii. 6 : Ps. Iviii. 12. 

6S This must surely be a mistake, since ]?tDVni only occurs twice with Sheva under 
the Vav conjunctive, viz., Dent, xxxii. 1 : 2 Chron. xx. 9. 

DD 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



; 



200 

Beth, Giynmel, Daleth, Eiaph, Pe, o^mpj |nr3 pi »:)»di 'nym «pBT 
and Tav; as n^^Sa, in the night, ^^^ ,tjnnnt^ Nan nywn nat)a prna 
occurs three times Raphe ;^^ and ;?n^oni "]'D1 'nntea »)*Dn 'n norm 
anna with the sword, occurs eight diDn D^mnDn n'^a nrnw »a a": j^nn 
times Raphe ^'^ or when they are "]a*D^ ,on»Trw m nnsn ,np"T»n K"n ^p 
pointed with Chirek, on account of loa ,|»»in nh»r\ |'nnDn nia»n^ i«*ip 
the Sheva by which they are fol- |nra pi » ;pwin 'a n^ieb "prm 't %a 
lowed; as nonM in caW/^, which dt>6 ^oa ,nnw dd ny"n« niapa d^xim 

H^TI^?°^I^?^'"^^'^lV" "' «:D^»iDpa''f.«hiS",D*,,DpK'^ 
the neldy five times Raphe,'^ Ac. '^ Ll^ 

It is further known that the prepo- °*^ °*^5^^*=^" V'^ '^'P^ '=" '^=^"^ 
sitional letters Kaph, Lamed, Beth, Q" ^'^V^^ on'3wai ,rBT Q«^ onorin 
which are pointed with Pattach, ^""^^ rrei 'i ato loa ,p*3» ni )»3id 
indicating tiie contracted article 

H^, are ^ways followed by Dagesh, The Massorites, therefore, call those 
letters Dageslied, which have such a Pattach ; hence they remark on ^^\ 
in all, "seven times Dageshed,''^ and aiS? to good, "twice DageshedJ^^ 
They also counted them when they are pointed with Kametz, because 
of being followed by the gutturals Aleph, Cheth, Ajin, and He, as 
"DIX? to the man, eleven times with Kametz T^ "K^K? to the man, 
thirty-two times with Kametz J" ^ 

Now the rule is, that they always counted those which are fewer in 
number, whether with Dagesh or Raphe, and when both happened to 
be few, they counted both; as aioa in good ; on which they remark, 

^ The three passagefl in which rpVbl oecnxs Raphe are, Gen. xl. 5 ; xli. 11 : 
Kehem. ix. 19. They are ennmerated in the Maaaorah marginalis on Gen. xl. 6. 

B> The eight passages in which yxni is Raphe are, 1 Sam. xrii. 45, 47 : 2 Sam. xii. 9 : 
Isa. xxxi. 8 : Jerem. xx. 4 : Ezek. xx^ndi. 23 : Hag. ii. 22 : Dan. xi. 33. They are 
ennmerated in the Massorah marginalis on 1 Sam. xxii. 4d. 

•• As rroma onlv occurs four times Raphe^ vias., Levit vii. 21 ; xx. 16 ; xxrii. 10, 26— 
we have corrected the text, which in the three editions states that the word in question is 
six ( 'l) times Raphe. Comp. Massorah marginalia on Levit. vii. 21. 

M The five passages in which rmon is Raphe are, Numb. xx. 17 ; xxi. 22 : Isa. ▼. 8 : 
Bnth ii. 8. 22. Comp. the Massorah maxginalis on Nnmb. xx. 17. 

«• The seven passages in which tea occnrs with Dagesh in the Kaph are, Gen. xvi. 12 ; 
xxiy. 1 : 2 Sam. xxiii. 6 : Ps. ciii. 19 : Eccles. v. 8 : Ezra x. 17 : 1 Chron. xxix. 12. 
They are given in the Massorah finalis under the letter Kaph^ p. 89, col. 4. 

<» The two instances in which y\Th is Raphe, i. e. Pattach under the Lamed, are. 
Numb, xxxvl. 6, and Eccles. ix. 2. They are given in the Massorah marginalis on 
Kumb. xxxvi. 6. 

fi7 The eleven places in which dim^ has Kametz under the Lamed are, Exod. iv. 11 : 
Jerem. x. 23 : Zeph. i. 17 : Prov. xxvii. 19 : Job xxviii. 28 : Eccles. i. 2 ; ii. 18, 22 ; vi. 12 
(twice) ; viii. 15. Both the Massorah marginalis on Jerem. x. 28, and the Ochia 
Ve-Ochla, section xv., pp. 62, 176, describe this rubric as foRows: — "DTH^ occurs five 
times with Kametz under the Lamed; it is likewise so throughout Ecdesiastes, except 
in one place where the Lamed has Sheva, viz., ii. 26." 

w The thirty- two passages in which «r«^ occurs with Kametz under the Lamed are. 
Gen. xliii. 6, 11 ; xlv. 22 : Levit. xvii. 4; xxv. 27 ; Numb. v. 8 : Deut. xxii. 16; xxv. 9 : 
Judg. xvi. 19: 1 Sam. ii. 15; ix. 7; xvii. 26, 27; xxvi. 23: 2 Sam. xii. 4; xviii. 11: 

1 Kmgs viii. 39, with 2 Chron. vi. 30 : Jerem. xxvi. 11, 16 : 2 Kings xxii. 15, with 

2 Chron. xxxiv. 28 : Malachi ii. 12 : Prov. xv. 23 : xx. 3, 17 ; xxiv. 29 : Job ii. 4 : Ruth 
iii. 8 : Esther vi. 9, 11. They are enumerated in the Massorah finalis under the letter 
Aleph f p. 6 a, cols. 2 and 3. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



199 

the^ case of well known words, as )^3a ,nj^^ ,^^fe ,*^ ,vc»^ ,ui^ ^oa 

they journeyed, ^H^l aw«i *A^y tooA, K"n ^a nnoT «"n i«ip oai ;D»nai '3P0 
^^?lJ)! «w^ ^^^y praised, W^^f? Kipn) rnrro 'd* id3 ,w»ki p»B03 njnr 
praise ye the Lord, Ac, &c., from oa iriai naai ; ]n*D)T» nm ttoms ,(a"» 
all of which Dagesh has been drop- p^eo f7f?aa /*i ts iia-ra D»:iwKnn rnm^a 
ped, there is no necessity for placing j^,n n,,{s< d9 wtsai ,Y'v p*DDi c)"f?^t 
the -Rap/w line over them, because . ^^^ ^^ ^^ii^j^ ^^^ 

they are the majority. The Mas- * IK 

sorites, also, call every He feeble .«'^ ^^» n^ip^ ^^'n ^-n p^DDn nam 
which ought to have Mappik but °*T30 ?*-ni5 p ,nf»n ^o^ ''^ ^oa 
has it not, -^s nnntt A^r j^unY// °^*^i rPoni vdry rrp loa ,Q'T3D«rt^ 
[Levit. xii. 5], ni3HiYike her vwther ^<a'H^ Dic«a K"nn rmn nrnpan d'd»»d 
pEzek. xvi. 44], &c. But I have p^< ^at^ ,pn'n t^nipn wnp* kd» ,wn»D^ 
already discussed this point in Part nit^a mspi t^xDs (^^ 'a n? ^p 9in^ 
i., Sections ix. and x., on Mappik mmf?a »m«a» loa ,na'nn ^» ]nnsjn 
Aleph and Mappik Jod, where I : 'n iiaia d»3i wn 

have explained which is Mappik „,.„,« .^ pnf„n ^mD jnT HJni^ 
^fepA and which is not. ^ ^^ „P P, J ^^^^ o^DrDnT*.D 

As to Mappik He, it is a point ' ^^ i , , 

in the bosom of the He, like Z>^../t ^^^ V^^ ^''"^ '°;_^^^^" 1^^^ ^^"^^ 
at the end of a word. TheGermans nta«irf?i«nprmDDn^f?pa,«.D.55niXrn 
used this point, as ajn Aer foot, aT .D^ip? »i*T inrw |Dn> «f?» ^d^ nn /di 
her hand, &c. ; they Would not put '^ «5>3^ ^ro'J ^"o ^P?? .^T^'' "• *''^? ^^^ 
the point under the He, because 'anW?''^^'^"^^ *'"^^^'**^«'|ai";pBi 
they thought that it might mislead, 

lest the reader should read it Chirek. This, however, is not to be 
regarded, since there does not occur a point in the last letter of the 
word, as I have explained in Part i.. Section v. 

1^ It is moreover known, from the laws of grammar, that the pre- 
positional letters, Kaph, Lamed, and Beth, are pointed according to rule 
with Sheva, except when it cannot be, as I have explained in the 
Section on the Sei-viUs,^ Now the Massorites call this Sheva, Raphe, 
because it can never be followed by Dagesh. Thus, they remark n^33 
in the house, "occurs six times Raphe T*^ t|D33/or money, ** occurs 
fifteen times Raphe ;''*^ **??f to a throne, "occurs six times Raphe J*^^ 
They are also ceJled Raphe when they are not followed by the aspirates 

^7 The section is the last of the four dissertations composing the Poetical Diatertation, 
and the role here referred to is on p. 63, ed. Prague, 1793. 

^ The six instances in which n^m occors Raphe are, Exod. xit. 46 : 1 Kings iii. 17 : 
2 Sam. yii. 6 : 1 Chron. xvii. 5 : Isa. t. 8: Amos vi. 9. They are enumerated in the 
Massorah marginalis on 1 Kings iii. 17. 

^ The fifteen passages in which vpyi is Raphe are, Gen. xxiii. 9 : Josh. xxii. 8 : 
2 Sam. xxiv. 24, with 1 Chron. xxi. 22, 24: 1 Kings xxi. 6, 16 : Isa. xlriii. 10; Hi. 3 : 
Jerem. x. 4 : Ezek. xxyii. 12 : Micah iii. 11 : Ps. cv. 37 : Lament, v. 4 : Ezra i. 4 : Dan. 
xi. 88. They are given in the Massorah marginalis on Josh. xxii. 8. 

^ The six instauoes in which MCSb is Raphe are, Isa. xxii. 23 : Jerem. Iii. 82 : Ps. ix. 
5 ; cxxxii. 11, 12 : Neliem. iii. 7. They arc given in the Massorah marginalis on Isa. xxii. 
•2H : N<?hem. iii. 7. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



198 

bosom of a letter, whilst Raphe is a ip Kin ♦Dnm ,niKn c|iaa miron mip:n 
straiglit line like a Pattach [ — ] put Dneai ^wn Bf«i ^p pro nns loa n»» 
over the letter, especially over the p-iB3 *mn3 iwa ,n"D3 TW nrm«a 
aspirates 5<?f/i, Gimmel, Daleth, nt,^^ nan m*? mioon »f?p3 oini ; HTK' 
Kaph, Pey and Tar, as I have ex- ^^^t, ^^^ p^^, ,D»T«iao jfjiai dj^d ok »3 
plained in the Poetical Dissertation, p ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ . ^^ / 

IJe Masaorites speak but very „„ ,t3,l,<„7ppB, e"0 n,.Jn,<r;«n' 
little about these, and, since they r l l l 

have already been expkmed, I need '^^^^ "'"" ^ ^"^ ''^f"^ ^^^'^'^ ^«^**^J 
not speak any more about them. ^^ ^^ P» -B'^^^n ^Pe pan oan^ 
You are, however, to observe, that '°^^''^"'" ''*'?5'.l hv e]"ip ,rnK la vipgn 
the Massorites also call the letters ^'^^^ l^^po «'»*3 vtV«5 f?»Y'D^i 

2VfA, Samechy Shin, Koph, Tzaddiy »3nn^iD*K^ n'D3 TaanvrnKa pN 
Nun, VaVy Zajin, Lamedy Jody pip»aK tsid ids ppto d^d dm *a oriD 
and 3f^wi feeble letters, because i^»d«i ;d»dpd on^Dm ,o»»ia crrow 
they ought to have Da^esh, but the iy^^^ ^iy Ci'^'t^^ y"?^ D'tD nrnitsD 
Dagesh has been dropped for the „^ ^^ ^^^^ ^i^ i^ ^„^ 

sake of ease. Most of these occur ^,^,^ ^.J ^^^^ ^p/^.rJana^ n^n i2Da 

.in the Pisl, where the characteristic / ' 

I>aj,«A in the middle stem letter is fj" "^^ '~ ^'"^ « " "^ "?" 
omitted, as in the .V«n in IWp'l l^^"^ f «'■" "^'"^ 1???^ ''■>' ^^ 
aR<2 tA^ry envu-d TGen. xxxvii. 11], 'PBn'''Plw 'B"pH ;ivibt nvmit wip 
the ZopA in «t?i?3p. awd rtey «ou</A< ^P ?"''» ow' ''••■'«' '»» "^'W ; 'bth 
[Jo8h.ji. 22], the Lamed in in^ .frojin itss ,vytn •anv pmn^ ,'Bin 
t^ sent [Ps. bodv. 7], &c. jd .jitditi riipan ."QTipn ,irrt* •'«>j?|3 

Bnt in the letters Beth, Gimmel, n,„p, g^jT^ own tbidw »»nipn airn' 
DaZetA, ^a;»A, Pe, Tav, the I'<i</<»A oiD-m ^3 hy nai <» ktid p^. ;»na 
IB only very rarely omitted, as m ,1,,^^ ,g^ o«d<»d i3<h» f»«^»i ma •»« 
ori^i^S"/ tA^rm««5r4Jndg. vm.2], ^^ „,3,,„,.«. nnoHa ,n"M T-33 f^ 
OriTiaao from their strength FEzek. ' ' ^ 

x^.60],andafew morel and even '^7 ^"^^ ^ '^^"'^^ '^^■' °"^ T^"' •'"^d 
in the letters Tethy Samechy Shin, ^'^'^'^ ''^^^^^ ^"^' ;°^'^ «^" ^^'^^^ 
Kophy Tzaddiy Nuuy Vav, Zajiuy 

Lamedy Jody Meniy the Dageshy as I have already said, is only dropped 
when one of them is pointed with Shevay and especially in Metn witH 
Sheva following the article, as ^^^'I'P^ "''^^ speaks [Gen. xlv. 12], *l??/pn 
who teaches [Ps. cxliv. 1], l|DDn who is impoverished [Is. xl. 20], &c. ; all 
these they call feeble letters, though they have not the straight line of 
Raphe over them. Now I submit that they ought to have the Raphe 

line placed over them, to show that the Dagesh is dropped, ex. gr. ^^^\>\ 

,n^?^D P?!?? y^^^ ,^^?', lest the reader should think that the Scribe 
has inadvertently omitted tiie Dagesh and read it with Dagesh. I there- 
fore expostulated with the printers of this district for not even putting 
Raphe on the aspirates, Bethy Gimmely Dalethy Kaphy Pey and Tav, ' 
because they said that they did not require it, since when they had no 
Dagesh it was known that they were feeble. But this is a mistake. In 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



197 



four times with Pattach [*1] under npia nn « 'n |n f?«n3 pi «* ; 'i ^MD 

: pn^ ^p 
nnD3 csner ni^DS '3 pn pN ,^ 
; p^niren "]Tn3 o'^non i3Tp kiddt 
"]iTD jnT njn jkiddt rmo no nH3R nnpi 
nnD nnn pioD epoi rorw k3» «^ '3 mpjn 
^3« ; ^na yop^ i3Dnn» pn pp it< ^na 



the Kaph,''*^ and with 5e^oZ, as 
in behold "occurs five times ['n] 
with Segol under He.*'*^ Accord- 
ingly, by the vowel-point of the 
signal letter is to be known what 
the Massorah treats of; and this is 
easily understood. 

f^ It is, however, to be re- 
marked, that in the words with '^^^^' ^'» ^^^"^ ^^° '^^ po '^'^^^ 
Pattach of ea^h Book fhemLSSonieB *» ^P rao^i ^tsnooT tv^q D*«ip5 |m 
have put together the Segols with nw^ pj3 ,tvtm'vi nD03 d"* dhi ^rmoDn 
the Pattachs, Let me now explain '^m ^najon n3t<i ,'^y nna ,V5»4»5 noj^ 
what is Pattach of the Book, It is pnjD 'n ,mnK3 ]»nnD pnjD 3"» pro*" 
known, from the laws of the vowel- ^tdh d*303 iddi tdo ^33 ]3i **;piDD nio3 
points, that when Athnach and )anpnni ,i:ih d"03» onwi ,i3f? nini«3» 
Soph'pasuk come under Patta<ih and . .^, jif^ijoni rnnon 

jS^'z/oZ, they convert the latter into 

along Kametz. Some instances, PPBDI J W1 TB'nn ^B^Wn nOKDH 
however, are left in each book of ^<'n »^Tn«r jnT3 :K16?n ^3n nvpl 
the Bible, which have not been thus 

converted, and these are denominated Pattach of the Book = Pattach 
de Siphra. They have been counted by the Massorah, and amount 
to nineteen in Genesis; as, ^?fc<'l and he did eat [Gen. iii. 6], ^\ 
and Mash [ibid, x. 28], njtal and Calneh [ibid, x. 10], D?7?« I 
shall bhss them [Gen. xlviii. 9]. Twelve of these have Pattach with 
Athnach, and seven with 8oph-pasuk,*^ In all the other sacred books, 
too, they have counted those with Athnach separately, and those with 
Soph'pasuk separately, whilst the Pattaclis and Segols they have mixed 
up together. 

Section IU., concerning Dagesh, Raphe, Mappik, and some of the 
laws of the SJieva, — ^It is well known that Dagesh is a point put in the 

^ The four passages in which V3MQ occurs, with Pattach under the Kapk^ are, Gen. 
xl. 17 ; 1 Kin^ x. 6 ; Joh xxziii. 20 ; 2 Chron. ix. 4. They are enumerated in the 
Massorah marginalis on Gen. xl. 17. 

tf The fire passages in which p occurs, with Segol under the He^ are, Numh. xxiii. 
9, 24 ; Job yiii. 19 ; xxxiii. 12 ; xxxi. 35. They are enumerated in the Massorah mar- 
ginalis on Numh. xxiii. 9. 

tf The list of the words which have Pattach^ with Athnctch and /9opA-pa«uJk, is nowhere 
given in the Massorah. From the detached remarks in the Massorah parva, howeyer, we 
gather the following twelve words, which have Pattach with Athnach : — 



b«ni . 


. . Gen. iu. 6 


ten . 


. . Gen. xxi. 8 


T!3 . . 


Gen. xxxi. IS 


mVai . 


. . Gen. X. 10 


^napi . 


Gen. xxrii. 2 


'mjau . 


. Gen. xxxiii. 8 


'SkXn\ 


. . Gen. xvi. 4 


yaw 


. Gen. xxviii. 10 


moa 


. Gen. xxxiv. 25 


pTTS'l • 


Gen. xvii. 17 


ra . . 


. . Gen. XXX. 21 


T» . . 


. Gen. xUx. 27 



To these may be added norm (Gen. xxi. 15) and cnotTQ {ibid. xlii. 10). As tu the 
seven instances in which the words have Pattach with Soph-pasuk^ we could not find any 
more than those adduced in the text. It must, however, be remarked, that there is a 
neat difTerenoe of opinion upon several of the passages given in the list. Comp. the 
Idebin Chidothy on Gen. xvii. 17, p. 105. 



Digitized by 



Google 



196 



/Txa DHD nn» |*«i yopa mmpj j^a 
,im» n»n nip dm d:d'di ,|»»Dp p^D i"d 
l^nriBa ym «im ;vDpa jnn irw pin 



rubric. Thus, when they say that ,i*W3p pVo ^ai ^^ TiCJt nwa ^vtDm 
such and such a number have Ea- ,na^ yopa nnipa i^a mten inwr pin 
wift^r, you must know that these m^D p Krra nd^k pja ,ia^ nxa it<« 
words are either all pointed with p^oi ,3n« nh -wh qjodi npia i^xop 
Kanietz only, or with T^^^ only; * - 

as, for instance, the alphabetical 
list of words, which they describe 
as having Kametz with the accent 

Sakeph; as, JH? J^ shall know [1 
Kings xviii. 12], n*f? v^ith cedar 

rJerem. xxii. 141.*^ All the words • i , i - i i 

thus alphabetically enumerated are ^^^^ ' ^''^ '"»^^ ,""" i^^ "^^^^ l'^^ 
pointed with iTam./^, and not one "^ rurpo ,moH^ nrcpi o^D^i I^b 
of them has Tzere. The same ^^^'^^^ ^^ W^ ^^"^^ r=>«^ '''•^ ''^^^ 
designation they give to the Hst c»a i'*b« njop moDai ;]mBBr nitnpa 
of words which are pointed with ]'^^^ F' .1"^ ^^P ^^ I'f^B^ ?*»»? 
7'^^^; namely, the fifteen words tboo ^ ^^^ P'^ ni« nnn mipn 
with Kafnetz: as n|?n tAott shaU nnea )ai «Vt> t'13 loa ^mn nten 
o^ict [Exod. xxii. 22], niO sprinkle 

[Numb. viii. 7], &c., all of which are pointed with Tzere, and not one of 
them with Karnetz, The same rule obtains with Pattach. All the words 
thus described have Pattach only ; as the six words with Pattach, viz., 
'"'JQ?? in the vision [Gen. xv. 1], nnnjj baldness [Isa. iii. 24], &c.^ 
Hence you see that they made no distinction between major and 
minor in the naming of the vowels. Indeed, in the Massorah parva, 
they have not even called them by the names Kametz and Pattach, but 
the vowel-points are put under the letter which designates the number 
of instances wherein the word in question thus occurs; ex, gr,, the 
word |n3 in them, ** occurs fifteen times [I'D] with Tzere under He"*^ 
The same is the case with Pattach; as the word ^3KD eating, ^* occurs 

\ 
^ The complete alphabetical list ia giyen in the MaBsorah marginalia, on Lerit. i. 1. 
We deriate m>m our general practice, and do not gire thia alphabetical list, both 
because it ia extremely long, and becaose it does not contain any material changes 
in the text. 



^ The Massorah giyes twenty-five sooh instances ; they are as follows : — 



nayn 


. Exod. xxii. 22 


MTTpni . 


rOTD 


. . Lent. xi. 42 


TOnn . . 


TXTEh . 


. . I8a.ix. 6 


mbta . . 


mpD 


. Dent.xxui. 11 




rrajwi . 


. . Josh. ix. 24 


TTS^yo . . 


pwnpi . 


1 Kings xviii. 1 


ma»i . . 


nrrm 


. Jerem xvii. 17 


rwrtn . . 


TTTIQ 


. Jerem. xxxi. 10 


mn . . . 

JTttJQ 



Jerem. xxxii. 23 
. Prov. i. 10 rrosn 

. Prov. xix. 17 -TUT* 
Isa. xxviii. 17 "ir . 
Isa. xxxii. 14 jro . 
Isa. Iv. 4 Tjn . 
Dan. i. 13 ban . 
Numb. viii. 7 nriD 
. Dent. XV. 2 
They are ennmerated in the Massorah finalis, nnder the Koph, p. 66 a, col. 1. 

^ The fifteen instances in which Xra occnrs with Tzere are as follows : — Gen. xix. 29 ; 
XXX. 26, 37 ; Exod. xxv. 29 ; xxxvii. 16 ; Levit. x. 1 ; Numb. x. 3 ; Deut, xxviii. 52 ; 
Jerem. iv. 29 ; li. 43 (twice) ; xlviii. 9 ; Isa. xxxviii. 16 ; Ezek. xlii. 14 ; 1 Sam. xxxi. 7. 
They are enumerated in the Massorah finalis, under the letter i/e, p. 24 5, col. 2. It is 
in the Massorah parya that the vowel-signs to which Levita refers are given. 



Habak. i. 15 
Josh. vii. 7 
. Prov. iii. 6 
Prov. xxvii. 1 
Ezek. xviii. 14 
Jerem. xxix. 23 
. Isa. Ixvi. 7 
. Ps. oxix. 130 



Digitized by 



Google 



Knian in»3D invn nia^a »npn ]wh mpi 
*» : ^"aj? D^Bfnpn ^p rTipon »in» 'n* 
•WBf ^^aa HT ^p TiJBfn ^i^^1 ,^ 
»D^ ^mot^i ,nDD ^p *n3»pw nurnn 
t<h) ttJ^T^ p»^ Nenpn^ nsei n»n man 
TDi^ paa inr rwnj ^k <« ; ^Hpn p^p^ 



196 

not any indecency in it, since it tj»namin»^nn«rn3ia3ia'TnapKi»'Tp 
has neither names for the male and pvh nh ta ,n»itn w v'»n nnp^ nm*D 
female generative organs, nor words .n^npH ; 'nacf loa niaa ^an h^ ,nnixf?i 
for the discharge of the duties of ,mnB ] w^ w .Tp3 |i»^ «-)pn^ n? ^d^ 'wt 
nature, all these things being ex- timaK 'i anai ;nrnp ]^»h na -]♦»» k^ 
pressed by some euphemism, as I * 
have already stated. Still, if this 
were the reason, it would be more 
appropriate to call it the pure, or the 
decent lanffuage, but not the holy 
language. B. Abraham de Balmes 
again remarks in his Grammar, en- 
titled The Possession of Abraham, 

as follows: "It is called the holy siKiaii minnaiBr *:bd riipn ]i»^ Knpjar 
language, because it was given by Kman Kipjjai ;nanoton»npnan^ai 
the Creator, blessed be his name, nwax ti^m ^« ,D*»npn vmo»a na 
who is the Holiest of all holy." pi ,^^<na3 ,^tsa»D vatste )ai ,»^iai 
Thus far his remark.® pnjf. ^omaK nnn fntsa Tirts Q»»npn 

J®- However, I have akeady p^^, .^^^ ^^^ pt, ^^^^^ ^Df^r ,apri 
ammadverted upon this question ., ^^^^^ ^^^^ i^ i^ ^^^ 

among many other strictures which r i . r 

I made on his book, submitting 
that, according to his opinion, it 
ought more properly to be cidled 'iT'ODn »7pa *a n»»«^yn nmpna *nana 
the language of the Holy One, and 'hh:x\ ,nnDm ppn pi nmpano' nai \kh 
not the holy language.*^ It seems, nx onr ,|Bp nriDm yap yr>pn onop 
however, more appropriate to say :h^^o^ 

that it is designated "the holy ^nifopn ianp k^ »a pi nnyi ,^ 
language," because the words of jof^ipf^inn^^aaw ,imiDODa|Dpn op 
the Law, the Prophets, and all 

the holy statements were uttered therein, and because the Creator is 
therein called by His holy names, as the Mighty One, the Almighty of 
Sabaoth, &c., as well as His angels, ex, gr. Michael, Gabriel, &c., and 
the holy ones upon the earth, as Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Solomon, 
&c., &c. On this account it is meet and proper to call it the 
holy language. Herewith the seven classes are ended, and the First 
Section is finished. 

Section IE., concerning Kametz and Patta4)h, — ^I have already stated, 
in Introduction HI., that the Massorites only mention the vowel-points 
Kametz and Pattach, and that they include in them the minpr Kametz 
and the minor Pattach, which are I'zere and SegoL 

^* You must, however, observe, that they have never ranged the 
major Kametz with the minor under the one numbe!r, or under the same 



laa : pnriBI pV0p3 ^JK'n lOHOn 



80 For De Balmes, see aboye, pp. 10, 17, 21. The qaotation is from section i., p. 9 a, 
of the Grammar. 

^ From Levita's remark, it wonld appear that he wrote animabllversions on De Balmes* 
(Grammar. We have, however, not been able to find any trace of this publication. 



Digitized by 



Google 



194 

21, with 1 Chron. xi. 28]. iii. The rte a^na nn ^3*t D»te 'j 'j p pit 'n pi 

five groups of three words, each one h^h |nD 'nana naai ,mnK nte npi in 

of which is written in the text in ; rrnpan ^ nana anan» m^nn Waa 

one way, and is entirely different in nnnNt nif?D 'a np^ m n*m pa^nai pi 

the marginal reading. These I have ^^a ^^^^^ riii^ran nhtih man jrw 
ab-eady discussed, imdertiie class of ^ ^^ 3^^, ^^ ,^, ^^^i, 

words the letters of which are more ^^^ \,^ „„ „-j,-^"' „-,,^ ,^. 

than the vowel-points. And iv. ^^^ ^^ '^P on^Sp 'P^ Drr:^a, 

Those expressions which are writ- , * '^^ \^^ 

ten in the text as one word, and ^'" ™« r^iwi mi^oa ^p^arn |nDn 

for which the marginal reading has I'^P '**^" ^^^^ o^ainan ona-m "^a 

two words entirely different to the ^^t ^H* ^^ ^^^ ^^ .na»rf? |nw 

textual reading, as the Kethiv TK^N? w?ib^ ^3»o pr^a^na nioipD 'la pi ,^ip 

as that, and the Ken T« *?b?''ao" P''^ *^^"»' ^^^^ P"'^ "'P ™^^^ T*'^ 
cordijig to aU that [Ezek. ix. 11], ri^* niw^ Drnonn« ^ia»«? pi w^iw 
the Kethiv tD«yj^ f/i^V wn'w^, and P'^p o'iiJtD onai paa^B' *d^ D^g^xi 
the Ken Dn^ftn ^D^D (A^ water of ^^^ p^ ,na»V crpj?:? 'ongi dhk^s 
their feet [i Kings xviii. 27], &c. pOKPna^^D pa»K p»r^a nrainnnn onr 
See ahove, at the beginning of this yn}J^ ]**p ^d^tto ^y roiia \)vh «in«r 
Section. : nniD wnwa 

7.— The seventh class embraces ,^3: prf?a Kinr no f?a nf?ipn ^bni 
cacophonio and euphemic expres- ^^^ ^j^n j^,,v Kf?» na narf? inw w 
Bions. Our Rabbins of blessed ^^ t^^^^^ ^,^g, ^ ^,, .,,^0 y^j,^ 
memory say, that aU ije words n^:,^ .^V «.^pn p^f? «nnapnp».f? «-)p 
which are written m the Scriptures ^ * L • 

cacophonically must be read euphemically, as — ^i. The Kethiv •^J^i'f! 
he shall ravish her, and the Keri '"IJ???^! he shall lie with her [Deut. 
xxviii. 80]. For this cacophonous term Sa651D» which occurs four times 
in the textual reading, the Keri has always the euphemic word nsfi^.^ 
ii. Dn^KTn their dung, and 0»3*r!? ^/^^ urine, for which, on account 
of tlieir both being cacophonous terms, the Keri has the euphemic 
words Dn^'V their excrement, and OnvH *9*9 the water of their feet. And 
iii. DvDg, which is a tumour near the pudenda, denoting in German 
SeigBlattern, and, bemg a cacophonous expression, is in the Keri Dnhntp 
the piles [Deut. xxviii. 27];'' vide Aruch, «. v. ino. 

The rule which obtained is, that every cacophonous expression was 
changed for a euphemism, so that man might not utter anything inde- 
cent. And indeed there are some who maintain that Hebrew is fbr this 
reason called the holy language,"^ because it is all holy, and there is 

M The four instances in irhich the Keri snbstitntes the words in question are, Dent, 
xxriii. 80 ; Jerem. iii. 2 ; Isa. xiii. 16 ; Zech. xiy. 2. Comp. Masaorah marginalis on 
Is. xiii. 16, and Ochla Ve-Ochla, section dxix., pp. 88, 114. 

B7 There are six instances in which the alteration in question is made in the niax]Bin, 
vide supra, p. 109, note 49. The role of the sages, to which LAvita refers, and according 
to which the alterations in question have been mcMle, is giyen in the Talmnd, Megilla^ 
25 b. Comp. also Jacob b. Qiajim's Introduction to the Rabbinic Bihle^ pp. 18, 25, 
ed. Ginsbnrg. 

^ The words nnsvn |1XD^, the Hebrew language^ are omitted in the Snlzbach edition. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



198 

there are fifteen in number, as, the )*Sd 'm ;*i3i np rnno -^ts rro 
Kethiv 1J3 m happiness^ and the »*« ♦nn iM ^m y'n;p^ <in i^a^nai isn^ 
^m 1J K3 happiness is come [Gen. ,np ca^ay;? o\3y ^ ,'''^p ^wap py I'iq 
XXX. 11]; the Kethiv HJP tcAai is «* : np m-ip^ m»on na-i cb 

t«,andtheirmnTnD[Exod.iv. 2], L,p i,nj \\7XQt^ n'ono ^33 m ^ 
&c. Also eight words in which the q,^o,h, rwn nten ^p wn:» m»nnn 
reverse is the case, being in the text ,jjL, ,^^^ ^1,^^ j^^^j^^^^ ^j^^^g ^.j^^ ,^ 
two words, and in the margin one ; ,^ ^^^ ^,^^„ ,^ ul^^ ^^^^ «,,^ ^,«.,-. 

ix. 1], ke textual reading nan oh ■■°*'V?f ^asj..™ ippio^ina 
<; J; ,A«M be great, and the'iar: =*^ =>" '''«'='" °t^ •"^=" °^ P^ 

Sf k'tr&c « •^''' '''''''^' ""'^ "*^^ r:>'ron r^D mn pen !?!?3ni 
^ '^Now I L greatly astonished ™^^^"" "^ "^^^ P" ''^'^"^ "^^ ^^^ 
at the traditional explanation of this ' T ^^ °'»*^^ °^ "^- ^^"^ ''^P '^^ 
word, saying that there is a final r^^niKn c|if7n op 'a j-oa ht *mai naai 
Mm in the middle of the word ; ; np tih? nt^iD -ii^ nxon n^ nan |ai 
since, according to the Kethiv^ it is , 

not in the middle of the word, as the Kethiv has two words HSl*] D? ; 
and since DJ may be taken for DH? to them, just as 0^^"]? [Is. xxxiii. 7] 
stands for Dnj n«n« I sluill appear to theni, and D^tJ^S [1 Kings xxi. 21] 
stands for DH^ ^?^? he boiled for them; eo also H^l DJ, as the Kethiv 
has it, is to be explained by na*] Dn? to f^^wi is great. ^ 

To this class, also, belong — i. Those words which are written in 
the text in one way, and for which the marginal reading has quite a 
different expression, as the Kethiv "^^yn the cvtj/f for which the Keri 
is "lyn the court [2 Kings xx. 4], the Kethiv '^^\ and tchercy and the 
Keri '^^^\ and I dwelled [Ezek. iii. 15], Ac, which have already been 
mentioned under the second class, on the interchange of letters, ii. 
The Kethiv ^^^ who, for which the Ken is ^^ fnan [2 Sam. xxiii. 

^ The flfteen inBtanees in which the textual reading has one word, and the marginal 
reading two, are as follows : — 



133 . . . . Gen. xxx. 11 


DHO . . 


FiZek. yiii. 6 


• myDTTao . Job xxxviii. 1 


mo .... Exod. iv. 2 


DDbo . . 


. Isa. iii. 16 


rn»D3Q . . . Job xl. 6 


trrVM . . Dent, xxxiii. 2 


D'Habn . . 


. . Ps. X. 10 


D^STHJon . Nehem. ii. 18 




nio'nar . . 


. . Ps.lv. 16 


p^aa . . 1 Chron. ix. 4 
1 '3*D^3a^ . 1 Chron. xxvii. 12 


inam . . Jerem. xviii 3 1 D'3VmA. . 


Ps. cxxiii. 4 


The eight instances in which the reverse is 


the case, that if 


1, the text having two words, 


and Uie margin one word, are as follows :— 






ara »3 . . . Judg. xvi. 25 


na-^ D^ . . 


. Isa.ix. 6 


D*3y *3 . . Lament, iv. 3 


X^"* po . 1 Sam. ix. 1 


»n«*o. . 


. Isa. xHv. 24 


DPrna ina 2 Chr. xxxiv. 6 


TnffQTl p . 1 Sam. xxiv. 9 


nap . . 


Lament, i. 6 





The first list is given in the Massorah marginalis on 1 Chron. xxvii. 12 ; Tractate 
Sopherim vii. 8 ; and in the Ochla Ve-Ochla, section xcix., pp. 29, 96, &o. The second 
list is given in the Massorah marginalis on 2 Chron. xxxiv. 6; Tractate Sopherim vii. 8 ; 
and in the Ochla Ve-Ochla^ section o. pp. 29, 97. 

<fi For the fancifnl interpretations and mysterious meanings ascribed to this word, in 
consequence of its having a final Mem in the middle, see Eitto's Cyelopasdia of Biblical 
Literature^ 8. v. Keri and Kethiv. 

C C 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



192 

4.— The fourth class consists of 3»Di nt^onpip y^Dz ^^ann ]^^n 

words, the first of which took from nawKTnw maiDo tnhti 'a v* ''d ,K3*3nD 

the second, that is, of two words ^p pn hxdj »h nn ,n»3»nD niM nnpi^ 

placed together, the first word of e^ma na^»w K»ni ^ddi3 K-n noioa^ nf?o 

which took a letterfrom the second. ^,333 f,^^ ^^p^ ^^^jj^ n^^^^ ^^i^^^ 

This, however, only happens with ^^^^ j^,^.j^ ^«„ rn^^Pi npai ^nnea 
tiie formative ^^, at the end of the ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ,^ i^^^ 

first word, which belongs to the ' ' ^,^^^, 

beginnmg of the next word. For ^^^^ ^^^ j,p,np,Qi no nn^ 

this reason the punctuators pointed ^^ ,,-;,:. , p - .'. ) ip 

it in the textual reading with Pat- ^ 'l^na t^»oi nimpa 'aai ^.^p 

tocA, whilst m the marginal reading ^'^^^ '^^^ r'T ^'^ ™§t D'*?^^?^ 
it is made the article of the next ^'"^P ^"^^ HT)'^! 

word. There are thwe such in- r^^rcT n^nhtff ni^a *»»Dnn J^on 

stances in the textual reading, viz., *^3 D*3Ea on ph peona 'n )m ,|»np hS 

the Eethiv K^^D nn^^H thou art lead- ^m* Tmn ipr -^nr ^h pia ,nnipD 

tn^ out, and the Zm K>V1»n T\^\n kj ,m nSo' nm nnnh pi ,np h^ w^an 

[2 Sam. V. 2]; the Eethiv nnyT pL, ^^^ ^l,, p,^p y,,,, «;np«f?ia^a 

1W thou showest dow7i, and the ^nnipin or lovi ,D*3Da pf?n oipo iirsn 

Xm nny? nyil^ [Job. mviii. 12] ; ^^, ,.p ^ ^^ ,^^f, ^» . . td« *a idd 

and tiie ^ethiv nb^^ '^^^P /^^'JJ ^h^ ^pWB^^ in3a it a^^n^ ,a>na 

mD8^n [Ezek. xlii. 9].«> There are ^ -n^v^hvn 

two instances in whi^ the reverse , ^ i^a^nan nitea »»»n TDn 
is the ease, viz.. D'RB^Bii DB| ,*«•. ' %^«ij, ,,„ ,,,„„, ,.;, („,',^ 
iAd Philistines, and the JE^rt HD^ 

D^rifiJ^B [2 Sam. xxi. 12]; and the Kethit ^^"hy^^ t?B? they have 
finislied the walls, and the EhH ^^"h^^ k;?IK? [Ezra iv. 12].« 

5. — The fifth class embraces entire words written in the text but 
not read, of which there are eight instances ; as ^y^\ he shall tread 
[Jerem. li. 8], which is not read; ^\ now [2 Kings v. 18], which is 
in the Kethiv but not in the Keri, &c. ; ^ as well as words read from 
the margin which are not in the text. Of these there are ten in 
number, viz., vX to me, which is in the margin but not in the text 
[Ruth iii. 17] ; H^B Euphrates, found in the mai'gin but not in the 
text [2 Sam. viii. 8], &c.^ I have, however, already discussed this 
subject, in the third Introduction [vide supra, p. 109, note 51]. 

6. — The sixth class embraces expressions which are written in the 
text as one word, and read in the margin as two words. Of these 

«> The words np m3«Vn m^ nnnnoi, are omitted in the Snlzbach edition. 

"^ These instances are also enumerated in the Massorah marginalis on 2 Sam. t. 2 ; 
Ezra IT. 12 ; and in the Ochla Ve-OcMa, sections ci. and cii, pp. 20, 97. 

■* The Sulzbach edition wrongly substitates np M^ m: f ornp mVi a*n3 «3. 

B8 Both lists will be found on p. 109, &c., note 51. All the three editions of the 
Masaoreih ffa-MoMoreth erroneously state that there are ten (i"v) words in the textual 
reading, which are not read in the marginal reading, and eight ( Tt) vice versa. AVo have 
corrected the text, since it is well known that the reverse is the case. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



191 

8. — The third class consists of »* '*b ,jnrmi2Di pnpiDn ^6vn pOfT 
transpositions, that is, of words vkhv tiwd nriK nw pa 3iro» mho 
wherein one letter is placed in the ^ni ,13^3 mpio mm mnn npa^ v^ 
textual reading later than it ought ^,, ^^^,^3 jno nn« w p«i pddd3 a'o 
to be, and m the marginal reading ^ ^^^ ^,^^ ^ ^^ ^^ 
IS put earher, as it should be. ^u^ ,,,^ w"^n% -. ^ J. ^ . « 
There are sixty-two such instances, ?" 'J^^ ^^' ^'"l^,!™^ ^^V "'"^ 
and not one of them occurs in the "^ '^ 'X ^^ ^' ^"""*^ ^'P"" 
Pentateuch, for which reason I give ^^ ^*^^" ^^ ''"'P '^^^- ^"^^^J^'^ 
the mnemonical sign for them, "^*"i^ ''^wd ino Nc-n ;np n^ 
"No transpositions in the Law, r*T ^1*^ "JW^"'"^ '*T "t^"?^^- "?^1 
minus one."* Fifty-one of these *33mDiefpi»;np-tarPD»^nnf7NVTapB'K 
affect the letters Jod, He, Vav, and ♦ai'wn "ynxo ,np *oV^ »bo^ »3a loa ,D"w 
Aleph; as the iTet/iit; "qpin ^om^, *i«^ thk ^a^.n^niy ♦of? opom ,np »P7^ 
participle, and the Keri ^vH to go, : niiDV 

infinitive fJosh. vi. 13]; ^???9^ni 

[from B^^] f^at 7 way feel [Judg. xvi. 26] ; and the Keri *?^pni 
[from B^Id]; the Z<?t/«i; /HKH t/w tent [1 Kings vii. 45], and the Ken 
**^9*l these, &c. ; whilst eleven affect the other letters, as the Kethiv 
•^3^*7^1 [from T\vr\\ and they saw, and the Keri HJ'Tt^ni [from IIk] and 
they became bright, [1 Sam. xiv. 27].; the Kethvv ^J^i? [from n^] 
they shall delight, and the Keri nj'lVr) [from TVJ] </iVy shall observe 
[Prov. xxiii. 26] ; the Kethiv "in3^^ /i^ shall be exempt, tokS. the Keri 
">?n^. ^^ «A,aZZ be joined [Eccl. ix. 4], &c.® The same is the case with 
proper names, as the Kethiv vtptJ' Shamlai, and the Keri "^^ Shalmai 
[Ezra ii. 46] ; the Kethiv n^B? Shitrai, and the Keri ^^y ShiHai 
[1 Chron. xxvii. 29], &c. ; which obtained in consequence of each of 
these persons having two names. 

are doabled when required, or they are conpled together among themselves, whereby 
they also yield 10, 100, and 1000, as follows : nn = 10, 23 = 100, ji = 1000. 
Accordingly the commutation takes place between eveiy pair, and the name Athach 
(m"!QM), by which this anagramic alphabet is designated, is obtained from the first two 
specimen pairs of the letters which indicate the interchange. Throngh the application of 
this alphabet, Prov. xxix. 21 is rendered — "iZe who satisfies his desire in this worlds 
against him ft will testify at the end;" *t^3 being taken to denote this world, y\^ his 
servant, his desire, mriH the end, the last day; whilst |130, according to the alphabet in 
question, makes mTTD witness, the q being exchanged with the D, the 3 with tne n, the 
1 with the 1, and 3 again with the n. Hence, also, we obtain nb from 3lb, the 3 and ^ 
being interchanged ; and hence, too, rT3 from m, to which Lenta refers in the text. It 
must be remarked, that interpretation by the aid of this alphabet was resorted to from 
time immemorial, and that the exposition of Proy. xxix. 21 by its aid is already given 
in the Talmud. Comp. Succa, 52 b. For other anagramic alpnabets, see Ginsbnrg, the 
Kabbalah, p. 54, &c., liongmans, 1865. 

^ To understand Levita's mnemonical sign, it is to be borne in mind that the 
numerical value of the word r« is sixt^-one, viz., ^ 60 + * 10 + « 1 = 61 ; that the 
expression milium one (HlM IDn), which is erroneously omitted in the Sulzbach edition, 
indicates that one is to be added, thus making the required number 62 ; and that 
there is also a play upon the words in tibe iniole phrase, since it alludes to a well 
known hermeneutioal rule denominated nmMOl Dlp^O, according to which whole sen- 
tences are transposed. Comp. Eitto's CydopcBdia of Biblical Literature, s. o. Midrash, 
Bules xxxi. a .d xxxii. 

^ The list in question has fdready be<3n given, vide supra, p. 116, note 67. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



190 

rnBn Haupha [2 Sam. xxi. 16, '*;mp»non niKnoui ^m p ♦rwjfiD' 
18], upon which our Babbins of ,np nriK ^^na ttw in« pa ,i"'na n"^ni 
blessed memory remark, the Kethiv npi nnK a^na ^yarh 'ai ■^,nDDD3 *y oni 
is nonn, and the Ken npn^ Orp^a; inKD ,(Vd rrpr*^ mcipon nnna ,nnK 
but I could not find it so in aU the yiy^ .3, .^^ ^hk nn« onn nnn ,np 

s£cfstr;r;\rte^^^^^ ^^^ '^^° »^" '^'^ ^^'■'P^ ^'" ^'=^^"' 

and the margin Tar, viz., the iT^^AiV °^ "=*'"^ °— =*^^ ' 'P f ^^ 
in« on. (mtsculine), and the Ken '""=^ ^""Pr ^l 7 ^'''^'^ "^"^ '^'^P 
nnK on/(feminine) [Is. Ix^i. 17], ^^' '''^ ^f^^ °'?^^ "^ ^«^- '^^"^ 
&c.;«* and the two in which the ^''?^ ""** "^^ ^^^^"^ ^'^ P^ unam 
reverse is the case, viz., the Kethiv ^^^ (»"» 'P^"*) d'^^^ ^XV'^ ^P '^'o^i 
nnx (feminine), and the Keri Tnx ^''••a T'^ni ^''•Din P)f?nnni8r ♦of? nn .'mp 
(masculine) [2 Sam. xviii. 12;'l : ^a: m i2Da ^la: r\\'p\ W;^"^^! 
Kings xix. 41. xiii. The two in- 
stances in which the text has He and the marginal reading Kaph, 
viz., the Kethiv DH^?^?? their works, and the Keri M YfP? your works 
[Jerem. xxi. 18], and the Kethiv D»3 -JJ 'iipon tJietn, whilst the Keri is 
^^'TS'upon you [Jerem. zhx. 80].^ xiv. The one instance where the text 
has liesh and the marginal reading Beth, viz., the Kethiv JK^^l and 
where, and the Keri ^^^} and I sat [Ezek. iii. 15], of which I shall 
speak again below, under the sixth class. And xv. The one instance 
in which the text has Giimnel and the marginal reading Zajin, viz., 
the Kethiv 3?^ for food, and the Keri T?^ for a spoil [Ezek. xxv. 7], 
which is owing to the interchange of Gimmel and Zajin in the alpha- 
bet denominated Attach. ^ This also accounts for the textual reading 
ni valley, and the marginal reading nt this [Ezek. xlvii. 18]. 

^ Levita mnst snrely be mistaken, since the Babbins do not say that the Kethiv is 
nEnn and the Keri \ xu XS, bnt simply try to identify the two words by way of Midrcuik, 
which is frequently the case. Comp. Sota^ 42 6, and Rashi on 2 Sam. xxi. 18. 

IB The other two instances in which the textual reading has Daleth, and the marginal 
reading Tav, are 2 Sam. xxiii. 8, and Song of Songs iv. 2. 

M The two instances in which the textnal reading has Q^, suffix third person plural 
masculine, and the marginal reading Q3, suffix second person plural masculine, are also 
giren in the Massorah finalis under the letter ZTe, p. 22 a, col. d, and in the OcMa 
Ve-Ochla, section cli., pp. 36, 110. 

S7 In the alphabet denominated Athach (mcM), the commutation of the letters takes 
place, according to the numerical value as represented by the respectiye pairs, which is 
effected in the foUowing manner. The Hebrew alphabet is diyided into three classes, 
consisting respectiyely of four pairs, or eight letters, and representing ten, a hundred , 
and a thousand. The first class, therefore, comprises the letters Alephy Beth, Gimmel, 
Daleth, Vati, Zajin, Cheth, and Teth; the second class comprises Jod, Kaph, Lamed, 
Mem, Samech, Ajin, Pe and Tzaddi : whilst the third class contains Final Mem, Final 
yun. Final Pe, Final Tzaddi, Koph, Besh, Shin, and Tav. When thus diyided and 
paired, according to their numerical yalne, we obtain the following Table : — 
1. — '111 w. TO. EM» eyery pair making 10. 

2. — DO, yS D3. r „ „ 100. 

3. — DHf ]«, Fpi yp „ „ 1000. 

As the letters He, Nun, and Final Kaph are, from their unpairable numerical value, 
necessarily excluded from being coupled witii any other member of the alphabet, they 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



189 

ii. 20] ; and the four instancos in -rta»M nc^ noNPii i^»n n»3wni ,^"n 
which the reverse ia the case, as n'lo^ Sai -jdhS p^D 'm ;np inpx 
the^.f^ii;niDnB|n^^ V,^^ ^,,t^ „ i^^ ^^^^^^^ 

and the Ken n^DlJfn </ie ^W« '" ' _ „ „ ^, 
[Jerem. xrxi. 40], &cli iii.' The ^^"^''^ ^^^^' '^ "^ " ^"^ ^^^P ^^ ^"^ 
one instance in which the textual n'^M r^e^i ^;iddd3 't im ,np 13ttW 
reading is final Kaph and the mar- ^"'"^ ""'" ;np tDjn ^^Bfn fm Dj?n ton 
gmal Pd^Z^e/i, viz., the Kethiv ^! ; (a"* nf?np) np pni* cpan ^an prn\ 
and the Z^rt T »irf« [1 Sam. iv. 18]. ,np DlKD ,Tj?n dtms pa ,d"2D3 n"»3) 
iv. The four c^ses in which the jud ,d"d3 «"bi ";^aDr)a'^ jm jn^cm 
textual reading has Cheth and the ^^^ ,u^^ ^u^ . ,^p p^^^ ^,\y^y^ p^ 
marginal ^^, as the Kethiv •l^p^H'J , ,,i , . ^,. "V 

our bower, knd the Zm «0^nn ^ ^r^^^'^^ \^r^? X^^^^W. 
[Song of Songs i. 17], &c.«i v. The ""^=^ ^,=^'"^ **' > P'^'P^ ^ T^^n^T 
instance in which the Kethiv has "^7 *''''^ P" 'r'J^=» '^""^ ** J ^^ ^''P 
Shin and the J^m has Teth, viz., «^ '^aK ;T "^"^^ 3*"3 "onn f?"n noK 
^l\ and he made, which is read 

l^y!! cr??d A^ flew [1 Sam. xiv. 82] . vi. The one case in which the 
textual reading has Cheth and the marginal Tav, viz., the Kethiv prn* 
it shall snap, and the Keri pn^2 «*< «'i«^^ ^« hound [Eccl. xii. 6]. vii. 
The six words having Beth in the textual reading and Mem in the 
marginal, as the Kethiv D^J^? is nmyi, and the Keri D^^? /''^'^^ '"^^^ 
[Josh. iii. 16], &c.^ viii. The one case where the text has Pe and the 
margin Mem, viz., the Kethiv P^B broth, and the Ken P^D Z^rof^ [Is. 
Ixv. 4]. ix. Where the text has Cheth and the margin Ajin, viz., 
the Kethiv 1^0 an arrow, and the -fferi XV wood [1 Sam. xvii. 7]. x. 
Where the text has Ajin and the inargin Aleph, viz., the two instances 
in which the Kethiv has twice 7? upon, and the Am 7N to, and the 
Kethiv once ^^, whilst the iTen is /? [1 Sam. xx. 24 ; Is. Ixv. 7 
Ezek. ix. 5].^ xi. Where the text has He and the margin Ajin, viz., 

^ The two instances of words with DaUth at the end in the Kethiv^ and with Renh 
in the Keriy are also given in the Massorah finalis under the letter Dalethy p. 19 &, col. 1 ; 
and Ocfda Ve-Ochlxi, section cxxiii., pp. 33, 108. The other three woras which are 
written in the text with Reah^ and are read in the margin with Dalethy are Tirms?, 
2 Sam. xiii. 37 ; iyQ"ttri, 2 Kings xvi. 6 ; and Ya^ Pror. xix. 19. They are given in the 
Massorah xnareiiuJis on Jerem. xxxi. 40; and in the Ochla Ve-Oc/Ua^ section cxzii., 
pp. 33, 102. 

<i The other three words which have Cheth in the textual reading, and He in the 
marginal reading, are, nirrny, 2 Sam. xiii. 37 ; nVrrao, Prov. xx. 21 ; DnnV», Dan. ix. 24. 
They are siven in the Massorah marginalis on Prov. xx. 21 ; Song of Songs i. 16 ; and 
in the OcMa Ve- Ochla, section cxxi. pp. 33, 102. 

^ The other five words which have Betk in the textual reading, and Mem in the 
marginal reading, are, '>n91 Josh. xxiv. 15; miM, 2 Kings v. 12; pa^l, 2 Kings xii. 10; 
*T^1, 2 Kings xxiii. 33 ; ivn. Ban. xi. 18. They are given in the Massorah finalia 
under the letter Beth^ p. 15 a, col. 2 ; and in the OcMa Ve-Ochla, section cliv. pp. 36, 110. 

^ The two instances in which the textual reading is ^, and the marginal reading S(, 
are, 1 Sam. xx. 24 ; Isa. Ixv. 7 ; and the one instance in which the textuiU reading 
is ^ with Pattachf and the marginal reading Si, is in Ezek. ix. 5. The ediHo 
princepa of the Massoreth ffa-Massorethy and the Basel and Snlzhach reprints 
read ^ \^'*y ^ ^^^3 'vn, which is manifestly a hi under. We have therefore corrected 
the text. The instances in question are enumerated in the Massorah finalis imder the 
letter Aleph^ p. 66, col. 8 ; and in the OcMa Ve-Ochla^ section dxvii., pp. 87, 113. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



188 

the end in the Kethiv^ and in the '3fif?r ni«a papa ■npai'Dn, nprw vn 
Ken Vav with Skurek, the letter ,jiTon)nrarf H^iyT,rrrnirK^iD3'K''nn 
which precedes the He is always nrniK nann v* i^pi ^; neooa i" jni 
pointed with Kibbutz, as nn^jj* fie . ^ ^^^pa ^rnnai iia it D^s'ynnDn K"in^ 
shall make bald [Levit. xxi. 5], ,i)a i) mDf?nTOn nrm« thi^ B^l .^ 
n3B^ sA^ ^a« «A€rf [Deut. xxi. 6], ^^^j^ ,^,3,^^, rn^^nj^^ ^ „, ^^ l,^^ 
&c., of which tiiere are fourteen in ^..^^ ^.^ .^^ „,,^^ ..^ ^^^^ „ 
nmnber.^a There are ako many n"f?T ' , V'^na n"*n 

other words in which the letters ' , ' ' 

Jod, He, Vav, and ^^;,^ are inter- " "^ P" '"^ «*^f °"^ ^^^ ''^ '^=» 
changed, but I prefer brevity. '""™ '"'J^ '1"'3'=» T'^*^ '«"" i;"^ r^jj" , 

There are also other letters which ■ ^'/'"^ ^"^'^ 

have interchanged ; but this inter- V^^ ^"' t"^ ^^^ ^^ ^5^ ^^^"^ 
change only takes place in the case *rri P^a ,5l"3 P'-ipi ri"*3 ra»nan 
of those letters which resemble each /'lai np D1DK3 ('i nnoK) rf?« irra«]| 
other in writing, as Beth with Kaph, ♦aaiDi ,np pD^ on f?; no pia ^on^ 'Ji 
Daleth with 12es^, H^ with Clieth, 0*303 a»na **; np *113T1 ,"nar) nmj; nw 
Cheth with Tar, JDa/^f/t with final man ,»"ni P)"aa IWTI npi n"f?Ti n"oa 
Kaph, and 5^w with Teth ; or of y^y ^»i^^ raTian ]»^o 'ao nm kti 
those letters which belong to some 

organ of speech, as Beth with Mem, Mem with Pe, Aleph with ^4;iw, 
Ajin with Cheth, Daleth with Tav. 

As illustrative of all these, are to be adduced : i. The eleven words 
whic^ are in the Kethiv with Beth, and in the Keri with Kaph, as the 
Keri ^"39?? ** '^^ saying, and the Kethiv ^"59?? ^ *'^^*^ saying [Esth. 
iii. 4], Sec. ; and the three instances in which the reverse is the case, 
ex. gr. the textual reading T?^ he shall prepare, and the marginal 
reading r?J he shall understand [Prov. xx. 24], iiie Kethiv '^^'^\\ and 
Zabbud, and the Keri "W3T1 and Zaccur [Ezra viii. 14], &c." ii. The 
textual reading being Beth and Daleth, whilst the marginal is Beth 
and Besh, constitutes *^^^J^, one of the two instances which are written 
with Daleth and read Ilesh, the other instances being *1 i3.}{^ I shall 
serve, in the Kethiv, and *^^3^$ I shall pass over, in the Keri [Jerem. 

under the letter Jod, p. 84 a, cols. 3 and 4; and in the OchJa Ve-Ochla, section cxzxvii., 
pp. 35, 107. It is to be added, that the words "^^ and ^3^1?, after DrP3D^, are omitted 
in the Snlzbach edition. 

^ For the fourteen instances alluded to in the text, see p. 179, note 81. 
10 The eleren words which have Beth in the textual reading, and Kapk in the 
marginal reading, are as follows : — 

m^'Oi . . 1 Sam. xi. 6 

TTDttJa . . 2 Sam. v. 23 

lan . . .2 Kings iii. 24 

to .... Job xxi. 13 
The third of the three instismoes in which the reverse is the case, that is, the textnal 
words being with Kaph^ and the marginal reading with Beth^ is ^S^si, 2 Sam. xii. 31. 
The first list is giren in the Massorah marginalis on Hosea i. 1 ; 1 Chron. i. 1 : in the 
Massorah finalis nnder the letter Beihy p. 15a, col. 2: and in the Ochla Ve-Ochla, 
section cxlix., pp. 36, 109. The second list is given in the Massorah marginalis on 
2 Sam. xii. 31 ; Hosea i. 1 ; 1 Chron. i. 1 : in the MassorsJi finalis, under the letter 
Beth, p. 15a, col. 2: and in the Ochla Ve-Ochla, section d., pp. 36, 110. 



oayowa . . Josh. vi. 5 

m^a . . . Josh. iv. 18 

niVn . . . Judg. xix. 26 

cna ... 1 Sam. xi. 9 



uyatQ . . Esther iii. 4 
Tlin . . Ezra viii. 14 
'11 . . . Nehem. iii. 20 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



187 



the f ase, as in the textual reading " ; np TVWS^ ,np mT m«>i, rtyn -|Dn3 
nj^l a7id he is crushed, for which pxiwa i*r I's^tot i^n»a nd^k pi 
the im has nST^ s^aM 6tf cri«A^(i ^ai pDoiDa "v pi ,i"n pnpi itma'n 
[Ps. X. 10], &c.i« iii.Thealphabeti- Df?inn pii» w Df?in jrnipi nf^Kn pr vn 
cal Hst of words which have Jod in ^3^ ,0^ .,«,^ ,^iy^ ^^^^ i^^ ^,.3 
the middle of the word in the Z^tAii^, q.^J j,„ ^^^ ,3^ ^^^^ ,^^ ^^ 
and Fat; in the Ken. These are ^^^ * ^^^ t^^^ • inborn no 

seventy in number, the Jod in all' ^"^ll i^ ^ I 

these instances being pointed with '^'^^ °^^ '^^^'^^ ^^^^^ °^^" ^^^ '''^^*"' 
C/ioi^/» or 5Aiir^^; the Chole^n is "'?'" °^- °^^" ^'P''' ^"^ ^'^ 
placed upon the letter preceding the ^^ '^ '^^^^ "^^^ ^^"^ ^P^P^ nai^Hin 
Jod, as the JSTet/w't; "^^STN I «^a« J "™ ''"■»* '^of? yiapa mipa m« «3tD3 
Cflw«« to retnemberj and* "the Keri ^^"^p W"lp pmw V'rn mj^n wnj? pi 
ibjK I shall remember [Ps. Ixxvii. ^nai ,rnwn "Msn ^ loa ,naTinp|iD3 pi 
12] ; DJ^3 princes, the Kethiv, and pi»n j^iaa ,np I^Sn ,np IKVn ,»3^n 
D;i3na«Mms,the^m[Gen. XXV. 23], 'Msn onoef? yiapa n^i pY'vn -jina 
&c. ; whilst the Shurek is put into ynp) tjioa K"n 'nai pf?Dn ^an "^ ^bn 
the Jod, as^in the Kethiv Dfc^"land "'" 

he placed, DK'^*) awrf f^^e was placed, in the j^m [Gen. xxiv. 88]. The 
pointing in some Codices of the first Jod in D^*5 ^*^ Kibbutz is 
an egregious mistake, for there is no letter to be found with the point 
Kibbutz before quiescent Jod; the Kethiv is ^^^IP *^^ calledy where 
the Jod has Shurek, and the JSTm is Wnp [Numb. i. 16], &c.i« 
The same is the case where the Jod is at the end of the word, as 
in the Kethiv *J*yJ5 thou ^halt go out, which is in the Keri ^i^Wj/e 
shall go out; the Kethiv ^?7n thou shalt go, which is in the Keri ^^7Jn 
ye shall go [Jerem. vi. 25]. In all these instances the Shurek is in tne 
Jod, but no Kibbutz before it; and there is no Kibbutz before the 
Jod, viz., ^37^5 ^^^9. " In the words, however, which have He at 

u The ten instanceB in which the reverse is the case, that is which hegin with Vav in 
the textual reading, and have Jod in the marginal reading, are as f o lows : — 



itw?i 
3mn . 



Ezek. xliv. 24 
Ezek. zlvi. 15 
Isa. V. 29 



iwn 
D3ni 






Prov. xvii. 27 

Prov. xziii. 5 

2 Chron. xxiv. 27 



Ps. X. 10 
Prov. ii. 7 
Prov. xiii. 20 
DTtDI . . . Prov. xi. 3 
They are enumerated in the Massorah marginalis on Uosea i. 1 ; 1 Chron. i. 1 ; Prov. 
xi. 3 ; and in the Ochla Ve-Ochla^ section oxxxv. pn. .S4. 106. Here again all the three 
editions of the Maasoreth Ha-Massoreth erroneonsly state that there are fifty-six (l"3) 
such instances. It will he seen that mV31, given hy Levita, is not among the nnmher. 

10 The alphabetical list of the words which have Jod in the middle in the textual 
reading, and Vav in the marginal reading, has already been given, vide supra, p. 118, 
note 71. 

17 The two expressions ^Hsn and ^bn, belong to the foUowing list of twenty-fonr 
words with Jod at the end in the textual reading, and Vav in the marginal reading. 



2 Sam. xxiii. 
Jerem. ii. 27 
Jerem. vi. 25 
Jerem. vi. 25 
Jerem. xiii. 20 
Jerem. xiii' 20 
Jerem. xxiii. 18 
Jerem. xlviil. 20 
They are enumerated in the Massorah marginalis on. Jerem. i. 1. ; Massorah finalis 



»3mV 
»>ni 



'pJPD 


Jerem. xlviii. 20 


tJtDI 


. . Jobxxxiii. 21 




. . Jerem. 1. 11 


^D3 


. . Job xxxiii. 28 


*T^n 


. . Jerem. 1. 11 


^riTTl 


. . Job xxxiii. 28 


*^Dn . 


. . Jerem. 1. 11 


»mb3 


. . Ezra X. 35 


^Vnsni . 


. . Jerem. 1. 11 


>W)3 


. . . Ezra X. 44 


naa. . 


. . Isa. XXV. 10 


^aiVo"? 


. . Nehem.xii. 14 


»3iiaD . 


. . Ps. xvii. 11 


»-D?'. 


. . 2 Cairon. ix. 29 


>aiDi 


. . Job.vi.29 


♦n«n 


2 Chron. xxiiv. 9 



Digitized by 



Google 



186 

Uowing [2 Ohron. xiii. 14, xxix. K^i mpai n^ pp»n »T»n ^nr»na 
28], where the second Tzaddi has pvN ph -^tote*. ^w rr»n i''»r3 ni^npa , 
no vowel-point, and is not read, -ow i^"ira npj i^»n »^nD3 p^ ^at^ \ 
iii. 5Am, as "Dfc^. Issachar, where nfToa np Kf?i a^na rmm ei-am ; nana ■. 
the second Shin is not read ac- dw^d rtistao -iiom ,np 312 *aai nana 
cording to Ben Asher's recension, ^^, ^'^^ r'^m ;np niDiy^ 
whilst accoMing to Ben Naphtah s nypK^il ^n^?. nr.«i ,-niK mpoa a^na 
it 18 pointed with Sheva as usual. ' ^' • ' , f 

iv. ir?pA, which is found in the '^^;^^y^^^ P^^^P^ " '^'"UrP 
textual reading of 3?1? «;/«A t/i. P^^^^^" ''"^'^'^ 1^?^ ''^ ^^^ 
chariot [2 Kings xxx. 28], whereas ^^^ '"^^^P^ "»= ^»^^ "'"""^ "''^P 
the Ken is 3Ta m/A f^ multitude, 13n:«yna|i3« ,np Omonni ,D3?TO ^" 
and, t7M» i;er«a, is absent in nn^O : ^7^ ♦nanaw ^oa ,'Tp 

/row fAe caverns [1 Sam. xvii. 28], na it niDf?nnon nvnwa 'arn POH 
in the textual reading, whilst the nvmt^ nppn n^Nca Dl^ ,a'naai npa 
-Km is nto'^p from the armies, ^^na T'v |»a»naT )»te a"a p:a ,X"in* 
V. -4Jm occurs once in the textual rr«5j ,Viit »d» opo loa ,i"n rnpi naTin 
reading, and not in the marginal, „l,*q /♦J'u.^^p n^gf^ np bnm ,'300 
viz., Amos viii. 8, where the Kethiv 

is ngB^3 «A^ «^aW rfnnA:, and the Keri n^ij^p? i< shall rise up. vi. Daleth 
is twice not in the textual reading, viz. 1 Kings ix. 18, where the Kethiv 
is IDJJI Tamor, and the Keri "•b'ln Tadmor ; and Dan. ii. 9, where the 
Kethiv is tA<j y4j?A^i prOIMn ye have agreed together, and the Keri is 
f^ Ithpael pwtJ'HTn. " And vii. CAetA is four times not in the textual 
reading, viz. Jerem. ii. 16, where the Kethiv is DJBnJP) Takiyenes, and 
the Keri is DnjDnft Tehaphnehes, and ^^^^ we, which occurs three times 
in the Kethiv, whilst the Keri has ^^nJK, as stated above. 

2. — ^The second class consists of letters which are interchanged in 
the Keri and the Kethiv. In this case, too, it principally takes place 
with the letters Jod, He, Vav, Aleph, as is seen : i. In the twenty-two 
words which are written in the text with Jod in the beginning of the 
word, and are read in the margin with Vav ; as ^"^nj Ut him cease, in 
the textual reading, and in the margin ^'IH) and cease thou [Job x. 
20] ; n*K^ let him depaH, of the Kethiv, and HW and depart thou, 
in the Keri [ibid.], &c.^^ ii. The ten instances in which the reverse is 

M Comp. Oehla Ve-Ochlay section clxxxi., pp. 40, 117. 

1^ The twenty-two words which begin with Jod in the text, and are read with Vav in 
the margin, are as follows :— 



Jerem. xxxyiii. 2 

Jerem. xlyiii. 18 

. Ezek. xlii. 14 

. . Ezek. xIy. 6 

, Nahnm iii. 8 

. 1 Chron. iv. 7 

. 1 Chron. vii. 34 

. . .Ps.xli. 8 
Massorah marginalia on Hosea i. 1 ; 1 Chron. i. 1: in the 
Massorah finalis under the letter Jod^ p. 84 a, col. 8: and in the Ochla Ve-Ochla^ 
section cxxxiv., pp. 84, 106. All the eaitions of the MoMoreth Ua-Masioreth^ viz., 
Venice, 1588, Basel, 1589, and Snlibach, 1771, erroneously state that there are fifty-two 
(l"3) snch instances. 



IMl' . 


. . . Judg. vi. 5 


mr . 


*3arp . 


. . 2Sam.zii. 22 


'iv. 


VISD* 


. . . Isa. xUx. 13 


waV 


Ta» 


. . Jerem. vi. 21 


rpTp 


ri'w . 


. Jerem. xiii. 16 


"hvfy* 


mo*. 


. Jerem. xvii. 18 


nmr 


•TTP . 


. Jerem. xxi. 9 


mrp 



They are enumerated in the 



bin* .... Job. X. 20 
rw .... Job. X. 20 
«a» . . , Prov. xviii. 17 
bwD» .... Prov. XX. 4 
D"»T . . . . Dan. xi. 12 
moT . . . Ezra X. 29 
pMDp'* . . Zech. xiv. 6 



Digitized by 



Goqgk 



185 

word, as Vi???^ who is stronger ^° ; t^Tl np «!? |vf?j3 nfia noD r)^nrr|^ 
pSccl. vi. 10], where the marginal na^nn proRS c|"Vk pa^roi yho n*D pi 
remark is, **H^i8notread."io The np i<h ]vhiz a^na )f?3 ^jri ,np ^<f?^ 
same, too, is the case in the forty- u.p^Dm lanpa i»h r]DDD«m laa n"^« 
eight words which have Akph in ^^^ ^.^ ^.^„, ^^ i;i,- 

the middle of the word m the text, ' i L l 

and not in the margin; on aU of ^'^^ 1^"="» ^^' '^^^^ ?ina npn anaj 
which it is remarked in the margin, '*^*" ^^ '^"'' '^ •^^ P'^" =^™ T'T 
<* ^Z^/i is not read ; " as tl^DESDKn ^»on nn^* pioDai ; t^^hh^ ^^ y^) ,^t 
the multitude [Numb. xi. 4], &c." ' "[n ,(^"3 »f?vD) la rroipn nan *: onotr 

1^ Now the rule is, that whenever ^^^^^ idd3 a*na k^i np i-^inr tJ^^: f?p 
the letters Jod^ He, Vav, and Aleph tdd3 np h^ a^na r ♦irw npipn ^p) ,np 
are in the marginal reading, and mpnian nmooa ♦a pm ; V^) ^1p \!0 
not written in the text, the Mas- vh^ rhian psowa pa^nan T'vi i*»i ^p 
sorites write down the entire word p«v in* y^\ Tn^ n*^j3 aina r^^P- 
of the Keri in the margin ; but, on ' ' . ^y^ \^^y^ 1 

the contrary, when these letters are ' , ' 

written in the textual reading, and ^^'^^^^^"^^ ^^'^ ^^^ '^ ^^ ^ 
are not to be read, they simply ^y^'^^V^'r^^ T^ Dpo d^hxdd ,N"in^ 
remark in the margin, "Read not r=»'™ yix^h 't ]ua ,pa»na n^Si ynpy 
the Aleph, He, Jod, or Vav.'' In .fpni °^* 10= .r*T «^i nfjDrrpxiwa 
one passage, however, both the re- f'^^ ff^ V'^^ ,r^ piKa f?K*na iKirm 
marks occur. Thus, Prov. xxiii. 28, ^<f? n»»3»n nnh jrw^a ,n))r ,K»n»D 
where the textual reEulingis *i!^^ lie o^iti^nti ^Dnssnpb irwa ♦Txn pi "; rwipj 
</iai begettethf without Far, and the 

marginal reading t?!^"^) and he that begetteth, with. Vav, the Massorites 
give the whole word,* remarking, "Read "J^^^^,;" whilst onnobM and 
he shall rejoice, which has Vav in the textual reading, but not in 
the marginal reading, they simply remark, "Read not the Vav,'' 
Notice, however, that in correct Massorahs, whenever Vav and Jod 
occur in the middle of a word in the textual reading, and are not 
read, the margin has always the remark, " The Vav is superfluous,'' 
or, " The Jod is superfluous ;" and this is the proper remark. 

1^ As to the other letters, besides Jod, He, Vav, and Aleph, there 
are only a few which are found written in the textual reading, and are 
not to be read ; or vi^e versa. Thus, for instance : i. Lamed occurs 
four times in the middle of words in the text, and is not read ; as in 
On^'lf*^ and to the bread [2 Sam. x\i. 2], T^Sy, ^S^Jf, and n^^^ th^y were, 
she was, entering [Dan. iv. 4 ; v. 8, 10]. In the last three instances 
the second Lamed is not read.^* ii. Tzaddi, as in D^^VVnD they were 

"^^ This is bat one of five instances in which the textual reading has He in the middle 
of the word, and the marginal reading has not. The other four words are rmOTQ, 
2 Kings Tii. 12 ; DTOnTQ, 2 Kings vii. 15 ; ^X^fntO^, Eccl. x. 8; DO«jrro, Lament. ▼. 18. 
They are enumerated in the Massorah finalis under the letter He, p. 22 a, col. 3. 

u For the forty-eight instances, see abore, p. 171, note 62. 

u The marginal reading is Q?^ T^ (twice), and Tip_. They are also given in the 
Massorah marginalis on Dan. iy. 4; v. 8; and in tlie 0<Ma Ve-Ochla, section clii. pp. 
36, 110. 

B B 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



184 

®" I have, however, found this, v*vf n^hnn f?3 ♦a ^mxiD naf? nt IK.^ 
that in all the words which have a rrntn iniK T\np2 ,a»n3 Kf?i 'TpT ni« jnn 
letter in the ^m and not in the an:)3 npai ^inn nmit 'Va D'aea iipi 
JSTe/Aii;, the points of the letter in ^oa t,^tDni ; jnaaa mp3 ♦nf7a m^n iniK 
question are put into the text with- ,31,30 onvnaip «n3«' na^*'' imdh irmaK 
out this letter, whilst the marginal ^^^im ,np DJ^Nl jV^/a '-cdj ('n na*«) 
reading has the letter without the ^^ 7 . ^^^^^ ^„, ^^^ ^^^^ ,^^ 
point, as is usuaUy the case Thus ' ,^^^ ^. ^ J ' l,^ 
for instance, m Lam. v. 7, the text ' ^ " , . 

has D^n; are not, «n3«: «•,, and the , ' ^ ^^°"=^ ^"^ PMn^oni 

Massoretic remark in title margin is, ''^P «^' =>*"^"^ ^^ "=> '^*«' "^°^^ 
"Read D3^«1 awrf ar^ wot," **Read '^"^P^ '^^ ^^^ ^^^^ DPD»3Da nterr anaa 
^JTOKl and u4." See also the simi- ^^^ a^n^ T'vn ^h?: can»a pt^D p:a 
lar instances, of which there are ^^^ pn ^"»P WV |vf?ja lana h^ -jk ,np 
twelve in number.^ The same me- h<S ('* nf?np) D:p:3n ^pa jai ; T'V ^"ip 
thod is pursued in the case of He. op ]ua ,n^n pxiDt^a ]ai • ; K"n ^tp 
Thus, in 1 Sam. xiv. 32, the text 

has ^pif I booty, and the margin has, " Read ?7tt^n the booty,'' See also 
the smiilar instances, of which there are thirteen in number.^ 

When, on the contrary, the textual reading has a word with a 
letter which the marginal reading has not, the word is written in the 
text with the letter in question unpointed ; as ^^V* they shall go out 
[Jerem. 1. 8], which has Jod in the Kethiv, but not in the Keri, In 
such a case, however, the Massorites do not write in the margin, 
"Read ^KV," but simply remark, ^^Jod is not read.'* The same is the 
case with D^WDH the wings [Eccl. x. 23], where the marginal remark 
is, *' He is not read;"® and when the Ho is in the middle of the 

f The twelve words which have no Vav conjnnctiTe in the textual reading, and have 
it in the marginal reading, are as follows : — 



'D'aa . . 


. 2 Kings iv. 7 


nn . 


. . Prov. xxvii. 24 


p* . . 


Lament, v. 3 


nnn. . 


. . lBa.lv. 13 


n 


. . . Dan. ii.48 


D*3pi 


. Lament, iv. 6 


■n? . . 


. . Jobii. 7 


^ . 


. . Lament, ii. 2 


D^M . . 


Lament, v. 7 


•fn* . . 


. Prov. xxiii. 24 


^ . 


. . Lament, v. 5 


i:n3M 





Thev are enumerated in the Massorah finalis under the letter Far, p. 27 a, col. 4; and 

Oclua Ve-Ochla, section cxvii., pp. 32 and 101. 

8 The thirteen words which do not begin with He in the textual reading, but have 

He at the commencement in the marginal reading, are as follows : — 

^ . . . 1 Sam. xiv. 32 I •]ba . . .1 Kings xv. 18 ' -m . . . Jerem. xl. 3 
.-^ o__- __••• r, .J— rt Tj-_- . nr. Q^3^ . . Jerem. lii. 32 

3?un . . . Ezek. xviii. 20 
D^y . . . Lament, i. IH 



□nas . 2 Sam. xxiii. 9 
Tn« ... 1 Kings iv. 8 
myo . . 1 Kings vii. 20 



2 Kings xi. 
2 Kings xv. 25 
Jerem. xvii. 19 
. . Jerem. x. 13 

The^ are given in the Massoztih marginalis on 2 Sam. xxiii. 9; and Ochla Ve-Ochla^ 
section clxv., pp. 37 and 112. 

There are seven such words, which, on the contrary, have in the Kcthiv lie at 
the beginning, but not in the Keri. Besides the one quoted in the text, the other six 
are as follows : — 

mm . . 1 Sam. xxvi. 22 I nbon . . 2 Kings xiv. 7 I DncDH . . 1 Kings xxi. 8 
ponn . . 2 Kings vii. 13 | "^DH . . . Isa. xxix. 11 | manon . Jerem. xxxviii. 11 
They are enumerated in the Massorah finalis under the letter lie, p. 22 a, col. 2; and 
Ochla Ve-Ochhu section clxvi. pp. 37, 113. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



188 

are fifty-six such instances.* There y^'toi pv 'ai *;-iB02Da va Dm ,np 
are also two instances where Jod is oi ,y^yy ^aaa i3p ,ca^)n in» ynp v<h^ 
after Cholem in the textual reading, n''^ p^rrsi ') hh^:i jm ,p3»n »h rpi 
but not in the marginal reading, as p^a ^Kiijf nnit |nv d»«xd:t «;np t6) 
Iva*} his feet [Ps. cviii. 18], and V^? cap^VJ'?^^ pi ^,1"^ ^*n♦ ^^ pa^nDT 'n 
his eyes [Eccl. iv. 8] ; but these p'^^ivi j"mi dh«xd3 d^ ; irrBm D♦p^^ 
belong to the list of six words which p,^p^ n^^nn 5^,03^ na^nn »«n3 an^ 
have Jorf.in the Kethiv, and not in ^^^t, .«,„„ ^^ .^^^^i^ ,^ ^^^ ^^t,^ 
the Keri.^ Moreover, Jod is also ' . ^,^^ ,^^ ;^^ ^i^ ,^^^^ 

found after 5/iet'a, as in T^i^, thy ' Z' 

words, which occurs eight times with a redundant Jod,^ D3^7^7g» your 
works [Zech. i. 4], &c. The Vav and Jod also frequently occur in 
the beginning and end of words in the marginal reading, and are not 
in the textual reading, and vice versa; and this is also frequently 
the case with He, which I abstain from illustrating by examples, for 
the sake of brevity. 



A The fifty-six words which are in the textual reading without Jod (mostly indicating 
the plural) in the middle, hut have Jod in the marginal reading,^ are as follows : — 



i-wx . 


. Gen. xxxiii. 


4 


inaD^M 


i-noyi . 


. Exod. xxTii. 


11 


yiy* . 


"»» . • 


. Nnmh.xii. 


8 


imao 


^V2 . . 


. Joshaaviii. 


11 


•irrwD 


VYi«snn. 


. Joshua xvi. 


3 


inVw 


lann . 


. 1 Sam. ii. 


.9 


ISI*?!!! 


w . . 


1 Sam. ii. 


9 


1110m 




. . 1 Sam. x. 


21 


inwfi 


to:«i . 


.lSam.xxiii. 


5 


ino . 


nana . 


. . 2 Sam. i. 


11 


TVW 


"jnVow . 


. 2 Sam. xii. 


20 


ittm 


iDrn 


. 2 Sam. xxiy. 


14 


^'sn . 


VTTOQ . 


. 1 Kings X. 


5 


tTDn 


iDna . 


1 Kings xviii. 
. 2 Kings T. 


42 


"J-UT 


imoa . 


9 


1«13 


HED . . 


. 2 Kings iv. 


84 


^pn . 


innara . 


. 2 Kings xi. 


18 


"»\inpn 


1W . . 


. . Isa.lvi. 


10 


lOw 


l/tDO 


. . Isa.lii. 


5 


lyivi 



Joh xxri. 14 
Joh xxxvii. 12 
Joh xxxix. 80 
. Joh xl. 17 
Joh xxxix. 26 
. Joh xxxi. 20 
Job xxxriii. 41 
. Prov. vi. 18 
ProT. xxvi. 24 
Prov. xxii. 25 
Prov. XXX. 10 
. Buth iii. 14 
. . . Ezraiv. 7 
. . Lament, iii. 89 
. . 1 Sam. xxL 14 
Song of Songs ii. 11 
. . . Ps. cv. 40 
. . Numb. xi. 82 



. Jerem. xv. 8 imiaa . 
Jerom. xvii. 11 inVinnm 

Ezek. xvii. 21 irmOMI . 

Ezek. xxxi. 5 ytrm • . 

. Ezek. xl. 26 1D33 '• • 

. Ezek. xl. 22 'rs'm . . 

. Ezek. xl. 22 n^ . . 

Ezek. xlvii. 11 ^bTM . . 

Habak. iii. 14 lt;DV7n . 

. . Obad. 11 inrrw . 

. Ps. xxiv. 6 13TM . . 

. Ps. Iviii. 8 iniVaia . 

. Ps. cvi. 45 ini23 . . 

. Ps. cxlvii. 19 ^W£^n . . 

Ps. cxlviii. 2 in^i . . 
Job xiv. 6 viDn 
Job XV. 15 nVtt? 

. Job XX. 11 ibttjn 

. Job xxiv. 1 

They are enumerated in the Massorah finalis under tiie letter Jod^ p. 84 a, cols. 2 and 8 ; 
and in the Ochla Ve-Ochla, section cxxviii., pp. 83 and 104. It must be remarked, that 
this list only registers such words as occur once as defective^ and therefore excludes 
many other words which Ukewiae want the Jod plural, but which occur more 
than once. 

6 The other four which in the textual reading are without the Jod plural, but have 
it in the marginal reading, and which, with the two adduced by Levita, constitute the list 
of six words, are, vnWDnil, 1 Kings xvi. 26 ; inai, Ps. cv. 28, Dan. ix. 12 ; and vrCttJ, 
Prov. xvi. 27. They are given in the Massorah finalis under the letter Jod, p. 34a, col. 
3 ; and Ochln Ve-OcMa^ section cxxix., pp. 84 and 105. 

The eight passages in which the textual reading is *pll, with the plural Jod, and 
the marginal reading is without it, are. Judges xiii. 17 ; 1 Kings viii. 26 ; xviii. 86 ; xxii. 
18 ; Jerem. xv. 16; Ps. cxix. 47, 161 ; Ezra x. 12. They are enumerated in the Massorah 
finalis under the letter Dalethj p. 195, col. 2; and Ochla Ve- Ochla, section cxxxi., pp. 
84 and 105. To supplement our remark on the thirteen instances in which the reverse 
is the case with the word in question, that is, where the textual reading is TMl without 
the plural Jod^ and the marginal reading is *p*ai with the plural Jod [nde mpra, 
p. IGl, note 48), we must add that the list is given in the Ochia Ve-Ochla, section oxxx., 
pp. 34, 105, and that Ps. cxix. 17 has inadvertently been omitted. 



Digitized by 



Google 



182 



ing. These I have given in the f?3 'np^n p o ,»»»rn |»2Da -jaD^ D3m 

sixth class, for I have thus divided h^f D'mapm ponaf? Knpoaa^ lanat pnp 

all the Keris and the Kethivs of the Q>3*iDn npa«^ )n^ nar ,d*3*d npaer 
Scriptnres into classes, and dis- i : ^^'^> ^-^ pa rmanrsr 

tributed them undBr seven classes, p^^ ^t,, „^p^ m»nwa nrun ^DH 

coiresponding to the seven kinds ^^^, ^,^,^^ i,^ 

''^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ Is«^l ;na7in p»DKai rjioa) J^na p o^mn 

"^.-m first class consists of ^^^^^f^Xr^^T''''^^'''^'' '"''''''' 
words which are read from the "'nK ,"nn f?"n ,n^ p.iD«a mm ,n«fa p 

margin, but not written in the text, ''"^"^ P"'^" "^ "'"^'"^ 'P^''^^ °J^"" 
and, rt^^r rma, which are written ^^^ D*M'?Dm Dnom m« on n^K o 
in the text but not read. This 'T«»03n i"»in *?aK ;]iwtnn nma w»a 
principally afiects the letters Jod, ^pn w pp nnit itpn it»n ,np itf?i a»na 
He, Far, ^Z^A,, which thus occur nD»a«i rTOi^:^^ .nna oa^ rr»n3M loa ,vDp 
in the beginning, end, or middle of i"nn»xD: »f?i »;iDDDa H"h \rx\ jnnam 
a word. It must, however, be re- f^a^t ,rh^^h nten pxDNca a*na »^i np 
marked that Vav and Jo^Z do not pj^ ^^op ttw a»na Hh^ np jwxd3 i^rn 
occur in this manner when they are y^ y^\^ ^y^ ^t pi ,np 17*5? ,i»pT "hmj^ 
quiescent in the middle of a word ; ' * ' 

that is to say, Vav after the vowel-points Choletn and Shtirek, and Jod 
after Chirek and Tstrtf, since such belong to the category of defective 
and jplene, as I have explained in Part i., Section 1. But the Far, 
which occurs in the Kethiv and not in Ken, is only after the vowel- 
points Kametz or Chateph-Kavietz, as '^^^^^ I shall covenant , (Josh. ix. 
7), no^jX^ I shall he at rest (Isa. xviii. 4), &c. There are in all 
thirty-one such instances .^ Far never occurs as Keri in the middle 
of a word, not being in the textual reading ; but Jod is found in the 
Keri, and not in the Kethiv, after Kametz. Thus, for instance. Gen. 
xxxiii. 4, the Kethiv is ^"^^J? his neck, and the Keri ^*!?^3¥ ; and in 
Ps. xxiv. 6, the Kethiv is ^K^S his seeker, and the Keri l^tf^^. There 

s The Beven cliief prodnetions of Palestine, mentioned in Dent. riii. 8, in praise 
of the land, are wheat, barley, grapes, fi^, pomegranatf^s, olives, and honey. From 
the iact that these seven kinds are specified in the Pentateach, Jewish legislation, 
long before the time of Christ, restricted the offering of the first-fruits to these alone. 
Comp. Miahna Bihurim, i. 8; Baht/lon Talmud nerachoth^ 35 a; Maimonides, Jad 
ffa-Uhezaka HUchoth Bthurim,u; Kitto's Cyclopcedia of Biblical Literature, 8. v. 
Fibst-Fbuits. 

< The words in which Vav occurs after Kametz and Chateph Kametz, in the 
textual reading, and from which Vav is omitted in the marginal reading, are as follows : — 



TTEIpVH 

TnsH . 



. Joshua ix. 7 
. 1 Sam. xxii. 15 
. 1 Sam. XXV. 81 
1 Sam. xxviii. 8 
. . Isa. xviii. 4 
. . Isa. xxvi. 20 
. . Jerem. i. 6 
. Ezek. xliv. 8 
. Ezek. xxvii. 15 
Jerem. xxxiii. 8 
. . Isa. xliv. 17 



a"»n3« 
may . 
liny . 

Vnai . 





Ezek. xxi. 


28 


yrtycM . 




. Dent, xxxii. 


18 


*3wbo . 




Ps. cxlviii. 


d 


%ob. . 




. Micahi. 


8 


TtrypKom. 




. Hos. viii. 


12 


niTITDM 




Amos vii. 


8 


nraioy 




. Amos viii. 


8 


narmn . 




. . Ps. cxlv. 


8 


nnjnn . 




. . Nahum i. 


8 


Viyo? 


1 Chron. xviii. 


10 


yyapf* 




. . Ps.x. 


15 


V^D> . . 



They are enumerated in the Massorah finalis, under the letter Vav, p. 



Ps. Ixxxix. 29 

. . .Ps. ci. 6 

. . Rnthiv. 6 

Ezra viii. 25 

. Nehem. xiii. 23 

. Nehem. xiii. 23 

1 Chron. vii. 34 

2 Chron. xxxiv. 22 

2 Chron. xxxvi. 14 

. . Prov. xxii. 8 

Prov. xxii. 14 

col. 2. 



Digitized by 



Google 



181 

1^ It is to be noticed, that nan mipjnr Dipo f?3a ♦a yni .^ 
whereyer the points are more than 'a a^nan nf?Da mrf? lanxin anan ^ 
the letters, [the punctuators] had to 13« ^v» ^rom ^hk mit nnn nmpa 'ana 
put two sorts of points under one np )3n:N (3"a h'Dt) imNc oti^iv 
letter of the Kethiv, Thus, m pT^g^a, i^^^^a „„.f^ y.,, mpaf? la-wirr 
Jerem. xlii. 6, where the Kethiv is „^ ^t,^ ^^^y^, ^^„,^ ^.t,^ „,^^™ 
p« !(;., and the Zm i:mN, they had ,^ „^ ^^ ^^^ ,^^ ^^^^^'^^ 

to put two points, namely, Sheika ^^ -^L-sni «-i»w-^ -/ 

f,nd Shurek ^der the F^ in ««, "^ ^^^^'^^ '^^™=^ T ^^'P^^^ "^^ 
to correspond to the points of «n:x ^V n^^io a^na.n«.ai 1;id^^ no ,W« 
whilst the word ij/in the text is ,niipD >^a nnn nm a^naa iTKUfn rmpan 
left without points, and is read T'^*" nnnri np 313 /rr^p *aan una pja 
^3«, which has no parallel in the" r"«io tj5« nxon rw nan pi ,mip3 ^h^ 
Scriptures, except in the Prayer ^ pi .nnipj '^a |"'»n m np ir>« 
Book, where we find ^3« HO what : mipa *^a TD^n np ^H ,»»»d 

ar« t£?tf,^ When, however, the word ni^D 'a npm nnN nf?D S^n^HEO) 
in the text has more letters than are 'a hv nnipxi f?a a*nan nhn nnn iDw 
required for the pomts [of the mar- onnp) nn mnw^i paa ,npa» mten 
ginal reading], one letter of the *, \^ ,^p on^bn ^D^D (n* 'a D'af?D) 
^^''«*^ is left without fmy vowel- .^^,^ ^^^ rsfiyy ^^ hv; mmn 
point, as m 2 Kmgs xix. 23, where, ^^^^ ^^^^ ^l.^ ^^\ ^^t,^^ i^ a^nanrai' 
the text has 351? M?'^'t*'i<^c/iar/o^ and , '^ * * 
the marginal reading is:i^} with the '^^ =r'^==^^ "^^*^^,^" "=**"" ^" '^^ 
inuUitude, the JiTaM is le^ without ^»^^ ^«^°'^^ ^^^^ ^^^ '^^ ^"^ "^P^ 
any vowel-point; also in 2 Sam. P;» "^r? pi .^P nnyOHO mj^^n^p 
xxiii. 21, where the Kethiv is "itTK ; f?ai ^3d nonn on^jwa p'tan nn ,np n30 
?t'/iw/i, and the Keri K^K man, the i" T'^pi T^D ^"^ I*^*^^'"^ ^^^^ '" P^ 
6'A/w is without a vowel-point ; and 

in Ezra v. 15, where the Kethiv is n^K these y and the Keri ^K, 
the Lamed is left without a vowel-point. 

When the textual reading has one word, and the marginal reading 
has two words, they put under the one word of the Kethiv all the 
points of the words in the Ke7-i, Thus, in 2 Kings xviii. 27, where 
the Kethiv is DQ^O^K^ their urine, and the Keri DHvaT ^D^D the water of 
their feet, the six points of the two words D J viT ^D^D are put under 
the one word D-:???' ^^^ if> ^^ ^^ contrary, the textual reading 
has two words, and the marginal reading one word, the last unpointed 
letter of the first word in the Kethiv is omitted altogether in the Keri. 
Thus, in 1 Sam. xxiv. 9, where the textual reading is HpyDH JD from 
the cavern y and the marginal reading n^yipnp ; and Lament, i. 6, where 
the textual reading is H? \0 from the daughter, and the marginal fl??; 
the Nun is altogether omitted in hoth cases. The same is the case 
with the eight words, which are respectively divided into two words 
in the textual reading, and which are undivided in the marginal read- 

1 The Prayer Books (nibonn niTD), to which Lcvita refers, are the authorised 
Jjitnrgics which the Jews nse to the present day. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



180 



SECOND PAKT. ,nv3B^ nimH^ «n 

Also containing Ten Sections. JHVIJB^ DnD«D mc^a 

THK TABLE OF CONTENTS OF EACH SECTION ' TDHD1 lOMO VD ^ D^ODH mVl 

IS TO BE FOUND AT THE END OF THE BOOK. • TQJJ IDDTf *VltAO MSOT) 

Section 1., concerning the Keri nm :pn31 )*^-ip3 jlK^Kin "WDKOn 

and Kethiv. — Having stated, at the npifpncn n*»»^!rn ^D^pn^ vvn^ 'nana 

beginning of Introduction iii., the mnnKai ,|3n3i pnp 'j'ipa D*3nnKn pr 

differences of opinion which ob- ^^^^ „^, .^a^ ,^ ^^ .pt^^ ,^,3^ 

tained among modem writers about ,^^^ „^ ,^^„ ^^ ^^,^ ^^^„^ 

the ifert and the Kethiv, and ^^^ ^^^ t^^ J^ . ^t,^'^^ ^^^ 

having given at the end thereof ,„ ' 1 ' ' 1 

my Zn opinion respecting it {vide l\^""» '^P^ *^^^ I^'^^^ ^"^^V^ ^^«^ 

supra 106, &c.), I shaU now dis- ^^^ O'^^o ^^Bf nrji ,«'nn nfjon rmp 

close to you the method which the rn^rKna) -\m KVIH ^cfom ; hh:i t<yi 

men of the Great Synagogue have ,Y'V3KV^^K^n>^p^^1"na aTO-ja ,('n 

therein pursued. First of all, how- hnn ,«s^n mn «^ hv nmpa inr mn 

ever, you must know that what is p33D ^nx «inw ,«^rT pi ini« jmp ]*« 

written in the margin is the Keri, r» Ti»n hpvn f?p n^hvn ^^^ f?p ^'pen 

that is, it is thus to be read ; and j^d nnipa *^3 «?in d»:d3 nwcfai ,D*if?n 

what is in the text, that is, the . f^t^pon r« «?^n id3 ,Y'v k"b ♦n:D »iixn 

iir^ff/r/r, is not to be read at all. ,^p ^^ ..,3^., ^^^t, ^^^ ^^^ ^,3^ 

Thus, for example, the word K>pn ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ 

^'■"'^rt//^'''••^V ^^' as It ;,,3^nnip.niy5nn,npnntenTp3Dp 
IS m the Kethiv, with Fav, and for , ^ ^ ^ 

which ^m is Nv;n, with Jod. "^^^■'^^ 'P^^"««' '^P ""T "^'^^ r^'**^ 
Now, the Massorites put the vowel- "i'^" ^^'^ P^ v"^"»^P^ *^^ ^*f " "^^ 
points of KV^n under KV^n, and ; npn mpoBfo *b*? 3»n3n nnn n«?Dn ope 
it is read ^j^^, being the impera- oP n»n '3k 133 iDf?»^ in nD«^i ^vom 
tive Hiphil of the regular verb, S'nan ♦d^» mn ,»3a npi ^3a 3»n3 /i3i *33f? 
according to the analogy of ^&B»1 npnw ^D^i,W3nnn wrwnnvnV'iKTmn 
appoint [Numb. i. 50] ; whilst tie hp nn ,r\thsh nnn rxntm id» *» Kin 
textual KVin, without the vowels, is : y^vh 

the imperative of ^"D, as fc<5rtn [Levit. 

xxiv. 13]. The same is the case with '^^^ [Ps. v. 9], where the 
Keri is y^^J} make straight. Hence, the punctuators pointed the textual 
reading with the points of the word in margin, that is, the points of the 
text always belong to the Kei'i in the margin; whilst the Kethiv is 
without vowel-points. The same is the case with the accents, which 
they have always put under the words in the text, according to what 
it is in the marginal reading. Thus, in 1 Chron. xxii. 7, where the 
textual reading is 133 his son, and the marginal reading ^33 my so7i, the 
Athnach according to the Kethiv ought to be under ^33, but because the 
Keri is *?3, the Athnach is put under nb?^ to Solomon. And this 
is easily understood. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



179 

Massorites simply remark, ** this w »yri3 p pn p^p Tooi nh ^p'om ^ 
is the textual reading," or, "the 't rrjtori w p |n*n3 'i nhroA 1233 ,p a^na 
textual reading is so;" ex, gr., on noww »nK»o niKirow r^ai ";p pa»nD 
rfenN ^w f^if [Gen. ix. 21], they rijpa opn ^ip pi ,np )^nK rihm on ^p 
remark, "four times so written ;"« »nijriD D^iai ,DnnKn nxpa p/np Ijna 1 
miDH ^w muUitude, " four times ^^nan nte Df?ip^ kxw nh '3 pneio / 
so written.'** in gome Codices, kxd^w noi ,V^i3 npi of^ina K"n hdids ' 
however, we find it remarked on ,.,, j,,^p, ^.„ j,^^^ j^^^^ ^„ ^^^^^ 

S5??' ii is^emaSe! ^^^fc - T^ '^' '^ ^" '^"'^"^ f ^P""' ""^ ' 
nyjJ, It IS remarked «ead J^J , a . ,n*Dm np 13 njDip k^ irr ,np in. 

and m a few more. But this is a i_ 

clerical blunder, for we neter find *, , , ^ 

that a word which has in the text P^"" ^^"'^ ^^^' '^'"T' T™ ^'^ "^"^^ 
He, with C^^, has in the mar- ^^ '^^^ ''^■'" P'"" '''™^ 'P''^"'" j 
ginal reading Vav, As to the list • *^ r*^i ' 

of fourteen words which have He 

in textual reading, and Vav in the marginal reading, to be found in 
the Massorah, this refers exclusively to Vav with Shurek ; as nrnpj they 
shall make bold [Levit. xxi. 5], where the Keri is ^'^7??i fikewise 
n^DK^ they have shed [Deut. xxi. 7], where the Keri is ^^B^, &c.^ I 
shall again refer to these in the Second Part, Section i. By the 
help of Him, who is the last and the first, I have thus finished Part 
the First; and shall commence Part the Second, by the aid of that 
One who has no second. 

TO The fonp mstanceB in which rfrw oocnn are, Gen. ix. 21 ; xii. 8 ; xiii. 8 ; xxxv. 21. 
They are given in the Massorah marginalis on Gen. ix. 21. The Snlzhach edition 
has erroneously seven, 

^ The fonr passages in which ns^on occnrs are, Ezek. xxxi. 18 ; xxxii. 31, 82 ; xxxix. 
11. The Massorah finalis, under the letter He, p. 246, col. 2, refers to Ezek. xxxix. 
for the enumeration of the passages, hut they are not to he found in the Massorah 
marginaliB on the chapter in question. 

^ The fourteen words with He at the end, which is read and considered as Vavt are 
as follows : — 



nmp* . . Levit. xxi. 6 

Ttxm . . Deut. xxi. 7 

maiD3 . 1 Kings xxii. 49 

nbv . . 2 Kings xxiv. 10 

rmsn . . Jerem. ii. 15 



nzv . 



. Jerem. xxii. 6 
. . Jerem. 1. 6 
. Ezek. xxiii. 48 
. Ezek. XXXV. 12 
Ezek. xxxvii. 22 



TOCm . . Ps. Ixxiii. 2 
mOTDTT . . Joh xvi. 16 
nyiXf . . Lament, iv. 17 
rho .... Dan. iii. 29 



They aie enumerated in the Massorah marginalis on 2 Kings xxiv. 10, and on Lament, 
iv. 17 ; and in the OdUa Ve-Ochluy section cxiii. pp. 81, 100. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



178 



found her [Gen. rvi. 7] ; and (c), an a?on ,*n^. mn m loa ,™nDp rm 

when it has Mappik, and is pre- pi ,!«p)^ a^ie; rnttf rnspai ;n^, 

ceded by Eametz, as Pnapjl and h« vh join, nSt h^s hy ,35^3 ,35 .nixS 

declared U,i^y^n he searched it, Jrm ^^^^ ^^ „i^ ^ ^3k ;nDiKD noDJ 

he prepared it [Job xxviii. 27] ; aWB „£„ n.i, n,^ toj pen 'b rmnam 

ag Wood [Exod XXI 10]; ^d njjo p« .poo k^ nn, p^D -m pnU 

_ ▼ . ^ ,* . " 3 xi_ 1-7* ^fV D'i'iBD p^DDa TTWl ,nD1 n*7 DVD 

her foot: on all these, and the like, ,. l l ., m, 

the Massontes do not make any ' _^^^ ' ^ ' ^_ ' 

remark. Bnt on those words which ^^ '"^^^ °vi^ .^"d n^rn^^ i2dd p^DDn 

have Mappik in one place, and axe '** " P'^° "^^ ""'^ ^^ ^^^''°^^^ ''^^^ "=» 
without Mappik in another place, • ^"^ *^'' ^^ 

they remark, *'no Mappik;'' as ^^P^^ "«3" «""" «1" 'i«^" T^"^ 
rljll booty [Ezek. xxix. 19], RTV p^ina n^iB^Bf noi ^nnoan Tam »i33 V'»i 
provisian [Ps. crxxii. 15], &c. 'So ns^ pa ,]in« nin^ ^a ,nSr4| Dj?n h^p pas 
there are also eleven pairs terminat- 
ing with He, which is once Mappik or audible, and once not-Mappik or 
quiescent; as '"^J^? «^// me [Gen. xxv. 21], "no parallel, being 
Raphe,'' whilst the other, a^J^P »^ZZ m^ [Prov. xxxi. 10], has MappikJ^ 
l^ere are also eleven words which end with a quiescent He, and ought 
to have an audible He ; as "^^pnni and they daubed it, [Exod. ii. 3], 
niDin the foundation thereof [Exod. ix. 18] ; ^3^^ her sin [Numb. xv. 
. 81], &c., on each one of these the Massorites remark, '* the He is not 
audible," or, "the He is feeble."" 

The second class embraces the He which stands for Vav masculine, 
third person, and is preceded by Cholem; as nin3 in its shouting 
[Exod. xxxii. 17], HSK^ its hedge [Lament, ii. 6,] &c. On these the 

77 The eleTen pairn, each one of which pair alternately oceans with an andible He 
[=l/api>tifc], and with a quiescent He [— /topAe], are as follows : — 
n2WD . . Dent, xzxiii. 27 
nS3 . . . Gen. xl. 14 
PK3 . . . Isa. xviii. 6 
msriMl . . Isa. xxiii. 18 
^naanw^ . . . Isa. xiiii. 17 
voyy . . . Nahnm ii. 14 
rnyyb . . Ezek. xxyii. 20 
r&n . . . Zech. ix. 4 
They are nyen in the Massorah finalis nnder the letter He, p. 21 ft, col. 1, and in the 
OcMa Ve-OchUi, section xliy., pp. 14, 62. 

7B This mnst be a mistake, since the Massorah giyes eighteen words which abnormally 
haye at the end a quiescent He. They are as foUows : — 
monrVi . . Exod. ii. 8 TTKia . . 1 Kings xiy. 12 ~ 

Jerem. xx. 17 

Ezek. xiy. 4 

Ezek. xyi. 44 

Ezek. xxiy. 6 

Ezek. xxxyi. 6 

Indeed Leyita seems also to haye mistaken the number of words contained in this rnbric, 
in his annotations on Eimchi's Michlol (32 b, ed. Venice), where he says that there are 
fifteen snch words. The list is nyen in the Massorah finalis under the letter He, p. 21 6, 
cols. 1 and 2, and Ochla Ve-Oenla, section xliii., pp. 14, 51. 



?roo . 


Proy. xxxi. 10 


I rot) 


. Gen. xxy. 31 


SPflWJ . 


Leyit. xiii. 20 


mojim . 


Leyit. xiii. 4 


rlWA . 


Leyit. xyiii. 23 


Ttffrb . 


Levit. XX. 16 


nsiwa . 


. Zeph. iii. 7 



nVrrt . 


. Ps. xlyiii. 


14 


mi3i3. 


Isa. xxyiu. 


4 


miDaa . 


. . Hos. ix. 


10 


pon 


. . Prov. y. 


3 


rr:x\ 


. Job xxxii. 


4 


TO-w . 


Job xxyiii. 


13 


roTy 


Job xxxiii. 


5 



TOW 

Ttns 



. Exod. ii. 8 


HKia 


. Exod. ix. 18 


rromi 


Numb. xy. 81 


na . 


. Josh. xix. 13 


rro«3 


. Judg. i. 31 




1 Sam. XX. 20 


«Vd. 



TlTfOrt . 


Ezek. xxxix. 


16 


na^ob . 


Ezek. xlvii. 


10 


nnnaw . 


. Isa. xxi. 


2 


moiD . 


. Isa. XXX. 


32 




. Zech.iy. 


7 


nODWD 


. Job xxxi. 


22 



Digitized by 



Google 



177 

groups, as njirta as thou comest, 76 ^ ty n33^ /i n^xn idd 

six times ; nSSJ A^ «AaZZ smite thee, ^^^^^ ^^ na^^n rjioa nxiDpn i"i3n n^m 
three times.''* . , ^r i"^l^^ ^^a ,K"n nnn« m *n^ mny main 

The final huriy ^i^ Kametz at :n»ibttnin2'>inirT3riani,TT»n^m*«,nnS:jn 
the end of a word, is the .Yun of rt^i^.,^'(y^j^:^^\;^^ 
the plural femmme, which normally ,,.^, \. ^,^, ,^l ' ,« ^« ^^ ^^ 
i8foUowedbyIf.,;snj-lin^,Vd yl ^^"^^ ^'^ "^^^ ^R^ *""=» ^°^ '"^^^P 
mnbp larJit ^/[Jereiii/xlix. 8], ^""^ «'*«^'^'^ '^JD. n^rnpDi ;nni:D 
n3KV\7oy^ oJ, nD«-VI and see ye ""=» ^.H?.^^- .^'-T^'^ ^^ .T^^l \^^^ 
[Song of Songs, iii." 'll], n3«3ni : p^Dm mnevn ,r???l ,ftif7 

and they came, r\h:VF\\ and thexj drlic P*Qf?» p»NBf d^^j^dd ^py^^ HTI .^ 
[Exod. ii. 16], &c. There are some j^ 'a Him ^o'D^ira iriK pi hxo: k^i 
words which have He omitted; iK^niDmoDa j^a^i ,-|^Dnni3a^]^a)pi 
that is, they have final ^un with namn e)iD3 nxiDpn e)"ani V'^nn f?^am 
Kametz, as,l?.^ ^o y^ [Ruth i. 12], ,K"n OK^Jon |»2D3 ^d^ K^nnnon 3nnf?pj 
^JKVIM aitd you may find [Ruth i. 9] ; ^'rm hjf H"Tm ,na»nn cjioa nxiopn |"i3m 
and in the ftiture tense, as ^r^'T''? they : o^Tom j'jdd "|D^ naind^ 

«Aa/Z ft<j [Deut. xxi. 16], JVJ}^ ye ^^ja ^^n nwn ,i»3'd 'a K»n Mian K^ni 
«/iflZZ Ztff //i'^ [Exod. i. 19],,r?Lj^ ;D»3Dw'3a rwai ,mnD3n n^ipen napan 
they shall become pregnant [Gen. xix. ^rwuii nxiDp i"o nrw rma K'nra mm 
86], JK'?!? they shall approach [Gen. .3^ .(/^ n^y^^a) rnnnn n»a nuon loa 
xxxrn. 6], &c. ^ ,103 ,n»3B^ ^udi vDpa nmpa K^nva 

^ This only occurs m irregular ^^ ^^^^^ .^^ . ,«, ^^^ 

verbs, and there is but one instance ^ ^ .- 

of it to be found in the regular verb, viz. — Ji^^^^ they shall clothe 
[2 Sam. xiii. 18], and the Massorites have marked them all ^' He 
omiitedy The general rule is, that Tav and Kaph, with Kametz 
at the end of a word, generally want He, Hence the Massorites 
counted the instances in which He is plene, they being the fewest ; 
whilst in the case of Nun with Kavietz at the end of a word, the He 
being mostly plene, they counted the defectives. 

The He suffix is of two kinds. The one is suffix third person femi- 
nine, and occurs in three different ways ; («), when it is quiescent after 
Nun, with Kametz and Dagesh, as nannn in her place [Gen. ii. 21] ; 
{b)y when it has Kametz, and is preceded* by 5egol, as "J^Y^f! and he 

70 The twentj-ono words, wbich have He at the end after Kaph^ of the second person 
singnlar mascnlme, are as follows : — 

. 2 Sam. xxii. 80 

1 Kings xTiii. 12 
1 Kings xviii. 44 

. 2 Kings vii. 2 

. Jerem. yii. 27 

. Jerem. xxix. 26 

. . Ezek. xl. 4 

They are enumerated in the Massorah marginali \ on Exod. yii. 29 ; in the Massoroh 
finaiis nnder {he letter He^ p. 22 a, col. 2; and in the Ochla Ve-Ochlaj section xcii., 
pp. 27, 94. The six instances in which rOna occurs are, Gen. x. 19 (twice), 80 ; xiii. 10 ; 
xxY. 18 ; 1 Kings xviii. 46. They are given in the Massorah marginalis on Gen. x. 19. 
The three passages in which Tt^y occurs are, Isa. x. 24 ; Jerem. xl. 15 : Ps. cxxi. 6. 

A A 



maiaMi 


. (Jen. xxvii. 


7 


ma 


rnai . 


Exod. vii. 


29 


rt3«2ra» 


TOT 


. Exod. xiii. 


16 


rtn!nr. 


TOoa . 


. . Exod XV. 


11 


rt3:n . 


TOoa . 


. . Exod. XT. 


11 


n3i3y . 


mw . 


. Numb. xxii. 


83 


rt3Q«a 




. . 1 Sam. i. 


26 


mrrttrin 



mbnb . 


. . . Ps.x. 


8 


roVn . 


. . . Ps. X. 


14 


PDD3 . 


Ps. cxxxix. 


5 


fTDa. . 


. . Ps.cxU. 


8 


roiana* 


. . Ps. cxlv. 


10 


ronsan 


. . Prov. ii. 


11 


HDna . 


Prov. xxiv. 


10 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



176 

followed by either a silent or vocal ^a "ffw K*n nna pd'd^i ,vTn« pj i» m , 

letter. Hence the He after every loa ,nn»nn rj^on pm B^na nB^UTn i"fi^ 

Taw which has Dagesh forte at the ja^ : o-a p ^»in nnroi nrinj -wjy ^a 

end of a word, as you see is the rm^ ;npip\ -|nT)» rvwh ,Dpn mt nnprn 

case in the other instances, besides n^'^paa ^"1 "'i .P^om nn33^ irnwijr 

the twenty-nine in question. Thus ^^t^ p, ,,,^3,^ 0^,^,3 ,oa ,n^f?r p*R» 
you wiU also see it in njjpni and if ^„„ ^^^j^^ ^g^^^^ ^.„„ „^ 

"9?J ^«f 4^"/^ f ^f?^^- .Da,n^i.-ii.i-n,nrn^nWf.pDa^aH 
xxvm. 81, nne' fAou A<w< »w< [Ps. ' ' , _^ V^ 

xc. 8], &c. This, however, is 6nly '"'^"^ «^";^=^ "^^^ °" '"'^ ^^^ '"^^ 
the case with irregular verbs, as '^'^^y"" ^' '^"^ 'P'" «'^'Tn«f^"BpH 
those mentioned above. Thus, ^^ l^'^ '^^^ °'^ ,0*715*? pnj?l 
also, in the word nnw r/iau, "^^«P ^i^di pon )n^f?p idd3 hI?! ,]n^^^ 
the Htf is added because of the "looa ja^ ,^^an p nnjfr ^DD nai? ^a 
Dagesh forte y for which reason the :K"n nhr^ n*^p 

Massorites did not require ever to i^*n rmpja na»nn r]iDa isan si"Dni 
make it as having He plene. But o^^pDa Kxaan rrrn Maa^ nxiopn ^j-'an 
the regular verbs in which the Tav ^m-yv, l7«?o '^xi loa ;iiteai mnvai 
is radical, n-}3 to cut off, nne^ to ,^ L^' ^^n^ -,^^ ^^^^^3, —^,3 
reM, T\m to destroy, &c., these have tJ^'^^'^ ^^^,3 '«„„; ^^^^^^ ^,, ^05 
never iig after Tav, though it has „l^ „^ ^^^^^ ,... ^„^ ^u. ,J.t,^ 
Dagesh forte, as JJ^^I awri «Aow «W^ ' 1 , * J; 

cui down [Deut. ii. 20], n^l^M a«ri •^ "=^ T^^^^^^ f^n m^ ]^«^ h"i ,]^i^ 
thou Shalt be ait 0/ [Ob^d! 10], n^-rKia) ^"-«f. np?n3«iiDana*rv, r,^Da 
naB^n t/iou makest to cease [Ps. cxix. "=»^ Hopai ^?^ »"57: *?? "^«^ '('"^ 
119], nn?^ «Aou hast destroyed [Is. ^ l^^^'^i K"a HD |n^ iKip ,Mai naipy 
xiv. 20], and are not marked de- i^^ P^ ^'^ d*K3cd31 'd TDKoa p'j? ,Hni | 
fective; the expression nripvn <^om 

Aa«t destroyed [Ps. Ixxiii. 27], being an exception to this rule, is marked 
by the Massorites **He written fully." 

The final Kaph, which has a vowel-point at the end of a word, is 
the Kaph with Kainetz, indicating the suf^ of the second person singular, 
found in verbs and nouns ; in verbs, as ^^^D?^ 1*^?'J'?\ ^IP^ ^ ^^ make 
thee fruitful, and multiply thee, and make the£ [Gen. xlviii. 4] ; and in 
nouns, as 1^0?f! 1"]??] 'I'J^C!! ^7^ thine ox and thine ass, thy man 
servant, thy woman servant [Deut. v. 14]. There are some, however, 
with the additional He, which the Massorites always mark " He plene'^ 
Thus, there are in the Massorah twenty-one unique words, i,e., they 
have no parallel with a quiescent He at the end of the word, after 3 
of the second person singular masculine, as •"'J^^-'tt ^ *''^ ^^^^ ^''^'* 
(Gen. xxvii. 7), HDT thy hand [Exod. xiii. 16],' nD3 in thee [Exod. 
vii. 29] , naoy with thee [1 Sam. i. 26], &c. ; these are called 21 Vadain or 
Vadja (see Section ix., Part 2), and you will find that they have pairs or 

w The whole sentence will mmam V»n Vd imi «"n mo "p'oyt mrw ya w na m« ^s 
m»nn moa pm, idthout being followed either by a silent or bocal letter^ ami hence the 
He after every Tav which has Dagesh fortey is entirely omitted in the Sulzbach edition. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



176 

inBtances in which n^Jfi? occurs, v'^ ,tdiV mh htw ^^ani : o'^an *iDfi 

because this form is the most K"n ^h ^'Dm in^»nna Y'd^ -jnxn dv 

frequent. Accordingly, the Rab- tmdkv id3 Sd nte ar»^ r* *^iki ^Bioa 

bins ought simply to have said, nam ;m^^an p p^of? |*m mt^ oipna 

** there ^e some nouns which ought p^np^ ^^p-, ^nNt niDDiin p'nn »* 

to begin with Lam^d, but take He ^^^^ ^^,^ ^^^^ .^^j^, ^„^ ,.,„„ 

at the end mstead " It may, per- ^^^ ^^ ,^ ^^^^^ ,^^^ ^^^ . ^^^ . 

haps be replied, that the word !?D ,.^pnnpn,naw nmni« nnnmipr 

Bifflufies rule, smce they use it so m ' i_ ' ' 

aS)ther place ; " one cannot infer V^' °'»^»P '^^J'^^ °^«^" '1"^^^^ H"^"^ 

from rules." The additional He is • •*"" P"™ 

also to be found after Katnetz, un- ^V miDn nxiopn V^nn ht^n V^nn 

der Tai;, -fiTop^, and Nun, at the flftll loa ,Qnaipn cjioa ^<XD3 ^T^r? 

end of a word, as I shall explain is'nn pnona nan p^Dm nWi pTem 

hereafter. I have already shown, ,K''nn nj; n^anaa d^djtd »n ,nrm »3DD 

in Section v., that a vowel-point i^-n ^-jiap nna Trprvz ,na nrra ma 

does not occur at the end of a j^t^^ jn^t,^ ^qqj ^^^^^ jn'DTn'rmaaDn 

word, except under Tav, Kapk, t,j^ ^^^^^ ^t^ ^,^^ ^non ^j? f?aK^K'•^ 

^d Nun, which have sometimes ^^ ^i^ i^^ i^ i^ ^.„,^„. 

Kametz, and are not followed by ' ' ' » 74. ^«1 ^,^-.p, •.«., 

Ta. is the Tar with Kameiz in- "^^^^ "^= ^J' ^'^^ "° ^j^:^^^ ^^ -» 
dicating the singular, which is to «^^" *"»" ^"^ ^^^ nten rutm o^-wnn 
be found at the end of the preterite; "*"^ .ra™n |n K^ni ,iai ica lan iw 

as J^^«B? n-pgn neh-n, ^/^u Ao^f ^;i- I"*' °'**^" ™^^^ "™^^ ^^ ""^^ ^^' 

quv4d,\hluhalt7earched, thou hast wans rwr *Df? naif? vn :]'Dij;Dn 
asA;^^ [Deut. xiii. 16], &c. ; by far jw ,n3Dp npian inn k^ ^ttt ,pin wina 
the greater majority of them ai*e nw *^a na»nn nioa m^n^ pmn »jnn |*t 
without H^, and those which have 

it are but few, as njJ^J thou hast sojourned [Gen. xxi. 23], •TJ']*?? thoii 
Jiast viade void [Ps. Ixxxix. 40] , nrj^SDH tliou art acquainted [Ps. xxxix. 
8], &c. On these the Massorites always remark. He plene, but on 
those which have no He they never remark. He defective, except on 
the word Ijnj thou hast given, on which the Massorites note "it occurs 
twenty-nine with He defective.' "^^ 

£S|r It might be asked, why they give the number of the defectives of 
this word, and not that of other words which have He defective, and 
which are very many. And since the defectives are the greater num- 
ber, ought they not rather to have counted all the instances in which 
Jpnj thou hast given, riHJI and thou hast given, occur as plene, which 
are the fewer in number ? The reply is, that they have done it, 
because the Tav has Dagesh forte, for it is after a short vowel ; and it 
is not normal for Dagesh forte to be at the end of a word, without being 

7^ The twenty-nine instances in which nns occurs withont He, are as foUows :— Oen. zl. 
13 ; Exod. xxy. 16, 21, 26, 80 ; xxvi. 84 ; xxviii. 28, 80 ; xxix. 8, 6, 17 ; xxx. 16. 18 (twice) ; 
xl. 7 (twice), 8; Levit. ii. 15; xxiv. 7; 1 Kings viii. 84, 89; Judg. xt. 18; Ps. ixi. 6; 
Dan. X. 12; Nehem. ix. 15, 20, SH (twice). Thoy are enamerated in the Massorah 
marginalia on Exodns xxv. 21. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



174 

Now I have to ask two questions 'n itWDn n? ^ mtfpnh ^h »♦ Pl^ni / 
about this remark. The first is nf?ai ,na^n ^a oiDHn nnKH ;-«vip ' 
about their saying na^n, which em- »"nn nam ; f?j?3i ,nf?Di ,dw n^^ia na^n 
braces nouns, particles, and verbs, p^ ^^r^ nh ^nnfmna Y'of? oiptDn »r\v 
whereas the If^ which stands for ,nn^n ^3 otdhd 'nn H*«;ipni ;mnrn f^ 
the L«m.rf at the begmnmg only t,,„ ^t, ,, ^,„ ^^ 4 ^c, l,^ ^^^, 

occurs m nouns. The second ques- ^^ ^^ ,^ ^ ^ ^ „ , , 

tion is about the word -.rery," "^ °^ ^" '"^°''" ^"=^ •* "" ™' ^^-^^ 
the use of which is not justifiable 'f^*^ '^'^'^^^^^ ^^^^ 'P™=* I™ ^«*^^ 
in this place, since all nouns cannot '^^^^ '^^""^ ^^^^ "^^'P^ ^^^"^^ ^'^^' 
take this He, except those which n:>aa « n"3 HOnVD ica dw3D rmoDn 
we find m the Bible, and these are "'{Q n^nan « n HDWIT ^p":^ 
not one in a thousand ; and since n7nNn ica ,niD» initd D»K3fD3 d^d^di 
they are chiefly found in names of n>nN "/n nnatDn 7i,n"» nn^an ^o/n 
places, and have been counted nv^h^ nKv iirj nc^i TSp^t^t^^ .^^ j^^ 
by the Massorites, as HDnvo to 

^9ypU which occurs twenty-eight times ; * nSaa to Babylon, twenty- 
nine times;*' HD^Sb^T to Jerusalem, five times;" '"'J^*'?" to Hebron, 
nine times.» There are also to be found a few others / as •^^5^'J to 
the tent, eight times ;'« •^^Jl'3 to the hotise, eighteen times ;"'nn3T0n 
to the altar, five times;'* ^^*!? to the land, in connection with iV^^i 
Canaan, eight times plene.'^ The Massorites did not count the other 

M The twenty-eight instances in which mnSTD occurs with He at the end are, Gen. 
xii. 10, 11, 14 ; xxvi. 2; xxxvii. 26, 28 ; ixxix. 1 ; xli. 67 ; xlv. 4 ; xlvi. 8, 4, 7, 8, 9, 26, 
27 ; xlviii. 5 ; 1. 14 : Exod. i. 1 ; iy. 21 ; xiu. 17 : Numh. xiv. S, 4 ; xx. 16 : Dent. x. 22 ; 
xrii. 16 ; xxvi. : 2 Chron. xxxvi. 4. They are ennmerated in the Massorah marginalis 
on 2 Chron. xxxyi. 4. 

^ The twenty-nine instances in which nbn occurs are, Isa. xxxix. 6 : 2 Kings xxiy. 
16 (twice^, 16 ; xxv. 13 : Isa. xliii. 14 : Jerem. xx. 4, 6 ; xxvii. 16, 18, 20, 22 ; xxviii. 4 ; 
xxix.l, 3, 4, 15,20; xxxix.7; xl.1,7; lii. 11,17: Ezek. xii. 13; xvii.12,20: 2 Chron. 
xxxiii. 11 ; xxvi. 6, 10. They are enumerated in the Massorah finalis, p. 16 a, cols 8, 4. 

^ The five passages in which Tvshvcm' occurs are, 1 Kings x. 2 ; 2 Kings ix. 28 ; Isa. 
xxxvi. 2 ; 2 Chron. xxxii. 0. They are ennmerated in the Massorah marginalis on Isa. 
xxxvi. 2, with the remark that in fonr of the passages it is defective. 

w The five passages in which minin occnrs are, Joshna x. 80 : 2 Sam. ii. 1 ; ▼. 1, 8 ; 
XT. 9 : 1 Chron. xi. 1, 3 ; xii. 23, 38. They are ennmerated in the Massorah marginalis 
on Joshna x. 89. 

^ The eight passages in which Tfynnnn occurs are, Gen. xriii. 6 ; xxiv. 67 : Exod. xviii. 
7; xxxiii. 8, 9; Kumh. xi. 26: Josh. vii. 22: Judges iv. 18. They are ennmerated in 
the Massorah marginalis on Judges iv. 18. 

71 The eighteen instances in which nn^lPl occurs are, Gen. xix. 10 ; xxiy. 32 ; xxxix. 
11 ; xliii. 16, 26 (twice) : Exod. ix. 19 : Josh. ii. 18 : Judg. xix. 16, 18 : 1 Sam. vi. 7 : 
2 Sam. xiii. 7 ; xiy. 31 ; xrii. 20 : 1 Kings xiii. 7, 16 ; xvii. 23 : 2 Kings iv. 32 ; ix. 6. 
They are enumerated in the Massorah marginalis on 1 Kings xiii. 16. 

"f^ This must surely he a mistake, since there are upwards of thirty instances in 
which nmron occurs, viz.— Exod. xxix. 13, 18, 26: tevit. i. 9, 13, 16, 17; ii. 2, 
9 ; iii. 6, 11, 16 ; iv. 19, 26, 31, 35 ; v. 12 ; vii. 6, 31 ; viii. 16, 21, 28 ; ix. 10, 14, 20 ; 
xiv. 20 ; xvi. 26 : Numh. v. 26 : 2 Chron. xxix. 22 (thrice), 24. The Massorah finalis 
enumerates them under the letter Zo/tn, p. 30 a, col. 1. 

^ The eight passages in which WS2 nsiM occur conjointly are, Gen. xi. 31 ; xii. 6 
(twice) ; xxxi. 18 ; xiii. 29 ; xlv. 17 ; 1. 13 : Numh. xxxv. 10. The entire list is nowhere 
given, though the Massorahs marginalis on Numbers xxxv. 10, and flnalis, p. 11 a, col. 4, 
Defer to each other for it. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



178 

Section X. — The He is never D^ip^ K"nn man k^ :*TBT;mmn 

quiescent except at the end of a ]0»di ,|*3»d '*t hv jm i^h na^nn rjioa pi 

word, in four different ways, which .JiBDin .n3pi Xm^ ''D IHDB^ nmpi 

are symbolised by the expression i^j^sd n»»nwn is"nn f7"T »■» :*133 

T'n^B^ thy sleep, being the acrostic ;]n»D^-n ma ,nto;^ loa ,K"nn T'of? ^ni 

of, 1. CnB' the root; 2. napi tAe ^|n*Dni naVa ,ripT« ,rrio«J ^rn^B idd nap) 

feminine; 3. nDDin /on/w^V^ flr^- .^^^ ^^^^^^ ^v;' „;,;;„ p^orr 'a pi 

radix IS meant tt|e radicd He ' ^^ 

of verbs n-7, as HOT to work, nja ' i 

to build, Ac. ii. By the feminize '' ^^^ "^^^ *^^»=^ ^^^ °*^J^^=* "^"" 
gender, as nnpD s^^ vwi7^<i, nw /"^^ ^f^ -^ipoai ;"?'«^ *"' r"?^? 
she kept, n^lV righteoiumess, HDhS I"i3i p|"^« njr anwai ;rnim rrlsry 
blessing, &c. About these two "?7?? "?75 ,"??^«^ ^w n^« loa j'TiHtn 
classes the Massorites say nothing. mDvansoim paTjnDnan K^,]nn3n> 
iii. By formative addition is meant ,n*rb ,rrap ,n}>yQ loa Trwnpa^a 'a *?» K»n 
the Hd added to the end of a word, nan ntoi ,S*pSd T^on oniBf D3d*oi ^njna 
which consists of two kinds, addi- neoian i"'«nn nn 'jiefn pm ,md pi 
tions to verbs and additions to ^^<a^^ ^^^ ^^jd*? oipoa naw rjioa 
nouns. Additions to verbs we have i^^ f,c„nna Tof? nanxn na^n *?a V'n ' 
m the miperative smgulw: ; as njoe' „ . ^^^^ ^,,^ ^j^ 

Atf«r, ^^^ forgive, H^^'??? hearken 
[Dan. ix. 19]; in the infinitive 

n^y© to «frtp, n^y to mafc^ 6ar^, H^in to gird psa. xxxii. 11] ; and in 
the future, with Aleph and Nu7i of |n"*K ; as J^^?!? -^ *''^^ remetnber, 
nsfifi^ / «AaZZ j»o^wr owi [Ps. xlii. 6J ; ^^7? ^'^ ^'^'"'^ ^loir, HDll^ tf<j 
s^ZZ pursue [Hosea vi. 8], &c. ; and about these the Massorites say 
nothing. The additions to the nouns are of two kinds. Of the first 
are such words as "^7^? upicards, H^D downwards, H^? night, n7nj 
inheritance ; their distinguishing mark is that they are always M'del ; 
and about these the Massorites speak but very little. The second class 
consists of those words which have He added to tiie end instead of 
Lamed, as our Rabbins of blessed memory remarked, ** every word which 
should have Lamed at the commencement takes He at the end."® 

« The grammatical mle to wHoh Levita refers is recorded both in the Babylonian 
and the Jerasalem Talmnds as having been propounded by R. Nehemiah. In the 
Babylonian Talmnd (Jebamoth^ 13 fc^ it is as follows: — n3^12« Pia»n te TOW rPTDm n 
npioa «"n yran nV b^nn nnVrrna T"oV, R. Nehemiah aayeth : Every word which 
requires Lamed at the beginning of the Scripture gives He at the end. In the 
Jerasalem Talmud, however (Jebamoth i. 6, p. 8 a, ed. Graetz), it is TTDnD ^an DV71 ^321 

/TTvjw Tyxrt »n3nn ^nb paa iDioa w"n ^h \nz /i^ rrr: «Vt inVrrno t "ob "p* mrro -ai Va 

nmaiD niaiD^, It is propounded^ in the name of R. Kehemiah^ that every icord which 
ought to have Lamed at t?ie beginning, and has it not, takes He at the end, as 7mn 
[Dent. -m. 5] instead ofrrx^\ rmxD [Jndg. iii. 26] instead ofyrffvh\ nrroro [Exod. 
xii. 87] instead of TNXh. it will be seen that Levita's quotation is from the Babylon 
Talmnd ; bat since the Jerasalem Talmad, which contains the ori^al mle, as is evident 
from the whole complexion of the passage, has not the expression rOTii Levita's ani- 
madversions are nogatoiy. Eqoally feeble is his stricture on the word bs, since the 
instances which are adduced in the Talmud itself to illustrate this rule plainly show 
that R. Nehemiah did not mean to extend it to every word, but applied it to those 
denoting locality. For the use of the local He, see Oesenios' Qrammar, section xe. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 






172 



The meaning of ppDD is brought k'xiidi h^ ooin ,p«»3«o j'pDD B^"l^B1 

out^ uttered, pronounced , audible, HTK' p'TBa vnitmaDi ,Ka*D p'DDi nm 

So the Chaldee renders ft<^V^D utter- nrniK ^ ok '3 tohd «^ ppoor 'n TB^a 

tw/7, pronouncing [Prov. x. 18], by ,na*nn cjioa ncn p nnw D'K'xiora Jl'^ 

P^BD. I have already explained in ^^,03 nen p rmiK pK»xit) pn c|"*?Hn f?3K 

the Poetical Dissertations, Sect iv., .,.30 ^^^oa KXD3Bfa ^dk .oVipf? naw 




pronounced 

Hence, when the Massorah nses • "' '^"***' "'^^"'^ ■'**^'* '^^^ 

Maphicin Aleph, it denotes that it ppon F)"^isn |na manr m^D K^^^ 
has the vowel-point, as in the p^o a"* ]d nnx no^r p^a ,nn'nn 
above-named instances. In the ,piD» wtt«»tno3 ,npK^i ri"SK patron 
Massorah Parva, however, they are ^^l,,^, ^l q^ ir>o^ ^^^ 68^,nj^ „,3«,nn 
marked d^-Zt'ciip^ or pletie, yet not .^«t,^ ,^p ^t, ,^ ;J«t,j, ^^^j* on^f?p looji , 
marked defective oiplene absolutely; tx^L^ %«^ i-,». «l,•^ »«* **s ».m» m^«i» ^^* 
but it IS distmctly stated, Aleph de- j,^^ \, ' _ ^ ^ 

fectivef OT Aleph plene. The same 1 "^ ,„ x' l l 

law obtams with regard to He, as ^'^''''^ 'V^'P Y' '? V'^'J "^'"i 
I shall explam in the foUowing =»*"^ "'^ "™ ^^ ^J' i^^^^ ^^'^^^ f \ 
Section. -T''^ 

There are some words in which 
Aleph is quiescent at the end of the word, as in the Register of twelve 
words, viz., N^3N they willed [Isa. xxviii. 12], ^^3f«!35 ^^'''^ ^'^*^ [Josh. 
X. 24], fc^'PJ innocent [Jonah i. 14], &c;® on these the Massoretic mark 
is either, Aleph redundant, or Aleph not to be read. There is also ano- 
ther Register of seventeen words, with quiescent Aleph at the end of 
the word standing for He ; as ^^\ loathsome (Numb. xi. 20), **?9t ^^ 
vas erected [Ezek. xxxi. 5], ^y? sleep [Ps. cxxvii. 2],®* on every one 
of which the Massorites remark, ** no parallel with Aleph.*' 

^ The twelve words which have quiescent Al€2)h at the end are as follows :- 



vrm . . Numh. xiii. 9 

Ria'nn . . Josh. X. 24 

irVpn . . 1 Sam, xvii. 17 

MinH . . . Isa. xxviii. 12 



>n3n . . . Ezek. i. 14 



«113 . . . Dan. iii. 29 
M»2r«n . . . Ezra vi. 16 
vniB* . . . Ezra iii. 7 
MDM .... Dan. ii. 39 



MrryiriMI . . Ezek. xli. 16 

trp3 . . . Jonah i. 14 

H*pZ .... Joel iv. 19 

They are enumerated in the Massorah marainalis on Nnmh. xiii. 9 ; Ezeldel i. 1 ; Proverhs 

i. 1 ; Ezra i. 1 ; and in the OcfUa Ve-OcMa, section civ., pp. 30, 98. 

•* The seventeen words which respectively have in one place a quiescent Aleph at the 
end of the word, and which have no parallel in any other place, are as follows : — 

. Ps. cxxvii. 2 
Ezra iv. 22 
D(in. xi. 44 
Lament, iii. 12 
1 Chron. ii. 49 
. . Ruth i. 20 

They are enumerated in the Massorah finalis under the letter Alfphy p. 1 a, cols. 3 and 4. 
The heading, however, of the lluhric does not give the number, nor does the Massorah 
mai^ginalis, on Ezekiel xxxi. 5 ; xxxvi. 6 ; and Ruth i. 20, where reference is made to 
them ; nor say how many there are belonging to this class. 



vrxb . 


. . Numb. xi. 


20 


Maw . 


hww . 


. Kumb. xxxii. 


37 


«Db . 


MS^M . 


. 1 Kings xvi. 


9 


Mona . 


MbM . 


1 Kings iv. 


18 


>mDQ3 


HPHU . 


. Ezek. xxxi. 


6 


IKS^ . 


VB\ 


. Job xxxviii. 


11 


vnoQ . 



«ta . 


. Ezek. xxxvi. 5 


>nv . 


. . Prov. xi. 26 


«n . 


. . . Prov. i. 10 


vrm . 


1 Chron. v. 26 


«ta . 


. . ProT. xvi. 30 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



I 

4 



171 

seventeen ; thus registering them : nnp^ sj^^k 'Tonn a"3 rni i^^'n 

all in one list of twenty-two words tf?t<n jnn p3n» lonf? rte ?"* pi 
with AUph defective in the Bible. ^^.^« y^^^ ^t, p,p .^.^^^^n ]n3 ^hv 

Again there are seventeen words ^^^, ^ ^ ^^^^^^ 

m which the reverse is the case, Ja!^ \,LJ.^.,\ ul 2J ^ « l 
wherein the AUph is audible, con' ^ ^^ ^=*™^ ^^^^ ^ ° ^'^ "'^^^'^ 
traiy to their normal form in other i"^^*^ '^^ '^^^P ^^^ "=^^^ J^*^^=» 
passages, which the Massorites call ^^ nam «/iai (K"*nmDa) mtn p "rp^^ 
Maphkin Aleph; as MN:\6 for '^ K''^ jrx ^i^^ ^h ythx^n rhi^ h^ 
your sheep [Numb. xmir24]* ni«3 'T'^ ^''P «^ ^ ,e)SK np w ,c)"f?K i^^D . 
comely [Ps. xciii. 5], HNViD!) o^ aw-^ • T'^« 1?^° «^ i« .'l"^** V?^'^ P^ J 

finding [Song of Songs viii. 10], 

&c.^. There are also forty-eight words with a silent Aleph in the 
middle of the word ; as ^DDDKH the mured multitude [Numb. xi. 4J, 
7VNM and he separated [Numb. xi. 25], &c.® Now on all these Alephs 
the Massorites never remark, Aleph omitted, or Al^ph written fully , or 
the Aleph is audible y or the AUph is silent, but simply state ^^ Maphkin 
Aleph;' or ''Nan-Maphkin Aleph." 



m«3 . 


. . Pb. xciii. 5 


Tmiwi 


. . Jobixxi. 22 


m«3n . 


. . Dan. xi. 12 


mM:o . 


. Nehem. xii. 44 



^ The Beventeen words which respectiTely occur only once with audible Aleph, and 
haye no paraUel in the other places, are as foUows : — 
noM^lHI . . Exod. yi. 24 ^Mlbl . Jerem. xxxyiii. 12 
•iryn . . Levit. xxiii. 17 WiO . . . Amos iy. 10 
D3«3Sb . Nnmb. xxxii. 24 mD«^a . . . Hag. i. 13 
nTM ... 1 Kings xi. 17 *)irM1 . . 1 Chron. ii. 13 
D^aw* . . Jerem. xxv. 3 niDM^ 1 Chron. xxviii. 19 
ynwai . Jerem. xxxii. 21 DWaiyn 2 Chron. xvii. 11 
They are enumerated in the Massorah finalis nnder the letter Aleph, p. 1, col. 2, and are 
mentioned in the Massorah marginalis on Exodus xyiii. IS, where a reference is giyen to 
^e Massorah on Ps. xxx., in which place, however, nothing is to be found. They are 
also giyen in the Ochla Ve-OchUi, section cxcyiii. pp. 48, 123. 

^ The words which respectively occur in one place with a silent Aleph in the middle 
of the word, and which have do paraUel, are as follows : — 



nmnoS Song of Songs yiii.lO 



pDD«n . 

F|DDDMm. 

noHyr . 
"iHm . , 

•TMID . . 

•wan . . 



. .Exod. y. 7 
. Numb. xi. 4 
. Nnmb. xi. 25 
. Dent. xxiv. 10 
. Josh. xii. 20 
Judg. ix. 41 
. Judg. iy. 21 
. Judg. xiii. 18 
. 1 Sam. xiv. 33 

1 Sam. xviii. 29 
. 2 Sam. X. 17 
. 2 Sam. xi. 1 
. 2 Sam. xi. 24 
. 2 Sam. xi. 24 

2 Sam. xxiii. 15 
2 Sam. xxiii. 16 
2 Sam. xxiii. 20 



TiMia 

rrwD . 

«r«an 
rwn . 
rp«a . 



. 2 Kings ii. 21 
. Jerem. Ii. 9 
. Ezek. xlvii. 8 
. 2 Kings XX. 12 
. . Isa. X. 33 
. . Isa. X. 13 
. . Isa. xxx. 5 
. . Isa. xU. 25 
. Jerem. ii. 13 
. Jerem. ii. 13 
. Jerem. xxx. 16 
. Ezek. xvi. 57 
. Ezek. xxv. 6 
Ezek. xxviii. 24 
Ezek. xxviii. 26 
. Ezek. ix. 8 
, Ezek. xxxix. 2 



T«D«DH1 

n"n«D. . 
roOT . . 

D1HO . . 
DMTa 



. Ezek. xliii. 27 
. 1 Kinffs xi. 39 

Zech. xi. 5 
. . Hos. X. 14 
. . Hos. X. 14 
. . Hos. iv. 6 
. . Joel ii. 6 
. Nahum ii. 11 
. Ps. Ixxxix. 11 
. . Jobxix. 2 

Job xxxi. 7 
. . Dan.i. 4 
. Nehem. vi. 8 
. Nehem. v. 11 
. Nehem. xii. 38 
Nehem. xiii. 16 



They are enumerated in the Massorah marginalis on Ezekiel i. 1 ; Job i. 1 ; and in the 
Massorah finalis nnder the letter Aleph, p. 1 a, cols. 2 and 3. It will be seen that, 
instead of there being forty-eight, as mentioned in the heading of the Bubric, and by 
Levita, there are fifty. They are also given with some slight variation in the Ochla Ve- 
Ochla, section ciii. pp. 29, 97, &o. 



Digitized by 



Google 



170 



mid your dispersion [Jerem. xxv. ^'rnp "in hn u^rfwnrn on^Dai ,D3'rrts^D^^ 
84], D^n^^^ani and I will bring hvn ^rrrjn iD3 pnon ]iffhw vrrra pi 
them [Isa. Ivi. 7], &c. ; also when noaa «^ ,]nnDn) oaton nefK np ,naTDn 
all these three 'are defective, as 15^*31 jion 'j'^a is^nc ,Tom ion p^ 
^nnTl an^ they hromht him down pg^tsnm p^na p ]n*f?j; awn nit<nou 
[1 Kings i. 58], DjK?n we have . y^^ ^^, 

brought them [Nmnb. xxxii. 17], 1 „«.«^^ -.•^i-.- 

&c.TtheMas8orites did not remark ™" ^n; ^n-..^ ^h :Wnn nmn 

on them entirely defective, but - aU '"^''^^ ^« ^"^^ ^"^ °'«^°'"^ '^'^"" P P^ 
defective:' In some Codices they *=> P^^ ;«"''i'^^ ^^"»" T^ "wa^ nnpDi 
are marked, "this is the textual n'^on j?xdk3 o'Dpet norm w man P)"f?Kn 
reading,** but the former is more "«»a p r«w mf?Dn nxpa ,nDiDa w 
generally used. pen -jam ^^ ,^nbi;* rm pas ,]n»nnan 

Section IX. — Hitherto I have n*H»33a pn nj'KnDDDs t"* om V*n \3iini 
explained the law of the defectives p i^i mina 'n ikxo3 tipi "; D^a^nai 
and plenes with regard to the letters v3»n twk imjTi ^na dtotdp'^ ,'h torn;i 
Fai; and Jorf; I shall now explain n^tho ,nf?»T n^i^ nni^pnaVp '^nsio tii 
the rule of the letters ^^M and ^^^,l,i,^^i,r^th^r^rxGr^^^^:lpWn^^r^ 
He. Know, then, that Aleph is 

frequently either quiescent or wanting in the middle or at the end of 
some words in certain places, and that there is no parallel for these in 
other places. Thus, for example, "HOf?? thy petition [1 Sam. i. 17], ^^ 
they filled pEzek. xxviii. 16], ^?!<I?1 and thou hast girded vie [2 Sam. 
xxii. 40], &c. ; there are seventeen such instances, and they only occur 
in the Prophets and Hagiographa.® There are also five instances to be 
found in the Pentateuch, viz., ^^[J^/row sinning [Gen. xx. 6], D^??9?l 
and ye shall be defiled [Levit. xi. 48], ^^l^i?^, and it shall befall him, 
in Pericope Va-jigash [Gen. xliv. 29) ; ^HVO I have found, in Pericope 
Behaaloscha [Numb. xi. 11] ; T\t2irOfor a sin offering, in Pericope Shelach 
[Numb. XV. 24] ; n^KHD from the beginni^ig, in Pericope Ekeb [Deut. 
xi. 12].®° Now I wonder why they did not count these with the other 

^ The Massorah only gives Bixteen words, which respectively occnr in one place with 
silent Aleph or altogether without Aleph, and have no parallel in other places. They 
are as follows:— 

2 Kings xvi. 17 Dn^DH . . Eocl. iv. 14 
1 Chron. v. 26 TWVOn . Nehem. iii. 18 
Ezek. xxviii. 16 MHp . . . Esther v. 12 
Ps. cxxxix. 20 rrw . .1 Chron. xii. 38 
Ezek. xxxix. 26 onp ... Ps. xcix. 6 
. Johxli. 7 
The^ are enumerated in the Massorah marginalis on 2 Kings xvi. 7. In the Massorah 
finalis, where under the letter Aleph, p. 1, col. 2, they are also mentioned, it is erroneously 
stated that there are seventeen instances, which has undouhtedly occasioned the error in 
our text. These instances are also given in the Ochla Ye- Ochla, section oxcix. pp. 48, 128, 
where one passage, viz. 1 Chron. v. 26, is wanting. 

9^ For the division of the Pentateuch into fifty-four Perioopes, for hebdomadal lessons, 
see above, p. 135, note 138. Vajigash (V73^) is the eleventh section, and comprises Gen. 
xliv. 18 — xlvii. 27; J?cAaa7<wcAa (Tni^a) is the thirty-sixth section, and comprises 
Numb. viii. 1— xii. 16 ; Shelach (irfo), more fully Shelach Lecha {-p rw), is the thirty- 
seventh section, and comprises Numb. xiii. 1 — xv. 41 ; whilst Ek^ (^pa?) is ^® forty-sixth 
section, and comprifles Deut. vii. 12 — xi. 25. 





. ISam.i. 17 


TDte 


1 Sam. xiv. 33 


•\D3bD 


'3"nr^ . 


2 Sam. xxii. 40 


iVd. 


mtDTT^ . 


. 2 Kings xix. 25 


11D3 . 


ion 


. 2 Kings ii. 22 





Digitized by 



Google 



169 

plme and Jod defective \^^ hence p^i ",Y'i* nom i"n »fe D^rrtaw a^na 'm 
there was no more any necessity to iiddV ^nx |*k ,D5'nh« mina n'mnan ^a 
mark Dp^nhK defective and plene in |»2D3 neoi neo ^aa pi ;«^d ion on*^ 
every single passage where it occurs ^y^^nf -wv Vpi pnanm n^N^m D3»rrta>i 
in the Pentateuch. Thus, also, they r^^hn v> pi ;nDWD nooi k^ Rinn V^aa 
counted the expression DD^p^ax ,^^ ,^i^ ^^^^^^^ ^^,^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 
your fathers hoi\imph7ief^^^ ^,^,^^^, „^,^i^ ^^^^ ^,^ 
fective^ m all the other books of the ^ . \ l 

Scriptures : and on those which do , , , , ' °*^^ ^ ^ 

not come within this rubric they .r™'nnai.n.nf?D«,Dnwt,t,3nl^ 
made no remark whatever. More- «^^ '°***^° ^*^ °'"^" ^'^'^^ i« F» ™^ 
over, there are some words which "''** '^^'^^ •^^"^ P"''' ,rTDi»D ]Tvh^ now 
are classified in their defectives and *tipi ^^^xDni pm paa nna ]n» f7'7a , 
plenes according to each book of the • 'D "lOS^Da nva» nim^a rh\m naih< 
Scriptures ; and some are classified ,nten pjfOKa o^na 'a n^na rn* nr»ai ' 
according to the Law, the Prophets, 'p^ip^m ica ^onon |hxpi q»kVd ]nxp 
and the Hagiographa. p^o T'v lonw (V'S ^Kpirr) na»nwKTD 

1^ The general rule is, that, nam ;nia^rn ^unni ,n"n3n nrw ^^enn 
when a word occurs with two qui- nionp Y'v »te r'rp noDi firn^ 'wn mn 
escents, and one of them, or both, .^^i^^ i^^ ,.,, ^i^^^ ^^,^ ^,.^, ^^ 
are either defective or plme and if ^,^^, ,^ ^ ,,^ ^^^ ^^ 

there is no Massoretic remark what- i . nynh^ vJr» s* ^ 

ever thereon, you may then take it ^ ' / " Y' ' 7 *^ • '' 

for granted that that is because the P' '=»*"^ P l^^^ «^^ ^^^ ^" ^^ ™^ 
law connected therewith had al- :a*na p i^-jp nooi ,ntn nipoa o^a^l) 
ready been stated, and you will l"^'^^^ °'™ '^ ^^'^^ vmsra JHI 
find it if you seek for it. I shall, i^a «^« ,«^o*t nhn n^hy tdoj k^ p^nte 
however, recur again to this sub- nisa itft< ima «|'rta^^ loa ,t<hn 
ject in the Second Part, Section ix. 

On a word which has three quiescents, some of which are plene and 
some defective — as ^HUp^^) and I shall do good [Ezek xxxvi. 11], 
which wants Jod after Teih, indicating the Hiphil, for it ought to 
be ^nta^pn — the proper Massoretic remark should have been "the 
first Jod is plene, the second Jod is defective, and the Vav is plene.^* 
But for the sake of brevity the Massorites simply remark, " it has 
no parallel," " it is thus written," or "it is written thus." 

The same is the case with the word D3^rii-1K^ your backslidingsy 
[Jerem. iii. 22], on which the Massorites neither mentioned plene nor 
defective, but say this is the textual reading; and with D43^K^*1 f^nd 
He vuule thein dwell [1 Sam. xii. 8], on which they simply remark, 
"it is written so." 

Notice, that when a word has three quiescents, and all three are 
pl-ene^ the Massorites do not remark on it entirely plene, but " aU plene ;^^ 
as on ^^nia^B^ni and I will turn thee back [2 Kings xix. 28], DD^niVion^ 

<e In Exod. iii. 18, D^ninM is entirely pleney and in Dent. i. 11 it has Vav but wants 
Jod. Comp. MasBonJi marginalis on £zod iii. 18. 

Z 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



168 

[1 Chron. xvii. 21], they only re- ^v o^m |n p *3,k^d non tsVi ,TDn pi 
marked on ri^^4 defective, but not idw hkn^3i hpi ,«^d nvn^ nm pr^ 
defective and plene, because it is ^"*inr 'D^ pen isSd t<h^ ,nat non 
the law for Cholem of the plural to nam ^vyvn T'r mpoa t<'n nainan 
be written fully; whilst on n'W^W ^^^^^ -,| t,^ %mj^aBf ids ^t<^ nvn^ 
wonderful, they simply remarked .^/^P i^ 

defective, but not /)Z^i6 awti defec- q,^^ ^^^ ^„^ ^ p^ ^,^ j,,t,Q ^^^ 
<ire, because the Vav, which is writ- j^^^^ .^^^^ ^^^ w^^h^ ^H nn'^n ini 
ten fully, stands for the radical Jod, ^^ '.^ ^ ' ;^„ ,^ ^^f^^nrn^ 
which, according to rule, is plene, ll l 

as I have expMned all in Section "^ J^^ ^'^^"^ '"^^ '"^^'^^ ^^.'^J' "^^^ 
iii. Vide supra, p. 148, &c. ^^^ '^«'^"^ '"™ °^P°^ '^'^^ "^°=» IJ^f ' 

There are some words with one '^'^'^^ ^"*'' ■^" ^"^^ '^ '^'^^^ '^"** ''^ 
or two quiescents, which are either '«^ ^^^^^ «^o "^"^"^ o'^**"^ '=» l^ V^n ', 
defective or /?/<?w^, and do not be- P^^ ",«fe "^on n^n^n 'ai pom xn nTjn 
long to those which are usually p'^p iioaf? ^nx p« nijin j^a^ron ^a 
plene or defective; and yet the Mas- :p*DDD jiwHin ^^an 'a pon »^ 

sorites made no remark on them k^di i"»t nan rmna» oa^niM f?a pi ^ 
whatever. This arises from the fact ,K^an «f«D nyxf\^^ a^na ttwd |»in ,i"v 1 
that the rule has already been stated 

on the words in question in another place. Thus, for instance, the Mas- 
sorites give the general rule, saying, that ''Tilh\P\ generations, fi\wQ,js 
wants the second Vav, except in two instances, where it is written 
entirely plene ; in one instance, where it is entirely defective ; and 
in three instances, where it is defective and plene,'' ^ Hence there was 
no necessity for them to mark T\T>\F\ plene defective in every passage 
where it occurs, since the first general rule is sufficient. 

The same is the case with the word DD^nhK your fathers, on which 
tiiey remark, ** throughout the Pentateuch it is defective of Vav, and 
has Jod written fiilly, except in one instance where it is written D3*nnN 
entirely fully, and in another instance where it is D^nUK, with Vav 

^ There ifl a great difFerenoe of opinion among the Massorites as to the reading of the 
word in qnestion, in the different passages of the Scriptures. The Massorah marginalis 
on Gen. ii. 4, remarks as follows:— p«m D'Ottn miVin rfw "^Dl '^vhoi CTM^O '3 nnVn 
nSi Tnn« b«n i-w »3« rm nrr)n 'na 'ai Wo«r rrhry n^ 'om icm im 'po niiVin nVw 
ITID nnfrin »nmw "Wtn apr mi^n. The word nilVin w twice entirely PLENE, viz., Gen. 
ii. 4, Rnth. iy. 8 ; once entirely defective, viz. Gen. xxv. 12; and thrice it wants the 
first Vav, viz., Gen. xxxvi. 1, 9 ; xxxvii. 2 ; whilst in all other passages throughout the 
Pentateuch it is written with the first Vav, a?i^ without the secatui. Another recenBion 
of the Massorah, given in the Mausorah finalis nnder the letter Jod, p. 36 b, col. 2, is as 
follows:— pirrn-mn von 'mw nnVn M"m a^m mVin pny mVin t» dim mibn nco m p 
a*n3 'ai Smwr ni^n rm n-6n nom Ton rna rn^n a"m rro rrrhn vncmrt mdid n» 
OTTH «in 1TO? m-6n mi^n 'aro ai - po nnVin rfjMi D»D«n rmVin n'?M Voi -Vo miV^n 
apjr mi^n nV« onw »a« nnM ^Tar\j/rom Gen. v. 1 to xxv. 19, i« w written without the 
second y^'Vy except in one place, viz., v. 1, where it has the secondY ay and not the first; 
from Gen. xxv. 19, to the end of the book, it w written with the second Vav and without 
the firsts except in two instances, viz.. Gen. xxxvi. 1, xxv. 12, where it is entirely 
DEFECTIVE *, III two possagcs, viz.. Gen. ii. 4, Ruth iv. 18, wliere it is entirely plene, 
and three passages, viz. Gen. xxxvi. 1, 9, xxvi. 19. It will be seen that Gen. xxv. 19 
is counted twice. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



167 

pennltima," whilst in others it is /n )n*^p todj D*DpD^ }r^h^ 'i p in 
marked as one of the four in- <* : 'd n23MD3 onMSKi |oivdi 

stances » The Codices vary, as I |»m 'a ntea rn^ra ,pinr nnx 1« 

shall explain in Section ix. o^nan piKD Kin inn nnwi ^d^k^o jn^jwi 

It is also to be noticed, that when ^rr(»:xw iDa ,a*»f?D Ton nrnf? oanw 
a word has two qniescents, both ^c,^^ ^c^^ „,^ ^^^^ ^f, /a niana 




did not mark it entirely plene, but P^ ^'^V ioo3 «^ ,«^on k-^o k)W ^"epK 
simply plme. And if both qui- ]*« i"^'" ^P^ fi"*"" «^ ^"i .^^^ «^o 
escents belong to those which are O'^in T'i» p p »a ,h^d iidd^ -|nx 
always joZ^/kj, the Massorites did not hvi /n nma ^nanaw iDa "«te nvnf? 
remark upon it at all. lODa nf? ,»^dt wfTO mrw ♦"dj;k "rnrtn^ 

Thus, for example, D*D7^n fA^y rn'n^ n^Kn DTun 'a |n p 'a ,nDiKD 
are coming [Gen. xxxyii. 26] , though na,-T i"»in» 'a -naia *nanair loa ,«te 
^ntir^j^y plme, the Massorites sim- . ^t^^ r^^^t, ^an f^en «"b Y'r mpoa 
ply marked **pi^i^;'* that is, Vav nf^on nioa wid m vttw^ prnn pi 
IS written, fully, but the Jod they ^^^..Vp^a Dnsai ,Kf«D ann f^ mn 

written fully, for it is there m ac- ' ' 

cordance .^th the law about the 1"^«° ^"° "^""^ * ^'''^ ''^'■«'? °"^^^ 

Jod of the plural,« as I have '^ "^^^^ '"=»"^"' ^^^ '■'°" "^^"^ P'^'^*' 

explained in Section v. On Tn^nS ^^=^ '■»"•» ^" ^'^J' "^^^ °^P» ^^» 

ro ^0 ioim [ibid,], again, though rT™ n»aa nh^ ('a niD») nbjffr rrnnpai 

entirely plene, the Massorites made • w"p |n*Dmj 

no remark whatever, because the w "ion ♦SB^m «^d ]ir»TnBf n^Dll 

two quiescents therein are plene ac- tddj n^^iJ ^j? nan ,r*n^3i n^yn ica ,"|rn^ 

cordmg to rule, as I have explained 

in Section iii., since Vav, which stands for Jod of the first radical, is 

pUne according to law. 

The same is the case with Chirek. When it is followed by an audible 
letter at the end of a word, it is generally plene, according to law, 
especially in the Hiphil, as I have explained in Section v. {vide 
supra, p. 156, &c.) But when both are defective, though one 
of them belongs to those which are generally defective, as I have 
explained in Section iii., the Massorites have always marked it 
entirely defective; as Tmh they are coming [Exod. ii. 5], nbC'* they are 
sitting [1 Kings iii. 17], &c. Vide supra, p. 148, &c. 

As to the words in which the first quiescent is plen^ and the 
second is defective, or vice versa, as ri'K^bj ni^lJ great and wonderful 

I ** In iho receneions of the Massorah, printed in the Baael and Amsterdam editions 

{' of the Rabbinic Bibles, the remark is that ^n^Opn 1 Sam. xv. 13, is one of the three 

instances in which it has the tone of the pennltima ^r^ '2), and the Massorah mar- 

ginalis on Gen. iz. 17, giyes tho three instances as follows: — Qen. ix. 17 ; Exod. vi. 4; 

1 Sam. XV. 18. 

M The words M^ niT6 to be plene, are erroneoaslj omitted in the Snlzbach edition. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



166 

ybich with snflix is i^jj Am voice, ,Kiw»^n o'lon '^ d*«xo3 mn nan ♦^a) 
v'p my voic^y h^^ t^ voices, most ^jirHin ninn ^p^ ,apj;» ^ip ^pn D3D»di 
of them being defective, and which, sin av^ jd jd) » ; jnrwn nutn ^ip^ 
even without any suffixal addition, v^yy^ vsy ;nB op inn («"* aiit) ,DnaT 
occHTB in this form seven times p loa ^d'Tdh D'^nnnnspot wa^'^waai 
defective; as b>> voir^, JP?! t/w wic« . ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ t^ 

[Gen xxvii 22]; ^V> to tlie voice ^^^ ,^ ^^ : .a^oe^n nmn " 

[Exod. IV. 8 (twice)], &c.«i Thus, l .. « l 

also, from a^n contJntion, we have 1^^"^ ^ ^T '^ ^'^^^f °^" ^*'^'' 
a^T [Job. li. 2; xl. 2]. Moreover ^^^ ^ ''^^^^ ^^°^^ *^" ""^ 1*»* 
the"'pliirals and suffixes with Tzeres d™P^ °*«^ d"»P rO*™ '3 ik 'a na w^v 
are sometimes also defective ; as from ' °*^" °^^ ^*^ ^''^^ \^^ ^* f^*''^" 

i>*K a ram, we have D^^K raww; and "^'^i ^^^ ^^^ 1^ I"*' ^^^^ St 
a few more such mstances. ^ '"^«" o*^^^*" "^^ ^'^PO^ '^^^^ 

Section VIII.— Nothing more is *^^o ^^^ ^^^ of^^p nna ^f7 ♦nta'i?rn 
left for me to explain with regard V^^. ^i ^,vhDi nhn 'i p m tddj 
to defective and plene Vav and Jod, Ton ^^a K*nw ,(i"a n*r«na) nj?ia»n rw 
except to state how the Massorites hyf^ ",TDm ion «"♦ p nn i»^p todj 
noted those words which have two ') p -jn naD3 cariM 'ma r» V^W il 
or three quiescents, some of which tdq^ ♦"* -^a^ rw *nt5?n Spi "^norn k^dt 
are p^^^ and some defective, or aU „, f,p ^^^ ^^noia »'ai ^k^'d ion rvH 
of which are either plene or defective, 

<g" Let me illustrate it by the example of the word ^nto^pn J have 
established, which occurs in the Scriptures in the four following 
ways: — i. ^Jlto^pn [Ezek. xvi. 60], which is entirely plene. On this 
the Massorites remark, "this is one of the three instances entirely 
plene. ^ ii. On ^nbfjn [Gen. xxvi. 8], which is entirely defective, they 
wrote " one of the eleven instances entirely defective,'''^ iii. On *nb^?»T 
[Levit. xxvi. 9], they remark, " one of six instances in which it is both 
plene and defective.''^ And iv. On ^H^Opn [1 Sam. xv. 13], they 
remark, "it has no parallel, being defective and plene.'' In some 
recensions it is marked, " it is one of the six with the accent on the 

^ The other three pAssages in which V^p is defective are, Gen xlv. 16 ; Exod. zix. 16 ; 
Jerem. iii. 9. They are enumerated in the Maesorah marginalia on Gen. xxTxi. 22. 

«> The other two instances in which nvy*pn is entirely phne are, 2 Sam. yii. 12 ; 
2 Chron. vii. 18. They are ^ven in the Massorah marginaliB on Ezek. xri. 60, where, 
howerer, there is a mistake, inasmuch as it snhstitntes 1 Chron. xvii. 2 for 2 Chron. yii. 
18. In the Massorah parva, on the last mentioned passage, the remark '^i ^ entirely 
plentj will be found, to which Levita refers. 

*B The eleven passaces in which TilO^pTT is entirely defective, that is, has neither Jod 
alter the Chirek nor Vav after the ChoUm, are, Gen. vi. 18; ix. 11, 17; xvii. 7, 19; 
xxvi. 3; Exod. yi. 4: 1 Kings ix. 5 : Jerem. xxiii. 4, 6 ; xxix. 10: Ezek. xxxiv. 29. We 
eould not find the entire list either in the Massorah marginalis on the respective passages, 
or in the Massorah finalis. 

M The other five passages in which ^no^^ has Jod plene after the Chirek and Vav 
defective after the ChoUm^ are, 1 Sam. xv. 13: 2 Sam. ii. 35; vii. 12: Isa. 
xxix. 3 : Ezek. xvi. 62. In the Massorah marginaUs on Levit. xxvi. 9, where the 
passages are given, 2 Sam. ii. 35 ia erroneously omitted, and 2 Chron. vii. 18, which is 
entirely j)2eiie, ii substituted for it. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



166 

Those which have Tzere consist nnuin "mnn ]*rD 'n hw on D^M"IVni 
of four classes. The first class ids ,np3 ona ^en ^"'j? *T"rr niDrnD 
embraces nouns in which the second wa^ra ,t» ,nn ^ ,Vni ,|>i ,^ ,^ p% 
radical Jod is audible, as ri^3 Jwuse, ri'a loa ,nxa T'vn man ma^Daa 
l^y a well, l?l m'w^, 1*K nothing, 7jn p^ ^npne Vn ,dd»D3 ^ i^PP* H '*"' 
strength, ^?fc? « raw, HJT an olive, nan ,|n»Dm D'K^on b^ ,n*n t? ,13^ 
*T^V hunting, &c. When these are ids ,DnDn onapD d»»xd3i ,D'«^d nrn^ 
in the construct state, the Jod is 49 t,,n ]iwf?3 onon 'n rf?j7 noD3 Vnn mt3> 
quiescent with the Tzere, as n^3 f/i^ ,,t,j^ ^^^ (,.^ t,^ ,^ ^^^j^ t,^^ ^^,^ 
^oz(^^ o/, r? //t^ tr^« of, ^r^ the p«^ Qni« n^« f?^am «>,D^^^Ka Ton n^^ 
ram of, TV the hunting of, TK onon jna ^n ,r5 ,Th ,m ,|nn nj;3 Y'rn 
7io«/«;j^m o/, ^^n the strength of ; ^p^ ^po p^^) nnD3 pn ,nf?r ^^l io:> 
Ac. These are generaUy 7;^.^., and .^ ^^ ^^^ ^^.,^ ,^^ ^^ .^^ ,,0,^ 
the defective are very few, as ^H . ^^^^ t^^ ^,^^^^ ^^ ^^ .^^ ^^ ^^ 
army [Obad. 20 , on which the ,^^ .„ ^.^t^ ^^^^ ^„ .,„ „ 

Massontes remark.it occurs five ' ' ,^^ „^„ . „l,„l „„„,. „-,l^ J, ^, 
times defective;*^ ^^ porch [Ezek. P °mn pan D^ip^ onon pn^D yy ,.1 
xl. 48], on which the Massontes P^^^ P^^ni li ^yn ,r^ ,]n idd ,D*^iDDn 
remark, "This defective hBS no pa- , , \Y^^^ ^''^ 

raUel."» To this class belong those T^ .d^^ibdh p onv f?3 f?f?Dm .^ 
words in which the Jod is not »D^iP^ ^'^an on ,D«n3f w o^Ditn Dn» 
audible ; as T^ how, T? between ; can |">n ♦n3D D*D^inni D*piTnn ^a« 
some of these are defective, as "It? a ,o*Bpo on Dnonm p^wte T^on nm^ 
7rtwf [Gen. ii. 6], pn 6osc>w [Prov. ]na na-mefa ^3k ,h^h ♦nanauf ids 
V. 20], &c. ; but there are very few aiiD p ma p^Ton an^ wa ,^^n^ npi3n I 
such instances. ^onon jno nain .nto nafei ,D*ife »xd3 

The second class embraces words p.^r\ pn ,nbjn ;bjn ^Vk^ds VSp p pi 
of 1*1;, as *JJ stranger, T proud, "1? 

witness, ^V Er, IV if^^r, HD rf^^atf , J? fAi«, &c. ; all these are invariably 
defective. The tliird class consists of words derived firom roots n"^, 
as 13 sow, 1? theba^k,^l a crown, YV. wood, all these are invariably rf^/<?c- 
tire. The fourth class consists of those derived from yy, as tO grace, 
\^ a tooth, X^ an arrow, 3^? heart, &c. ; all these are invariably defective. 

(^ The general rule is, that all those derived from yy, whether 
having Cholem or Tzere, are always defective ; whilst those with Chirek 
and Cholem, of V'P, are generally plene, the defectives being very few, 
as I have stated above ;. but when they take formative additions at 
the end, they are mostly defective. Thus, we have from 310 good, the 
• forms DUb the good (mas.), nab good (fem.), nbb the good (fem.), 
many of which are defective. The same is the case with ^ip voice, 

*9 The five passages in which Vn is defective are, 2 Sam. xx. 15 ; 1 Kings xxi. 23; 
Isa. xxvi. 1 ; Obad. 20 ; Lament, ii. 8. They are enumerated in the Massorah mar- 
ginalis on 2 Sam. xx. 16. 

M The reference, both in the Basel and Snkbach editions, to rmcn Vm 'TCl*^^ is a 
mistake for qVm Vm TO^. The note in the Massorah parva on the word in qnestion is 
simply i"V Vn \ no parallel with Jod defective ; so that Levita's remai-k that it is 
□»>H1 "OT rrt, no parallel of defective^ among the word* D*V*M, mnst be derived from 
another recension of the Massorah. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



164 

it is twice repeated, as "f^ 'i^^ from '^*^ pi ,('3 niD») "^i "lift na? iod ,d^3ido 
gejieration to generation [Ezod. iii. :n^ni mooa iKiaoa jn*am t*ii 

16], -i"!} iV from generation unto qh ,np loa p^t^^^n p on 'an roni 
<7^^aa-<m [Ps. X. 6], &c , as it is ^^^nniapa nn *«,DnDn nnf^a > ,p^,ph 
explained in the great Massorah. ^^^ t,^ ^^^^ ,^^', ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

The second class consists of those ' , ' ..^ ._ ^ ' . 

words, the second and third radicals ^/^^ ^^' '^^ ^ P^ '^^ ^S ''^ ^ 
of which are the same le1*ers ; as P^"^ ^7'°''''* t^^ira >^D p niua 
-)p com, Dh ^eat, P3 ^«r, '>? wj^on. 71D^ 'rin^oi P pn ,qSip»? i"m nom 
AH these are defective,*^ and this np wf? i*f?p miDon,(j"^ nw) oa^maij; 
because of the Dageah which they ,^P^^^ ^ ^a 1^3 cjion yopa mpji p"*) 
take when formative additions are : m^K' p^D3 »mis3 nrrsD 

made at the end, as pn law, with o^ina Tnn D^^iDDn |d iixm iipon pi 
snflfix is ipn ^M Zaw ; pp spittle, with (.^ ^^^^ ^t, ^i^ .^ .^t, n^-, ^t, ,^3^ ^n, 
suffix l?n Ai, spittle; ^v yoke, with ^^^ ^.p^^^^, .^^^ ^,,3^^ imf^aDmp 
suffix y?V^ his yoke. Thus, also, om ,pDni p^trJ pmo ^rj^io ^D3 ,|"T;n *n:o 
the word 7^ all, from 773, has ,y^npaDf?iptiK3*Kf?Bfi3«m,D»K^DTDn 
Cholem, with Far omitted when 1^ ,w y^ ^-^f? o^ ica ^ppn »ruE) nixa pn 
it has the accent, except 7^7 ^y'w on o^pn^nm ;]mDm dhxd -|f? 
[Jerem. xxxiii. 8]. The Massorah ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^, ^^^^ j^,^^ on^ 
remarks on it, "The Vav is not ^,^«»,' «,'i^' ,^^ u* „^»v^,^^ mv «i%k. 
to be read, but read with Kametz- ! i 

Chatuph, as IS the rnle with ^3 ^,^ .^ ^,^ ,^^^^^, 

wherever it has Makk^h, as I ^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^,^^ 

have explamed m the Poetical ' *, , • , ' ' 

Dissertation. '""^'^^ ^^'^^^ °"^ '^^^^ ^ °'«*^" '•«" 

The infinitive and imperative of P P «in p^a J^^m* f?aK ,]p ,03? ,d« om 
verbs y"y too, have always Cholern • "^^^ ^^^^ 

and are defective ; as for instance . ^ 

3fa return [Song of Songs ii. 17], ^W^ ^ falling, ye shall let faU 
[Ruth ii. 16], Dh finished [Deut. ii. 14]. Those which have Shurek 
are all from roots the second radical of which is quiescent, as t|.1D a feed 
p^B? a street, y^^ a wall, &c., and are always plene, because they never 
have Kibbutz, except the imperative of vy, as DjJ arise [Josh. vii. 10], 
p run [1 Sam. xx. 36], 31^ return [Exod. iv. 19], &c. Those which 
have Chirek are from roots in which Jod is radical, as *T^| a nerve, "l^D a 
pot, Tp a thorn, ^'^V a city, TB' a song, ^^ a man, PV a flower, &c., they 
are generally joZew^; and defectives are but few, as 3*1 a cause [Exod. 
xxiii. 2], "13 a light [Prov. xxi. 4]. In the Massorah K^^t< a man, iq* 
noted as bemg three times defective, but there are differences of opinion 
about it among the Massorites. Thus, also, according to the Mas- 
sorah, TD Sin, is always plene, whilst TV Zin, is always defective. 
There are three words which always occur defective, viz., 1? fro7n, D? 
u'lt/i, and DWt (/", but 1? before A-Mn is simply from 13 of the root nj3. 

« The words unon pr63, oK <Ae«c are defective, witbont which the passage has no 
sense, are omitted in the Solzbach edition. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



168 

word ) jnj together y which is always "uca pn ph^yjh mon wrw w n^ca / 
defective^ except in Jeremiah, where ,yr^ ^iV^po^Vaai *«,D*Hte 'j D^jfisa rroT 
it is fonnd /ji^n^ three times.*' ' jihia V^"^ onon o^aTiai d»h3cD3i ,y^ 
To the samecategory belong the ^-mu f?p ,np VT ('d Kip^i) it KBfmoa 
expressions W quaih [Ps. cv. 40], nrar mm^a oa -la-w Tip) ,np inwif 
IHD u?iwe^ [Song of Songs ii. 11], :'h TD«Da 

\^ humhU mximh, xii. 81, &c. pn ninnj? wan k^ : ^aC'n imn 
We also find that the textual read- ^, „,,^,^ .^ ,^ »^ ^^ ^^ ^i,^^ 
mg IS defective, whilst the mi^al ^ ^^ ^,^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ 

reading is plene; as ij; ^w hands, , , ^^ 

intheZ.^;4, and VT in the W, "^^°" '^ ^''^^ '^J^' "^^ "^"^^P^" 
[Levit. ix. 22], mjf Aig ^^cA, m !")« 1" '^" ^•^ «^° !"=» 1"«'«' nnpin 
the iiTei/iii;, and VJKJV in the iiTm P^^" ^ nm ^'M nton pxDW |na r*«f 
[Gen. xxxiii. 4]. But I shall dis- ^an ;n3f ik pm np nrn Y'v ik ,p-nr nt 
cuss this subject in the Second *3 r'Tom k^d yv i6 nmpan thw nnit 
Part, Section i. iipi ,nn3 n"v )^t i"n pnnK i^^r t<h 

Section VII. — Hitherto, I have : 'd "naia na na-w 

treated on biliteral and triliteral ,|»3»o 'a hv on o^ina nmpan n^ni 
words, in which all the letters are ^1^K ^oa ,V'*i |"j; tw W on "mnn ]nDn 
audible. I shaU now discuss mono- [^ ^^ \^ ^^ ^^te ^Vip ,n^a ,aMD ,d^ 
syUabic words, caUed Uttle words. ^ ^t^, o^^t,^ ^^^n on .Grmm t^ 
It is well known that the plene and ^,,l., »,„ «,,,„ .,,^„ m,--. i,t,-i« ,*s m»v^. 
defective monosyllabic words are ..^ ' „ ^^„ ^^ ^r ^ -mL^,^ 
those which have m the middle ^ a, '^ 

of the word either Fa,; quiescent, ="* ''"^= ^" "»»^^"' ?=' "-"le^F 
with Cholem and Shurek, or Jodt 

quiescent, with Chirek and Ts^^, and that in regard to words with 
other vowel-points there cannot be plene and defective, because no 
quiescent Vav or Jod can follow these points. On this subject I 
shall treat again in Section ix. 

Now those pointed with Cholem are of two kinds. The first class 
consists of words, the middle letter of which is a quiescent Vav, 
as n^K light, qV day, 3^0 good, y\'o myrrh, ^\p a voice, Dte a cup, n^j; 
skin, "iijj? an ox, ^^3 a pit, "i^y again, n^K a sign, &c. These are always 
plene; the expression ^ not, is an exception, being always defective, 
except in thirty-five instances ;^' and the expression niy again, is 
defective in fourteen instances;*'' so also ih generation, is defective when 

tf Both the Basel and the Sulzbach editione have CmDH '3, *'ihe word tnrr is alwa^rs 
<2s/e«h'o6, except in Jeremiah, where it is fonnd three times defectiye." Bnt this is 
* eyidently a mistake for D>l^, plene, since the word in question actually oocnrs three 
times in Jeremiah, yiz., xlvi. 12, 21 ; xlix. 3. 

40 The thirty-five instances in which Mlb is pltne are. Gen. xxzi. 85 : Leyit. ▼. 1 : 

1 Sam. ii. 24 ; xix. 4 : 1 Kings xriii. 5 ; xx. 8 ; xxii. 18 : 2 Kings v. 17 ; ti. 12 : Isa. xri. 
14 ; xxviii. 16 : Jerem. ii. 25, 81 ; iii. 3, 12 ; iy. 11 ; y. 9, 10, 12 (thrice), 24 ; vi. 9 ; yii. 
28; yiii. 6, 2'>; x. 4 ; xy. 7, 11; xxix. 23; xlyiii. 27; xlix. 20: Ezek. xyi 56; xxiy. 16: 
Lament, i. 12. They are enumerated, in a most confused manner, in the Massorah 
marginalis on Levit. y. 1. 

47 The fourteen instances in which TIS is defective are, Gen. yiii. 22 ; xix. 12 ; xl. 18 : 

2 Sam. xiy. 82 : 1 Kings xii. 6 : Jerem. ii. 9 ; xiii. 27 ; xy. ; xxxiii. 18 : Hos. xii. 1, 10 : 
Micah L 15 : Zech. yiii. 20 : Ps. xzxix. 2 ; xxxix. 2. Comp. Massorah marginalis on 
(Hn. yiii. 22, with Jerem. xy. 0. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



162 

T3TI % '""y* [Exod. xzxiii. 18], Ton tji^r; «i«ai pi "pnon 'i om ipTi 

of which there are three defective Y'i«n ^ rmo S»ni .can prf> of>s 

iiiBtances ;«♦ T^Dn thy mercies [Pb. ^ijoa a"j Ha Trr jir^w 'b"j>«i ,monn 

cxix. 41], vhich i's always defective ,jn<Dni irb} ,i5ji,«JX loa .poena «in»3 

in the plnral, and the Segol indicates n,c^3 ^.a^^ p Q,,,n<n Tan^ ^avi 

^e absence of Jod. And although «,». id ,»p' '^j> -mr. )na ,nnf> maioon 

the 8u.gular has also Segol when it ^ ^^ ,,,« nnnBK^ ,«f„-, jana 

% foot, \3m % .ar, &c., the ^ ^,,, „^„, „.^^ ^^^ ^^ ^,^ 
mngdar may be disti^hed from ^ ^ 

the plural by the words with which • r ., , , , t .. » i • » -. • 

it is connected; , as Vl thy hand , ^ •''*"' J'*^^ ^"'^ 

[Ps. xxxii. 4], I^JT t/iy /oot [Ps. Q^aipiBff^Min ^Jr. pan iwon pi 
xci. 12]. ^JTfcf tAirltf i;ar [Isa. xlviii. *"'^ni pi ^vaipn n^Kna o^ann Y'v nom 
8], 1W % keeper [Ps. cxxi. 3], n^*»^i3 ,mti Y't tdh Kin *feB f?33 
^4*"« iAy ^<?>ny [Dent, xxviii. 63] ; larS naian ♦usa man )i»S pi ,tea 
all of which are singular, and it h^ nOT' loa ,D*ain i"v non d*kxw 
cannot be said that they are the ,in^ij?a o^ate maa f'prtsp ♦joann ,*iri^nao 
plural with Jod omitted, because ibd3 »mitar ma ,f?i»n ♦ae^ Df?in TtDn 
the verbs 1|M it w ^avy, ll^n it t,^ n,^,,^ 0,1,^33 o^^ -,,3, . ^^nan 
shaUdash nnnp it i^^ened, W?^ ^^,„ ,,^3 ^^ ,^^,^3 ^mniMi^f? 

A. ,;^i ,Z.^, and PT, /^ *AaZZ ,^^57^ hk np. iDa .^i^oa V'^a dh r,Ki. 

oppress, with which they are re- '"'i '^ l ..^ 

sj^ctivdy connected, are^ singular. „ = ^"°" '^^^ ^P '''^ ''P^ ^^J '"^ 
;Thus, also,in Jerem.xxxYiii. 22, ''''^ ^"^^ °^^»5^ "^^" *^"^ P^ 
^^»r % M> is plural, and Jod is •'^^^^ 'ino^"" '^^?i? J*"^^^^ ^^^ '^'^nn 
omitted, as is evident from the verb .PP '^ n*^"' l^*'' ^' "^^of^ rtm T'r 
^paon t% arfi sunk, the plural Jod firojn *i3a i"n r-m Kansra KfjK nt |*ki 
is also omitted in IJJ}? f/iy trorA pT D^ipS Tonn Kf?i jn^oni ij^an ^vr laa 
[Ps. Ixxvii. 13], as is evident from 

paa in every one. All the feminine plurals, with the suffix second 
person masculine, are likewise without the Jod of the plural; as 
^nh30 thy yifts [Ps. xx. 4], llj'^yi^ thy commands [Ps. cxix. 98], 
^n^ifja thine honourable [Ps. xlv. 10], which have always the Cholem 
before the Segol, as I have already explained it in the Bachur; and 
they are distinguished from nouns feminine singular in pause, with 
pronoun, second person, which have also n with Segol, as 1^?^? thy 
blessing [Gen. xxvii. 86], ^^57^ ^^V ^^hteou^ness fPs. Ixxi. 16], by 
the latter having always Kam^etz before the Segol. 

The Jod of the plural is likewise omitted in the suffix third person 
feminine, as •JP'^^p her graves [Ezek. xxxu. 26], &c. The quiescent Jod, 
indicating the plural, occurs softer Katnetz, but this only happens when 
it is followed by the pronominal Vav of third person masculine ; as l^'JJ 
his hands, V?^'] his feet, &c. ; when it is never omitted, except in the 

^ The three pAssages in which *rp*il is defective are, Exod. zxxiii. 18 ; Josh. i. 8 ; 
Fk. ezix. 87. lliey are enninexated in the Maasorah marginalis on Exod. xxziii. 18. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



161 

in eyery book of the Scriptures, and *i333 jai ;miDDn ^d hjf pjoai ,iddi 

they are counted according to the my^ ^^'y^;\'^ '^ars??? iD3 pij^a onaTon 

Massorah. Thus, also, the suffix ,kSd dpp^p tddj nf? ,('» mar) wrfiai?^ 

first persons in nouns, as ^3n^33 p^^ onaTDn nasa onv mown fjan 

with our youth, «^?33 triU our sons ^^^n inti D>aif?i wS orniwa d*w onr 
OBxod. X. 9), are not marked by the .^.^ ^^^ ^,^^ t^ ^^ ^^^,^ 
Massontes as plene. But the nouns ' . l ,l 

which have the pronoun, first per- , , ' *! ° ^\^..Tf? ^ 

son, pointed aUke, both in the rin- '""^ ''^^ "^^^ ^^'^'^ «^ ^'rlPC'Oni 

gular and plural, and in which there ""'"^ '''°" ('"^ "^■''^7) ^= *"" ^^ "? 

is no difference in the points, ex- '^'^ "^"^^^J^ P^ '^"^ n*?Dn*itn3 Trr ]wh 

cept that the plural has Jod, these o^of?,«f7D rf?p iddj {3"3p d^^tth) ^3'Vn 

are marked by the Massontes as *Tjn nh tM ]3i ,Tn» pvh «irw pon «^n 

Thus, for instance, W^T our jn*^p tddj Kf?i ,n"i* o^nsn «a^ \^^) ^a 
Aarki« [Deut. xxi. 7], has the Mas- m^Dnf?3K ;n'aTp»^a wifDJK^ *a pan 
soretic mark plene, whilst «T1 and ^i^^^ ^^ ^n» n^^^a ma W pa w*w 
our Aand (Gen. xxxvii. 27), is ^.q,, q,^^ p^c, t,^ „.,,„ ^c, q^, ^^^^ 
marked rf^/.cfir., because it is the ^^ „(^ ,„, «,^ ^^^ c^^ ^^t^ ^^^ 
smgular, as is evident firom the . ' "T, lj,^, .,^l -«,«, «,l^. .,«,*, 
wofd ^ni^letitbe; 8oal80«^^?T our '"'""'' ^^ "^ '^'^ ' \^ 
>e* (Ps c«ii. 2), is marked pto... i^ ^ 

whilst «7n oMr /oof fPs. Ixvi. 91, ' , ' 

is marked defecHve, because it L "^'^^^"^ "^^'^ "='""' '"==^ ^P^^^ ""^ 
the singular. Whereas ^^a*^ our ^^^ '"^^"^ ^'^'^ 1>"'*^ l"*' ^^^^^ "^P^^ 
word (Josh. ii. 14), which'is the ^n^f^p Toni Kf?i ,7^33^ rr3| ^^frrtan^ ^^ 
singular, as is evident from the '"i"^* '^d" po "a"!" Q*»»D31 ,Q^pf? «fe 
word HT tAw; and the expres- nirj^K oaK loa paA naian ^laaa onoai 
sions «33!? and «?^ oj/r ^art, n»< «3 ^aprnn )an « nnon a"> om ^^paia 
in which Jod is wanting, are never 

marked as defective, because they do not occur in the plural. But 
the words wherein a quiescent Jod is expressed after Tzere, which Jod 
neither belongs to the. root nor indicates the pluiul, are always 
marked as plene; as '"^^^d? escape [Jerem. 1. 29,] Q^S^"] early [Prov. 
xxvii. 14], ^*|ri) tJiou shalt say [Exod. xix. 8], and a few more like these. 

Moreover, the quiescent Jod is also to be found after Segol, but 
this only occurs in the pronouns, second person masculine and third 
person feminine of pluml nouns, both masculine and feminine ; as 
yf^y^ thy sons; T^^^^ thy daughters, n^33 her sons, "J^^J^^^ her daughters, 
and they are never marked plene. Many of them are found without 
Jod, especially in the case of the suffix second person masculine ; as 
1^5"? thy words [Gen. xlvii. 80], of which there are thirteen defectives;*^ 

^ The thirteen instaiiGeB in which the plnral "TnaT occurs defective are, Gen. zzx. 34 ; 
zlvii. 80 : Numb. ziy. 20 : Ps. cxix. 9, 16, 25, 28' 42, 65, 105, 107, 169. The Massorah 
mnrginalis, both on Gen. xxx. 84, and on xlvii. 80, mentions the three instances which 
occur in the Pentateuch as belonging to the thirteen defectives^ and refers to the Has- 
■orah finalis for the whole list. Bat we could find no such list in the Massorah. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



160 

out Jod^ because they have Vav |now ^h nan t3*3ro t3*3p3 ,V'»i d'r^d nnr 

folly written, whilst D^anj D^?n: they : pim Y'r D»«f7D ]rw »«5^ i"n nnon 

ar^ given, they are given [Numb. nf?n: npian ^w pTn '3 ^!?3ni .^ 

viii. 16], are defective of Fay, be- a^n ^ o^inni ,T'v nfe «in :^^-iT^ f?p 

cause they have Jod plene; as you ^oif?! njrTinf? nnx ]^»i n:nn ,i"n ion Kin 

will see on exammation. ,„,_ _„ „_,^ _. '_^ _^^_ „l^_, _ 

«- The general rule is that the ' '? °^ ""* "" '^'°=''' ^T, 

CA^fe of L long syllable ha^ '^iT'^ "'^^ °" '"^ ■'"^^^ ^** "™ 

mostly the Jorf written folly, whilst '°^'"" °' "^^"^ ^^^^ "''^■^ """^ 

e/ioim generaUy is without Vav. '^ '^^^"^ '^^ ^°? 'P"''"" °J^ "=^~ "'"^^"^ 

There is no necessity for me to 1"*^^" "°"* *^^ •^«=*«'^ *^ 'l"'^'''^ "^r 

explain to you that Cholem and ""^p: Kan hS '3 p^ipf? nf?«3 |"nvm 

Chireky with quiescent Frtu and ^^f^^ ^'^in ^n^ir ,n^ip^ n^on sjioar niKa 

Jod at the end of a word, are ,na»nn cjioa d»dpd^ o^xiop onw pyii 

always pZ<?/itf ; as \'V his hand, ^hr} : n»»pn mana -ij^nww loa 

his foot J '*y^ my hand, vj^ my foot, mn rtm i"v Ran nh r^BIJ^n imn 

&c., since it is evident that Vau and p«r^ ^p nnnn' in ^'riw w'nra pn 'ixn 

t7od can never be omitted in such -lop a'p'N a'p^n ids n'»i»n ,n»an 

cases, because a vowel-point can i^ty^^ ^y^ "^^ pj^^n (a«f^ nVi^na) 

never be under the final letter of ^^^^, ,1^ „,^.,^ ^.'s^ ^,^^^ ^^,^^3, 

a word, except under Kaph, Tav, ^^^^ ^,^,^^ 

and final Nun. These have some- Jl . ' 

times Ka^netz at the end of a word. '^V'"" "^ " "^ '"= '"**'"'' ^ 

as I shaU explain in Section x. 'Y^ ^ "=>= "'"^ ^ '' "^P" ■"'"*= 

Section VI.— A quiescent Jod "^^ ^'^ ''"^ """^ -'"^ '•'^» °^ 

does not follow T^cre, except when '• "' ■*""'' ""^"'^ 

it belongs to the root, or when it ]ivh hy nnn'> n»n nrw r»an T1*ni 

indicates the plural. It belongs onnojn 'i»a n»an T'rn tsvi .D'st 

to the root, as 3'0»n doinj; jrood, ^^ niD»3 ^wjdot D««*Dm ^-inDjm 

^'V^KIshalldogood[Gea.sjjn.ld], ^j^rja pyw ,Drra ,oa ,ni3Ti O'an pvh 

^i ?; { '^''^ ^fi. ^^^*^, 'ir^^ ' A*" o'BJ'o B«H»aj, ,D^ip^ K^a irrf^; 
and it stands for the radical He, as ' _.,„ „lV .,„ ^,., _1_=_, . , -J, .-, 
WJV J ca;««u.««fod |T)eut. iii. 21], .=?tta« 'nfTH-'.^or ,Dr»rp,^an«D ma 

'Mp I wait [Isa. y. 4], and in a few ■«« ^==' -"'"«" '''"«'' '°?'^ '°^ !=^ 
more such instances. The same is 

the case in those nouns in which Jod is radical, as njri^a Iiouse, T.? eye, 
or stands for the radical Vav, as in HTV food, HH^b old a^e, the roots 
of which are liv, K'n. I shall recur to this subject in the next Section. 
The Jod after Tzere, to indicate the plural, is the same Jod as 
is used with the suffix in plural nouns of the third and second 
persons, both masculine and feminine, as Dn\?3 their sons, ^3^321 your 
sons, 10^33 t?mr sons (feminine), 13\?3 your sons (feminine), Dn^Jn'l33 
their daughters, 03^^33 your daughters, &c., and these are never marked 
in the Massorah as plene ; and a few of these are found defective, as 
DHK^'r: their princesX^mnb. xvii. Vl\ ^^^^^ your fathers [Deut. i. 11]. 
Tie expressions ^5-^ '^ them, and D3^fc< to you, are also found defective 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



159 

S^ We also find the Talmud at hp np^in ,Mhv moinm irxD pi , 

variance with the Massorah ; it ('inaTDa) nupon^V? ora o pas ^moDn 

takes T)r?^ Jijiished [Numb. vii. Ij, rfii\\^ hv p^ ,Mf?D rrf? vhy noDJi ,TDn 

as defective, and remarks on it that nmonn 'b^i ,3TO ntlTD ,('i onai) irra 

it is notpi^;w?; so also r\Wm door- moan ^b^ 'n oj^ o-viro pi ,i*f?D Kin 
;?ost« [Deut. xi. 20], according to "iKteVin mioDai Ton 

the Tahnud is defective, whereas ___ „__^ . > ,i ^ ^, _ .J. 

according to the Massorah it is J , 

plene; fid Dn^nyo [1 Sam. ii. 24], -^^^ °^ ""^^"^ I"^ ^^^ '""^''P "^ ^' 

too, is according to the Tahnud .HKDip Y'rnon D^3nte^ n«.f?«. ,Kr:n YV 

defective, and according to the Mas- ^'^'^^ '"•*°''P "'""'* "»" '^= '^^' °'P^ 

sorah pletie.*^ '" ^'^O" ]3i ,«r3n Y'r non ,nDn d^?? 

Notice, also, that in some of '^ *iDn cj'Nxaji «m^mp i"v ion 
the words which have two Chireks, : cn?« D»ia rtiiai ,i^a ^t> d«5^ ]n"vn 

the ^ first Jod is defective. Thus, i"v non D*KifD3 S»pBn *ii3»a3 pi 

03^*16^ branches [Genesis xl. 10], crnoD dk ^'^333 oroi^ ma ^nNtonp 

wants the second Jod, whilst D^?"!fej ^a^ ,|iTDm D*pVnp owt ivm ,*mK dhk 

6rrtwc/i^« [Gen. xl. 12], wants the t,p q^n^ nn ^j^pBrn ni^ipB nt^r h^ 

first JmZ ; U^m thsrighteom [Hos. ^ ,^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^.^^^ ^,^^3, .,,^ 

SI- i^];,^^*\^^^ ^A/^^' ^^^ M^^^ni DDm '.^?nm ,r^K v^d^ ,iMTp 
"P^?V */'^ righteous [Ezek. xxui. ' r l l Cl,ll 1-. 

45]; wants the second Jod. The ^^f ,rnV S 'Sk ?'-,« Y'i^non 

same is the case with B^IN /oofa, '^^,.r^\^^^'^^^^^,l^^^ 

which wants the first t/orf five times ; , . ^ 

and there are some words wanting ^f"' ' "'"" 'T"* "**" '''"'" ' 

both Jod4i, as ubt©^ captains [Exod. ' ' • . • . 

xiv. 7] , ^Ti^ mighty [Ezek. xxxii. 1 8] . 

The participles Hiphil, too, are found wanting the first Jod; as 
^"^nyilk^^ making a noise [1 Chron. xv. 28], D^nOD killing [Jerem. xxvi. 
15], D^p^nD dreaming [Jerem. xxix. 8], &c. AU the other tenses of 
Hiphil, however, are generally j9Zt'7i«, and there are but few found defec- 
tive; as yy>^ he offered [Numb. vii. 19], ^^VP5 cind they presented 
[Levit. ix. 12, 18], ^???J, and I have separated [Levit. xx. 26], &c. 

i^ The plurals of the passive participles Kal, however, sometimes 
occur without Jod, but this only takes place when the Vav is written 
fully, and it is to prevent two quiescents following each other, as I 
have already explained in Section ii. For example, the words 
D3^nD D?4n3 tliey are given, they are given [Numb. iii. 0], are both with- 

inatance is in Gen. xxv. 6, and the other in Esther ii. 14. Now Raahif who, in his com- 
mentary on Gen. xxv. 6, follows the traditional exposition of the Midrash, remarks, 
" The textual reading i* DWaVo defective [that is without the plural t/brf], becatue 
Abraham had only one concubine^ namely^ Hagar^ who was identical with Keturah.'* 
But this reading, which is contrary to the Massoretio text, has evidently arisen 
from a pious desire to lessen the number of concubines of the father of the Hebrew 
nation. The Bereshith liabba, from which Bashi's remark is derived, is the part of the 
Midrash Jiabba^ or exposition of the Pentateuch, which treats on Bereshith = Genesis. 
For an account of the Midrash, see Kitto's Cyclopa^ia^ a. v. 

^ For an exnlanation of Meznzah see above, p. 95, note 18. The variations between 
the Talmud ana the Massorah, adduced by Levita, are taken from Jacob b. Chajim's 
Introdxiction to the Rabbinic Bible : comp. p. 19, <&c.. Tihore they are fully discussed. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



158 

and Jeremiah, except in three in- p^ ,iDn dtij Sai » rpDTa 'm SRiora 
stances in Samuel an^ in eight pi "/a p yin ion c y y yto ]wS Sa 
instances in Jeremiah j » ^V^?? p^cm (T a n'jr»na) nn* ^ oTo^fm 
goblets^ too, is always defective; iDa ,pnTiai nxa onsPD D*K3fD3i ;D»aT 
Dn^?b^ ^oa/«, is always defective, p y,n D>ann n"r ion MinwT d'w ^a 
except in two instances ;•> D^^PV ,^, nf^^a, cm^ „« mxd ^»« pi «/t 
hracelMs [Gen. xxiv. 80), and many ^j^,^ ,., , ^^„ ^,,, ^^ ^nDvi t<»w 
others, are likewise defective. A few . j^^-j^^ 

plurals, which are preceded by Tzere ^^^ ^^ ^^t, l,,^.^ ^^^q o^au^an D1 
and Chirek. are also defective. Thus, „ ^^ , ' ' , 

D?'« rrtw^, has never the t/orf plural « ^ / 

in the Peitateuch, except in four °"^^ °^^ "^Tii!!? ! '°'''" 
instances;^ the same is the case P' '°^'" "^^ /\°»?i?o ,(i niDu^) 
with Dt?in, tA^ hot springs [Gen. "^^"" ^'*^"^ °^ ^^^ ^'t^^aaa 
xxxvi. 24]. Besides the Tzere, we T°3 "b°"" ^"^" '^s^"' P"^^ PM^^'^ 
find DDjn <Ae rfaya [Numb. vi. 6], P'^ /'^'^?^. ^^^ r^^o o^'P^ "^''^ 
defective, which has no parallel in pa w jniKD fin ,)n»Dm n^n ,nnnM 
the Scripture. ^nyan ^n^^^ loa ^o'dixt o^p^in "a 

Moreover, the participles Hiphil, : onon py"^ 'lai ni?>^n 

because they have two Chireks fol- rnowai Doiraa o^an jw^ Sa S^Dni 
lowing each other, are also wanting ri^^i p»«t,Q q^] d^di»t cpnn 'a la |i«» 
in most cases the Jod of the plural. ^^ pmrs^ t<w Tnt<wn ica ,ca»DpD 
Three instances of it are to be found ^^^la ion D^aVsn ♦jaf?! f?p >"rT »TDr 
in the Pentateuch, vi^., DT?»9 ^inioonnjaii'inRanm^Kian^teRin^ ! 
tn« Aiw^ labour [Exod, vi. 6] , D?^?i?9 • n . Q^^f^^ i^ ,,f^p ^pj^j ^^ ' 

making holy [Levit. xxii. 2], and ' 

DD^VfJO making angry [Dent. ix. 22] ; and some in the Prophets, as 
Dn^nB'O destroying [2 Sam. xx. 15], &c. The same occurs with Chirek 
before the termination n, which is always plene, as n^E^fcO beginning, 
^^"^^^ residue, nnrjK end, n*?3J!? end, &c., except in those cases where 
there are two Chireks together, as flK^/K^ third, riy^?^ fourth, HK^Dn 
fifth, Ac, which are generally defective. 

The rule is that all the plurals of both participles and nouns, which 
have not two Chireks following each other, are written fully, except in a 
few instances, as DTO'^O banished [Lam. ii. 14], &c. Rashi*s remarks on 
D^a^^B concubines [Gen. xxv. 6], that it is defective, which is taken 
from Bereshith Rabba, is contrary to the Massorah, for the Massorites 
mark it *' twice plene.'' *^ 

^ Thoagh the Massorah paxra on 1 Sam. zix. 20, also remarks thiit D>ri3 occurs 
three times^^e ('trbl *70 '3), yet there seem to be four instances; viz., 1 Sam. x. 11, 12 ; 
xix. 20 ; xxviii. 6. The eight instances of plene in Jeremiah to which Levita refers are, 
Jerem. t. 13 ; Tii. 25 ; viii. 1 ; xxvi. 8, 11 ; xxviii. 8 ; xxix. 1 ; xxxr. 15. They are 
enumerated in the Massorah marginaUs on Jerem. xyi. 2. 

^ The two passages in which WTffVi ia plene are, Isa. xiii. 21 ; 2 Chron. xi. 15. 

^ The fonr instances in which D^ is entirely j7Z«n« are, Gen. xxxii. 15 ; Lerit. yiii. 2 ; 
Numb, xxiii. 1 ; Dent, xxxii. 14. 

^ The Massorah maiginalis on Oen. xxr. 6 distinctly remarks that the word D^sVC} 
occurs twice entirely plene, that is, with the two Joda after the two Chireks. The one 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



167 

harvest, l^pn pious, ^'^^ Ophir, "1^?? ^ ^Vw t»a3 ,i*tt« ^tdtt ,Tsg ica ,n3*nn 

great, ^^)i< a /ooZ, ^^D3 a fool, &c. ,D»Pn rara Dnon D^opD nwxD:i pirom 

A few of the proper names are to be "rp ]iarnDi ,n^nn riNti "w^m hni paa 

found defective, as "^BIK Oj!>^iV [Gen. ",D»Kte 'n p yin ion tji ^a pi ,naTi^ 

X. 29], ■^?7 ^^^*''' [Josh. xiii. 26] ; o^ip^ nam P)isa thdj na inrw Ka* nh) 

also, the name '^1'!} David is always ^h>;i« ^M^ag ,«>irf ,«np3 ,w»a3 loa ,e|"^Kn pi 

defective, except in five instances in j^^^ ^^^,1 ^a« ,y'^n ve^n kSi /iai M»y 
which it is plene.^ The CAire/j is ^3; .^^^^^^ ^,^,^^ ^«,, ^ j^ 

never foUowed by a quiescent letter ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^,^^^ ^,,^, ^.,^, ,^^c,^ 

at the end of • the word, except ' ^,^,^x _„^ _^.„ _^^ ,^^ 

AJ^h, a8«^?3 prophet, «>bj diief, (^ °*^=^^) 7^- ^^^^ °^^*=5 ^^^ 

K^an he brought, «Up ftnn^mi^, N^i« "^^ P"'^" ^^^^^ Pf*'^ «PV"» "'' '1™P^ 

J «^flZZ 6n«^, «^?: A^ s/ia/Z Z^»^^, «^pn • in'^ni ^anav n^K loa nf?na npijn ^ 

«/w «Aa/i spm out [Levit. xviii. 28] ; ,D»Di]fn D*pnn 'a or rrrwa 7nK .^ 

but ^f?^! and she vomiteth [Levit. ^ai a»a»an ,tDn»a« ,C3n»ia ,tDn*^ loa 

xviii. 25], which wants Jod, has ,ann ^j? D»ann YV norm ,n^^ D'onn 

very few parallels. But Chirek, l,^ p, sb i^a^.t,^ non 'a Q:*2nri rw loa 

before the plural termination D% is p, se^.^ p y,n ,TDn umiKan orro 

itno^n [i);ut. i.'i8], &c. This, ^^^ P;-.°^^ '"^ P ?^n n^n.a. noma, 

however, is the case where no other '"Tl^ ''^''''°" ' '°" u '''''■' °^^" 
CAir^ifc of a long syUable precedes ^'"^^ ^^^ 'F°^^^ °^ '°^^,^ '^^'^^^^ l^" 
it, as in those instances which I have '^ P r" °'™ "'^"''^ ^•'^^«''' °*?'?^ 
already stated, and the like cases. 

1^ But when two Chireks do follow each other, as in D^l^?? the 
mighty, D''T'^*? the strong, D^?^?*} showers, D^"1*aK the potent, &c., the 
Jod of the plural is frequently omitted. Thus, Q?^???n, tlie sea mon- 
sters, is three times defective in this form.** The same is the case with 
O^i?^"^?, the righteous, which is always^ defective in the Pentateuch, 
except in one place ;* the same with ^'^^^} princes, which is so written 
four times in the Pentateuch ; and likewise in the Prophets and Hagio- 
grapha, except in four instances where it is Dfc<'fc'3.87 The same is the 
case with DD^DJJI without blemish ; when it refers to animals it is defec- 
tive; that is, whenever it is the predicate to sheep, rams, goats, &c. 
The word D^fr5^33 prophets, is always defective in the books of Samuel 

M That the proper name *' David is always defective^ except in five instances, in which 
it is plene'' is surely a mistake. The Massorah marginalis, both an 1 Kings xi. 4 and 
Ezekiel xxxiv. 23, does indeed remark that *' David occurs five i^mesplene (D^Vo 'n Til), 
and enumerates 1 Ein^ iii. 14; xi. 4, 86; £zekiel xxxiv. 23; Song of Songs iv. 4; as 
the five instances ; but it adds D*«Vo '1131 rfTi MTlWI TDnn b31, that David is also plknb 
throughout, the twelve minor Prophets^ Ezra, and Chronicles^ which is not to be 
gathered from Levita's statement. 

^ The three instances in which D^3^3n wants the Vav plural are, Gen. i. 21 ; Exod. 
vii. 12 ; Deut. xxxii. 33. 

88 The single instance in which p»pn s? is plene in the Pentateuch is in Exod. xxiii. 8, 
on which the Massorah parva remarks '^1 ^ \ no parallel^ it is entirely plbns. 

"7 The four instances in which DM^3 occurs are, Gen. xvii. 20; xxv. 16; Numb. vii. 
10 ; xxvii. 2. They are enumerated in the Massorah marginalis on Gen. xvii. 20. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



166 ' 

Vav with Cholem ; and this is be- nn ^oVinn up nrun V'mto nnv pTnn 

cause they have both removed and ids ,V'nn ^yoTtn^ n*Dn ann Sjnr 

omitted the Vav, as I have abreadj mo'pi niTK»n man T'rn hzvk ,^nan3w 

stated ; whereas they have both -npjn ti'jd i«np rrnapai ^iDipon ana 

left and put down the quiescent ^^^^ ^j,,^^ f^^j p-,,^ ^V rnrw^ pw^ 

Jod in many places. Hence, the rnm ^™ ^.i,, ^^^^w )w pTnni ^nf^na 

punctuators called the Chirek, fol- ,3,23/3 *a ^^am -najprmian ir^m tdp 
lowed bv Jod, a Ions Chirek, that ' f 

is, a lonj sylkble ; L Chirek, not "'-^ W" '*^" ^'^ ^^''^^ I^P 'T P?'" 

followed by Joc^, they denominated ''''' ^^''^"^ ,mt>p npian Kim ,YV ^Sa 

short atr^Ar, or short syllable. , : n^nj npun «im ,Y ra 

There are therefore two kinds of ^^ '"*P "J^^^ ^^ P"''" '^ P*^ -S 

CVur^to, one short and the other njnan hvf pn»n f?pi ,D^ip^ Ton r^p tddj 

long ; the short one, according to d*dj^d^ -]« ,D^ip^ «te tdd3 «f? .nh^ii 

rule, is without Jod, and is called nom mi ,i"v ^^a nf?n3 njnan t^ian 

a short syllable ; whilst the long nn>n ,('n D»a^D) TH ma loa ,iDn rSp 
one, according to rule, has a Jod, :|n'Dni ,('t) D»^*nn) nnn »a 

and is caUed a long syUable. rrp^yn ^ pTnn Tanf? ]i:>''Dr\) .^ 

e* It is for this reason that the ^^^ ^,^^5 nt,,^^ ^^^^^ i^^ p^,no n»p 
CAireAr of the short syllable is never „„y^ ,^3^ ^,„ .^.,, 

marked by the Massontes as defec- ^^^^ ^.,^ LJ^^ ^,« !^ .«,^ ,.«•,.«- 

J xi_ -Tfj • T /■At 1 fJ^^Dp m?i3n Kin ,n3 Kir ik em mriKr 

tif<?, and the Chirek of the lone 1 ' 

syUable is never marked as plJ. .n^na njnm Kin ^YVnoni ,rnnK D^Kc^ai 

Sometimes, however, the long syUa- ^^^- ^"^ ™" ^"'^"^ >'^"^^°^" ^^^^ "^"^ 
ble occurs without Jod, then the ,VV TomDaa (i"a nirKia) njnac^n nK 

Massorites mark it as defective ; as ^'^^ ^^'^ "*"^ '^^'^ "P''*"" "^ P^*^ *»'=' 
^n33, J Aar^ frMt7< [1 Kings viii. 13], r^"'' i^n tddj Kf? /Spn >n^3tprTi ^pi ,Kte 
nnxn, ^/wm Aa«t ^^^i [Ps. x. 14], &c. '- ^^^ tthk ^i;rw mnp npan Kinr *sS 

<ir The sign whereby the Chirek »jt vinK pK» pTn ^a TOHI j^i 
of the short syllable may be distin- k^d Kin )ai ,kSd nrnf? in ,m ki» ik 
guished from the Chirek of the long pj^oa nun: m vtik Ka^ra jua ,ann h^ 
syllable, is by the absence of Jod. 

It is the same as the one I stated in the case of the Kibbutz, That 
is, whenever Chirek is followed by Dagesh or quiescent Sfteva, it is a 
short syllable, and when these do not follow it, and yet Jod is absent, 
then it is a long syllable, and is defective, according to the Massorah. 
For instance, on ^nbpni, and I shall perform [Gen. xxvi. 8], the 
Massorites remark, "Jod is wanted,** because there is no Dagesh after 
the Chirek,^ and, according to rule, ought therefore to be plene; whereas 
on ^ri3K^IJ!, and I shall came to cease [Numb. xvii. 20], they do not 
remark that the Jod is wanting, because it is a short syllable, for there 
is Dagesh after it. 

®" According to rule, every Chirek which is not followed by Dagesh, 
or quiescent Sheva, ought to be plene, and is generally plene. That is, 
when it is followed by an audible letter at the end of the word, as "^^VIJ 

» Instead of pnmn nnK pw, /or there is not after Chirek^ the Snlzboeh edition has 
]*K©, for there is not after it. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



165 

ThnSy also, the nonns of this form ,D*»te aiin hp ht ^pro f?p mnrn pi 

are generally plene in the absolute n^ion ma^ooai ,n5ite ,rn«;? ,rrra| idd 

state, as •TJ'J^I strength, ^'ynp «^uZ- ^a loa o^Ntem ,pjd3 HMf ,^m mag 

c/ir^, np^PD kingdom, &c., and rf^- pi«^Dn on D^opo cm p»f?ai ;V^oa 

/<?<?at'tf in the construct, as nnnjp q^ nno« ,Dn trm« /''f? orw oon^ ma 

sepulchre of [Gen. xxxv. 20], nyn|5 ^^^^ ^^^ ^,^^ ^^ j^,.,^^ ^^^^^ 

Am;> o/[EzeT£. ixu. 20], &c.; but ^.^^ l,^ p, ^^ p^^ q^ 

pZ^n^ are n?JDa e/«,^r< [Isa. lix. 18], ^,^1^ q,^,^^, q,^,;^;, q^^^ ;„„^;; 

19], D^T^DN <A.cAat«J[Gen.xl. 6], °" P*^^^' '^^^'^ ^^^^^"'^ '^*^ "?^ 
&c., whilst the defectives are by far ""^^"^ ^^^ "^''^^ ^^^^ Q't^^Dn 
the most, as n^P\^ beams, D^OO« D*«an moBrn ]ai ,n^'«n ,n\^to3? ;r(^^ 
closed [1 Kings vi?4], D^B^K^ 6uni7 °'?:?? wa ^onon |!TO D^an nt f?pwD ^ 
[Numb. xvii. 4], &c. Also,' D^?n3 ,DnQ^ S'^ «D»non «"'Dno» ",D»TDn :"♦ 
written, is always defective in the ,maT jiJrS jai pon K3Br*^ Sa ,trw3 dv 
Pentateuch, though it is plene in the iijn ,0^^?^? ^^ r^*?^ P^tk ,ii*w* rrt^, 
Prophets and Hagiographa ; as well ; ^"p '% ^^sTa oa na-w 

as the plurals feminine, wWch are ,,^ „„ ^„ .^^^ ^^^ 
almost aU defective, as niJnJ ^tren 
Deut. xiYiii.81], n^W ho^xmd up ^P nnan Y'l^ nn onDDn nma, D^H^axi 

[Exod. xii. 84], rts"*^ iwni^rf [Isa. 

1. 7], &c., the pieties being but few, as rt^^nSH the written, flW^n 
windows, HIIMIDK closed, TV^K'JJ /^^ mo^, nV^K"]* fA^ seen. The nouns, 
too, which are according to this form, are mostly defective in the 
masculine, as D^l'ia Cherubim, which occurs thirteen times defec- 
tive ;^ ^^1^? pillnrs, eleven times defective;'^ U'ntSf^b^^ night of 
celebration [Exod. xii. 42], and D^^B? DV day of atonement [Levit. 
xxiii. 28], are both defective in this form. The same is the case with 
the feminine plurals, as i^^^^f borders [Job xxiv. 2], riV^te kingdoms 
[Dan. viii. 22], n^'^n vaults [Jerem. xxxvii. 16], &c. I shall again 
discuss this subject in Section x. which you will see. 

Section V. — Both the prophets and other writers have paid much 
more attention to the quiescent Jod with Chirek, than to the quiescent 

^^ This is another instance which shows how difficult it is to understand Lenta's 
language without consulting the Massorah. From his remark the reader would naturally 
conclude that D^3"0 onl^ occurs thirteen times defective in the whole Bible, whereas it 
is found so nearly thirty times. On referring, however, to the Massorah mai^^inalis 
on Exod. XXV. 18, we find it remarked ^"Xon a'"»Qn n*vdQ IVlDI il^aai "TOn TimH te D^-On, 
" the word D'^TQ is defective throughout the Pentateuch^ wherecu it is plene throughout 
the Prophets and Hagiographa^ with the exception of thirteen passages;'^ which are as 
follows:— 1 Sam. iv. 4 : 2 3am. vi. 2: 1 Kings vi. 25, 27; viii. 7 : 2 Kings xix. 15 : £zek. 
X. 1, 2, 8, 6, 7, 8: Ps. Ixxx. 2. There can therefore be no doubt that Levita means 
these thirteen instances of defective. 

*> The eleven instances in which Dn^S9 is defective are as follows : — Exod. xxvii. 
10, 11 ; xxxviii. 12, 17 : Judges xvi. 26 : 1 Kings vii. 6, 21 : Jerem. xxvii. 19 : Ezek. xl. 
,49 : 2 Chron. iii. 16 ; iv. 12. They are enumerated in the Massorah marginalia on 
Exod xxxviii. 12. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



164 

into the streets [Ibid.], is marked as h^ craVwrD hv pap ^p pun ,(n"' n^r) 
defective, because it is neither fol- ,ro«ir innK 'inr ,p"n«in»3 ,nDn tdd^ 
lowed by Dagesh nor by a quiescent p^^ ♦a ^lon nooa nixna hv ^ap ^t^i 
5^^ra. Thus, also, D^?W D^^^y on]^ cr^^g? pi ;mh<i»iNrninnK 
Dnna^, ringstraked, speckled^ and .„„ p^p noDJ «f? ('f? n'»Kia) d^^ 
dott^ [Gen XXXI. 10], axe not ^^y^ ^^i^ ^r?^ hy^ ,D^win D^^a 
mark^ as d./.cat;., b^^^^^ they .q^^, q^,^^ ,,c, ^.„„ ,,^, i, 

have Daaesh, whilst D^?PJ? f A^ /i?^- ' , ' i^ 

ble, and on?? the strong [Gen. Ll. ^'"^^ ""^ '^ '^? '^ '^^^ '^ 
42], are marked as defective, because '■ "'"^^ ^*^ ™ •*^«'=» °" '\'"«" T^J^ 

they have no Dagesh, For the "="'"" ^^°^ •^^""^ V^^P '^ ^^ P'^ 
same reason jH/H^ table, Htftpo im- na tsir ir< t^ii y^'Vf xh *3 ,100 nooa 
cleanness, HSn' covering, rj3D fa- ,if? ^a] n*a ,^ib'» taa loa ,na*nn p))Da 
bemacle, Hjjn Z«m?, &c., are not ,D»^PBa pi ;'iai mn ^m nja*) ,nT9 TiDri 
marked as defective, because they /sk m eg: ,]a^n ataf? ,i»d» lanw: ipra^ 
have a quiescent SJieva or Dagesh. ^xrf) iDj^a no'^n ,DnxD ']h a«J /^^ dp 
Hence every Kibbutz at the end ^3" ^,1,^, ^^^n tdd3 on^Dni nfw'^a ^ 
of a word is marked by the Masso- ,;^ „,i, ^^^^^^ ^^^ i^c^^^ ^^,, 
ntes as defectwe, because neither ^^^ ^,^ ^^ ^^ ^^ c, ^'^^ «c,^ 

Dagesh nor a qmescent 6/iwa can / ' # 

be at the end of a word. Thus, the '""^^^ 1^ ^^ "'^^^^ '^^ "^^ ^^''^^ 
nouns 1?3J border [2 Sam. xxi. 5], , , 'V^ P'Ton o-yai 

^nr /iaWtaiton [1 Kings viii. 13 ''^^ ^P" ^^^'=^ Tn^ pr^ an o ym 

captivUy [Obad. i. 20], &c., as weYl ^^ '(^'"^ ^^-^^-^^ '"^^^ '^^ iDa D^epoDn 
as the verbs, viz.-pnNl ye shall "^P P*'^ P' /n d;j] ,(«'f7 .^»d) d*3Bp 
Iw^oZoi,^ [Deut. V. 16, vi. 2], \^'h^r} "5^ '^''^^ "?^ ^°^ '«^ ^^''^^ 
ye shall cast [Exod. xxii. 80], tp^ "^*« ^°^ '°*^3^° °" o^'^"! '"^'^^^ ^=^3 
«^« him arise [Gen. xivii. 31], D^ pn maiDoa ^aw /yo ina njwn ,nn^ 
am« [Joshua vii. 10], ^^ return 4**° ^^^^ "^^ ^^J^^ "^? ^^^ r°"i°" 
[Exod. iv. 19], &c. ; all these, and :nn naw ica ,D*Jtf?Dn onapci ,pn nan^i 
the like, are marked as defective. 
The word D>J3 oracle, however, is an 

exception, and the Massorites do not mark it as defective, because it 
never occurs plene; there is no parallel in the whole Bible of a word 
occurring so often, and always with Vav defective. 

Notice, also, that most of the Kal participles passive singular, 
both masculine and femenine, are written fully. In the masculine, as 
3^n3 it is written, D-inn sealed, ^^"13 blessed^ W!^ strong, the defectives 
being few, as DD3 laid up [Deut. xxxii. 84], K'^t ^f^^^^ [Prov. xxxi. 21], 
DJ(T despised [Prov. xxii. 14], &c. ; and feminine, as *^'^'^, cursed [Gen. 
iii. 17], H'JiD^ 'J^?^"^?} kept [2 Sam. xxiii. 6], &c. The defectives in this 
case too being very few, as "^n^^ sent [Gen. xHx. 21], f^^J^^^ ordained 
[Numb, xxviii. 6]. But in the construct state they are mostly difective, 
as rtm wedded [Gen. xx. iii.], TTO^ drunk [Is. li. 21], nanx beloved 
[Hos. iii. 1], &c., there being only a few which are written folly, as 
T\y^')S}f^ pained [Is. liv. 6]. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



161 

Moreover, all those which have hpvn f?p jnin rn» '3DD onnnDn pi 

Pattach before the guttural in this ,nab p^ ,Trih ids ^nsn |an on nt 

form are generally defective, as o^po q»kxd3i ,V»b ^infe ,t?3 ,Dyb ,115^ 

nniN way, "Wh /or???, Piji brightness, 3^^^ ai^Q.j^So '3 t»^s idJ ,d'N{Sd 

J^d'inly- a fetlf'S ^plZ^L f 1 '^^^^^ '^^ '"^ ^^I '^"^^^ 1'^^^^^' 

piene-^ y313, and V2\p helmet, are T^^^*'^^ ''"^V" '^^'" p «rnyVini 
sometimes MiZ^/, and sometimes ^ ^P" '^^^'^^ °'^" ^^^ " ^''^^ '= P 
M«7ra; and there is a division of »"ion isi ,m3« pr Ti?B loa ,V'mDn ann 
opinion about them. Likewise *';rrag«5^ ^"^ im D'siSi ;pp n^ 
ne^na copjoer, nna3 a cover, T)yiB ,D^3rat^ nis^n ,d»^-i n^pipS^n nmf?i 
curtain, A^^P incense, TV?71^ an ear, nh^ ^3D D'N^^djti ; Drr:nN{f? niTiJhn 
nyn3 a tMWiV, are defective, because n^' ■*,d*k^d 'n Vd^m loa ,rmDDn D"p pD3 
they are Milel ; nyWn a worm, is yt^hnn 1"^ pi * d*k^d '* >Oip •'p^te '• 
an exception, for it is always written ^s^npon h^n ph non )*ki ,Trr jw^a 
fully, except in two instances, in ^rn ,Dif?nn oVin Sk w ,DmR nnte pKnoa 
which it occurs defective.^ The ^^^^ „^^i^^ ^^ i,^ ^, ^^, ^^3 , ^^ 
Cholems, too, of the participle jKV??, 
are generally without Vav, whether 

in the singular masculine, as IpB rememheting, IVll keeping, ^^Jor- 
giving [Exod. xxxiv. 7] ; or plural masculine, as D^?3ni D^nls^l bWi<, 
thmj are eating, and drinking, and dancing [1 Sam. xxx. 16] ; or plural 
feminine, as nipK^ oppressors, nivvh crushers, nVlDW declarers [Amos 
iv. 1].® It ig Uie plenes of all these which are enumerated in the 
Massorah, as ??1&^ occurs four times plene,^ }n\* ten times plene,^ fc<yp 
ten times plene.^ The same is the case with the twenty-four instances 
oipUne in the singular, which have no parallel in the whole Bible ; as 
•^niB [Gen. xli. 8], D!?Jn [Deut. xiii. 8], into [Judges xvi. 21], &c., upon 
each one of which there is a Massoretic remark.*^ The word 3Kf*V is 

*i The three instances in which ny^ v&plaut arfe, Gen. xix. 22, 80 (twice). 

*2 The two exceptions in which ny^n is defective are, Exod. xxvi. 1 ; Deut. xxviii. 89. 

^ The whole of this passage is vitiated in the ed. Basel, 1589. 

M The four passages in which b^lM occnrs plene are, Qen. xxxix. 6 ; Isa. xxix. 8 ; 
Nohnm iii. 12; Ps. xli. 10. They are cnnmerated in the Massorah marginalis on 
Gen. xxxix. 6. 

^ This is one of the passages which shows how difficult it is to understand the 
Massoretic langn^e, and how easily one may mistake the meaning of Lerita. In 
reading the ahove remark, one might be led to suppose that Uiere are only ten instances 
in the Bible in which ]7T1* is plene^ whereas there are Ao less than tweniy-uiree. Levita's 
remark, however, is explained by the Massoretic annotation on 1 Sam. xxvi. 12, where 
it is stated that m^ is plene in ten places, viz., 1 Sam. xxvi. 12 : Isa. xxix. 11 : Jerem. 
xxix. 2*: Ps. i. 6 ; xxxvii. 18 ; Ixxiv. 9 ; xc. 11 : Ruth iii. 11 : Esther iv. 14 : Nehem. 
X. 29 ; adding 13T 'fwQ') TtfTXp n"! "«nn tai, ^'throughout the tioelve minor Prophtts, 
Chronicles^ Kcclesiastes^ and Proverbs, it is likewise plene;" which is omitted 
by Levita. 

^ The ten instances in which vty^ is plene are. Judges xv. 10 : Isa. vi. 4 ; xl. 8 ; 
xlv. 3 ; Ixiv. 6 ; Amos v. 8 ; Habak. ii. 2 ; Ps. xlii. 8 ; 1 Chron. ix. 19 ; 2 Chron. xxxi. 14. 
They are given in the Massorah finalis under the letter Kaph, p. 56 a, cols. 8 and 4. 

*7 The twenty-four, or rather twenty-five, words written plene, which have no 
paraUel, are as foUows : — 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



150 



occurs^ seyenteen times plene;'*^* "^n^pa jivSa d»«Sd i"» ^rrt« ",D»Kte 

on ^nw thee, fern., << sixteen times d*nSo d'S oniN ",d*nSd t"3 »rrt» 

plens;^'^'' on ^H^K m^, "twenty- idd Saa pi ",^ID »^D3 p»Di ,Kmiio 

seven times p^^;'*" on Dni«<A«», pn ,D«r<f?Dn orrtw n^o *d^ tod3 ibdi 

"thirty-nine times p^^'' in the cwir ^d^ ^ononn )♦»: f?KpTrr3i n>DTa 

Pentateuch, and the sign of it is on^ niD»n Saw » Di«f?D a"' nn^w opon j 

l\for it is fuU [= plene] of dew ^ ^^ ' t^^^ 




the Bible, except Jeremiah and "^'"^ f^ """ ^^^ '"^"'^ '^^"^ "'J^f! 
Ezekiel, where they have counted ' "' 'P"^^ °'*^'° ''^J^ I**^ *^J^^^^ '•^'^ 
the defectives, because they are the 

fewer; and they likewise tell us that nnh« her, occurs twelve times.*' But 
the nouns, with the tone on the penultima, are mostly defective ; as KHh 
the new moon, Bn{) holiness, ^nk tabernacle, H^ area, &c., &c. On BHp 
holiness [Dan. xi. 81], the Massorites remark, *Uh^e ut no parallel 
case of plene." The meaning of the expression n^S, I shall explain in 
the Third Part, denominated The Broken Tables. The word ISVB' 
thicket [2 Sam. xviii. 9] is also plene ; and besides these, there are 
almost no pUnes in this form of the noun. 

Jerem. xyiii. 10 ; xxxvii. 15 ; Ezek. xvii. 17 ; xliii. 20 ; Hos. x. 6 ; Mai. i. 12, 13 ; ill. 22; 
Ps. xviii. 1 ; Iri. 1 ; Ixvii. 8 ; ci. 5. They are oonfasedly enamerated in the Massorah 
finalis, p. 18 &, col. 2, with the remark, that thronghont the hooks of Joshna and Judges 
it is likewise |>^n«, with the exception of two passages. 

u The seventeein instances in which *TmM masculine, occnrs jlene are, Gen. xvii. 2 ; 
XX. 6 ; xl. 10 ; xU. 89 ; Exod. ix. 10 ; xxt. 0, 22 ; xxxii. 10 ; Dent. ix. 14 ; 2 Sam. xxiv. 
24 ; Ezek. ii. 8, 4 ; iii. 27 ; xxix. 5 ; xxxriii. 4, 17 ; Ps. xxv. 5. They are enamerated in 
the Massorah finidis, p. 13 6, col. 3. 

^7 The serenteen instances in which "pTM feminine occors pUne, are Gen. xxxix. 9 ; 
Numb. T. 21 ; Jadg. xiv. 15 ; Jerem. ii. &5 ; xi. 17 ; xxx. 14 ; Ezek. xri. 4, 89, 40, 57, 
59, 60 ; xxii. 14, 15 ; xxiii. 25, 29. They are enamerated in the Massorah finalis, 
p. 18 h, cols. 8 and 4. 

16 The twenty-seren passages in which *niM is pUne^ are Dent, xxxii. 51 ; Jadg. x. 18 ; 
Isa. xxxvii. 6 ; Uv. 15 ; Jvii. 11 (twice) ; Iviii. 2 ; Jerem. ir. 22 ; v. 22; ix^ 5, 28 ; xiii. 5, 
25 ; xri. 11 ; xx. 11 ; xxv. 6 ; xxxi. 84 ; xxxvii. 18; Ezek. vi. 9 ; xxiii. 85 (twice) ; xl. 3 ; 
Ps. xxxi. 6 ; Esth. v. 12 ; Lament, iii. 2 ; Nehem. vi. 14. They are given in the Massorah 
finalis, p. 18 &, col. 8, with the remark that "^niM is also plene throaghoat the hooks of 
Joshaa and Jadges, except in two instances. 

"^ The thirty-nine passages in which DMIM is plene in the Pentateuch are as follows : 
Gen. xli. 8; xlix, 28, 29; 1. 21: Exod. xiv. 9; xxix. 8: Levit. x. 2; xiv. 51; xv. 10, 
29 ; xvii. 5 ; xxii. 16 ; xxiii. 48 ; xxiv. 6 ; xxv. 55 : Namb. iv. 12, 19, 28, 49 ; v. 4 ; 
vi. 20; vii. 8, 5, 6; xxv. 4, 17: Dent. iii. 6, 28; ix. 28; x. 15 ; xii. 29; xviii. 12, 18; 
xxvi. 16 ; xxvii. 26 ; xxxi. 7, 10. They are most confusedly enamerated in the Massorah 
finalis, p. 18 6, col. 4, to page 14 a, col. 1. The mnemonical sign VlQ m^3 M>niD, for 
my head is filled with dew, from Song of Songs v. 2, is exceedingly ingenious and 
b^utiful. ihe force of it will he understood, when it is remembered that the word tDMl 
Tiead, is figuratively used for the Lawy or the Pentateuch^ and is so rendered by the 
Chaldee Paraphrasts on Song of Songs v. 11 ; that the word vfrQZ, full, is exactly the 
expression tat plene ; and that the numerical value of the word ^Q, dew, is 89. 

so The twelve passages in which rmiH occurs 'j^lene are. Numb. xxii. 88 ; xxx. 9 : 
1 Sam. xiv. 27 : 2 Sam. xiii. 18 : Isa. xxvii. 11 ; xxviii. 4, ; xxxvii. 26 ; Jerem. xxxii. 31 ; 
xxxiiL 2: Hosea iv. 19: Malachi. i. 18: Ps. xxvii. 4. They are enumerated in the 
Massorah mar^iinalis on Numb. xxii. 83, with the remark that Tiipim D^DDIV? nvim ^^ 
3 'on "131, *' it fsaUo plene throughout the hooks of Jothua, Judges, and Ezekiel, with the 
exception of three passage* . ' ' 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



149 

Section EEI. — ^There is no tri- f?» or nn Hwn hS :^t^">\S^n Tiain 
literal noun to be found, the first njnjnrwa ,^'naBr Sp mpa nvnit^ rV» 
syllable of which has Choletn with ♦a ^pi^o opoa p ,V'*i np oSin n:iwHin 
the wafer lectionis Vav, except when qvmisv nVinn ,hyhD Djma on^ Dnw 
the accent is on the ultima, since, in ;:oi3 ,df^ ids o^'tem pm f?p V'n -»n ^ 
those which have the tone on the 1,^, ^^ p, ;«JW ^n ^-ts^h ,7B^h ^Vrtj 
penultima, the Cholem in the first '/ ^ .^.^ ,^.^ ,]!^ 

Suable i; generaUy without the =" onDm. d^«^o pn ,|^^ ,.n^r ,n> 
mater hcM Vav. Phnies, for o^ion 'n "ni ^D^non n"> d^j ma n^pD 
example, are oSto etemU^i, njb 'J 3>t ",w»»^a onon 'i onh "^wr^f^a 
*tar, bnia lot, |Di« a ir7i.k, "^V^X V^ ^"» 1''^^^ "^^J^^ "'^^^*^^ ^'-f 
a ««ore, ySin a trorm, l?^iK^ a /%. • '^ "^^^^^ ^^'» "^"^'^^ «^^*^^ 

Also, those with Tzere; ex, gr., noDina D^KanT'r >''D 'm mo^a pi 
^?1* ju^i7<'e, n;;H« an eiiemij, nitt a ,3«rtn ,ni\n loa ,D»«f«D pn ,i"'n m d"d 
ravm, P^iB' a vine. These are D'TDnm ,]n'Dm ,t^'o ,t5^q ,>ni!D ,«^ 
generally plene' the defectives are ,Dn^«,*ni« ,*jn^M ,ViHm ^3k ,nKD DiDpo nn 
but few, as Dj'y? for ever, which p»-»n pn pnSo opoa onw ^d"pk ,nni« 
occurs 18 times rf€/(gcfii-e; 11 ^yiot^i jst!?i cj'Ntfran |»3d: la^Df? ,a«m ':dd 
times rfp/ecn'i'^ in this form ;^ Dnh ^,,, ;^ i6q,^l,q ^..^ ^^^ ^^^^ pnonn > 
«eai, 7 times defective in this form ; " 

n^VC enetny, three times defective in this form." I shall acquaint thee 
with the meaning of NDK^^n, in this form, in Part ii.. Section ix. 

Moreover, nouns derived from irregular verbs, the first radical of 
which is Jod, and which have an additional Mem or Tav, are gene- 
rally plene; as HTIJn laic, 3Knn an inhabitant, KViO a goiiuj out, N'TIO 
fear, ^JTID appointment, HDto a miracle, &c., &c. The defectives are 
exceedingly few. But the pronouns ^n\H him, ^n^fi< f7ir<?, ^riifc< we, Drii« 
(/lew, nniK her, though thoy have the tone on the ultima, are generally 
defective. Hence, because these are the majority, therefore the plenes 
are enumerated, and not the defectives. Thus, on )niK hirn, it is 
remarked, ** it occurs twenty-four times plene ;''^ on IHW thee, " it 

11 The eighteen instances in which dVo?^ occurs defective are as follows : — Gen. iii. 22 ; 
▼i. 3 ; Exod, iii. 15 ; xv. 18 ; xxi. 6 ; xxxi. 17 ; xxxii. 13 ; Levit. xxv. 46 ; Dent. v. 26 ; 
xxxii. 40 ; 1 Kings i. 31 ; ii. 33 ; ix. 6 ; x. 9 ; Ps. xlv. 18; Ixxy. 10 ; xcii. 9. Though 
the word in question is marked in each of these passages as defective^ we could not find 
the entire list anywhere enumerated in the Massorah. On Exod. iii. 15, and Ps. xlr. 18, 
the Massorah marginalis remarks that a list of the eighteen instances is given in the 
Massorah on Ps. Ixxy. (rt^ ]D*D D'^mi "^003 n"» vMi). On Ps. Ixxv., again the Massorah 
marginalis remarks that the eighteen instances are enumerated in the Massorah finalis, 
under the letter Ajin Vav (Y'y "po?! Mmn "DOn "^^ "On n"» uW)) \ and on examining the 
Massorah finalis, to which we are referred again, we find that it simply states It^ idW) 
n'y p'D D'^ra IDQa "^aOTn om, " The word drsb occurs eighteen times defective, and 
the passages are given in the Massorah marginalis on Ps. Ixxy." Comp. p. 49, col. 2, 

^ The Massorah marginalis on Levit. xvi 8 gives the four instances in which Vrts is 
defective, as follows : — Levit. xvi. 8 ; Numh. xxxvi. 3 ; Jadg. i. 3 ; Dan. xii. 18 ; including, 
as it will be seen, the plural rnVna. 

M The seven instances in which omn is defective are as follows : — Gen. xxxviii. 18, 26 ; 
Exod. xxviii. 11, 36; xxxix. 14; 1 Kings xn. 8 (twice). They are enumerated in the 
Massorah marginalis on Exod. xxviii. 11. 

" The three passages in which anw occurs defective are, 1 Sam. xviii. 29; Jerem. 
" The " •• ^^ 



vi. 2tt ; XV. 11. They are given in the Massorah marginalis on 1 Sam. xviii. 29 

1* The twenty-four iusttmces in which \nw occurs plene are as follows : — Josn. xxiv. 
4, 11, 22 ; 1 Sam. xii. 24 ; 2 Kings i. 15 (twice) ; iii. 11, 12, 2fl ; vui. 8 ; ix. 27 ; x. 16 ; 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



148 

defective;'' dW peace of, eight times »; d'tdh 'z i*oi ^nan *n dV«6 t^d'tdh *i •>aa 

rf^<?cfii?^;8 P^t ''«w^»^«w(wo/', three |Ht pS ,D»TDn Df?ip^ D*Kan o^opo »n* 

times defective,^ There are, again, ,ni ,Tho ,^5 ids pon ijrvhy iioof? ^n* ' 

a few words which are always de- -, n"*K 'n nma ^«^3'w ^1 fc^*? nf?D f?p^ . 

fectice, for which reason the Mas- 1 l Mi.kwi.LM-k 

Bontes Old not consider it necessary t^ „ 

to mark them as defective, as vk '^^""^ ^'" ' ' [1!^'" '^ ? °L°'''"'' 

*m.a/i, T«9 r.rj^, nb ^ok^^. About °^=^'^^ .'1'^^ nj^m ,r^^-, ,nbJi ,Da 

t6 not, and ^3 aM, I shall speak »« ^0^ .Q*-ion jan o n^n^ can nmm 

in Section viii., if God permit. f^'^^ P^ f^^'^x P"^ P*^* '°*^ 

As to the plenes, about which I pa 'a |na r*r mapa nn ,nSphn ,rtnS^ 

treated above, and their like, when ; 'n mana ,iDipD3 -wax irna ,]*Dixn 

they occur with n feminine, they man p»^ i"»n *3B^ «an o^in f?a pi 

too generally continue ^^<»/i^, as ,nf?Dn cjioa K'n» -napa ,Hf?D nrnf? i:n 

**'^^'^? ,^'*<?«^ •"•y"? n^ar, njJ^nT far, nimr:V^ rtn^b ,"^3mi rfi^ rrtw loa 

&c. ; but the reverse is the case ^Q.j^jiaa nTan pJ^'^a p laiV^**^ 

with plurals, both masculine and i^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ,^3 ^^^i^^^^^^ 

femmme, because they are generaUy ^^^^^ ^^^ ^;^^^^ i^^^ ^,^,^^^ 

defective as D^^^J ^^^^^^f ^ "^«- V'^i >^a Knn^ man ]i»f? ^ai ,ni^Ki jn^f^p 
D^KHP theholy, mas., D^^^i thestronq, ^^ „„,^ . . „^ ' ,^^ ' ,,u' ^, 
mas., Dvl? the, near, mas., "v'^* .. . l* /. n 

fA./;r, mas., rt^hl tl^e qreat, fem. ^^^^^ '^^^ "^^^^^ *^"'"^ '^^ "^^) 
rtrip the near, fern., rtpm fA^>r, ^^^^''^^ \°^P°^ nann D^^ipr^, ,Tn« n^aa 
fem. This is because there are ^'^ '^ ^"^ ^^^'^^ "^«^^=" "^^^ "i^X^^ ''^ 
two quiescents following each other • ^yr»n nia-m Kinw 

in these words, as I shall explain 

in its proper place, in Section viii. Thus, also, every Choleni which 
stands before n in the feminine plural is according to rule plefie, 
because it ends the word; as ^^V^ni rtp?n nhsn, tJie lean and ill fa- 
voured kine [Gen. xli., 20] ; r\\tii6^ ninao^^ ^n^n^, to jyerfumers, but- 
chers, and to bakers [1 Sam. viii. 18]. The same rule obtains in all 
the plurals and participles, both active and passive ; as ri^*1i:)^S, and 
n^T'lpB, as well as in the participles of all the conjugations, examples of 
which need not be adduced. All feminine plurals, however, which 
have no Vav, the Massorites marked as defective. Thus, for instance, 
rwna virgins, [Esther ii. 2] ; and the participles nbpin, they are 
coming dotc7i [Exod. ii. 6]; and nSB^V, they are sitting [1 Kings iii. 17]. 
About the participles passive, I shall speak in its proper place, in 
Section vii., and I shall also discuss all this in the Section on the two 
quiescents, which is Section viii. 

7 The three instances in which nils is df/ective are, Gen. x. 8, 9 ; Dent. x. 17. They 
are giren in the Massorah marginalia on Gen. z. 8. 

B The Basel edition states that there are three instances in which D^TO is defective ; 
hnt this is evidently a mistake, for there are eight, as follows : — Gen. xxxyii. 4 ; 1 Sam. 
xvi. 4 ; 1 Kings ii. 6, 6 ; v. £6 ; Jerem. xt. 5 ; Ezek. xiii. 16 (twice). They are enn- 
merated in the Massorah marginalis on G«n. xxxyii. 4. The Snlzbach edition omits 
Oiro altogether, and snbstitntes for it pM. 

8 The three passages in which pn3T is defective are, Exod. xxriii. 12 (twice), 29. 

w The Snlzbach edition erroneously inserts ]PID about tkem^ after naiM / shall speak. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



147 

as I fihall explain in the following ^i ,m *nK» -n^nn nKatt iwo ,^^3n p 

section. Upon these plenes there on o ,Kte nioD^ "]n» )♦« D*Jtf?!Dn iSn 

was no necessity to remark that : ^^^ *rrwa ivh^ ,p3inon 

they are plene because they are the ^D»«te ]an mornr ina '3 JHI .^ 

most frequent, as I have stated in nfea p*o -|f? Km ,DnDn pn D>f?pDn p 

the precedmg Section ,^, ..^^v,^ ,^ .^ ,,i, ^^^^ ^^1^ 

S^ Know that just as nouns are ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ "^ 

generally P^tf,soverbs are generally l ' / • • p r *id 

L/.c^i:f. Thus, for exa4)le, the ''^P^^ *^=« '^'^f °'-^«' ^^^^^^^n ^^^'^ 

word npB, numfcer, whereon the .^^^^^ on'3» ,0 nw^ mpe 'ai^v ,j^i«n 

Massorites remark " it occurs four "^P^' '"'P^ Dn^npn pi ;nDr onr •b^ 

times— twice plene and twice rfe- "»" P*^ idd^ nf?! ,n»iDn ann f?)? /ia7 

fective,*' viz. : " Number all the 1"'^^ '« D»^j?Da if?*D«i ^j^anon jnw ^ah 

first-bom" [Numb. iii. 40], and ,Ka* ,«:i« ,a»n ,aiiP' im ^vnup i"»inw 

** Number the children of Levi" D*3Di D»i*^Dm ,D»Ton ann ^ ,K33 ,«an 

[ibid. iii. 15], both of which are imiDDn d"j? 

dej^ctive because they are verbs ; t,,„ „,,.,^„ ^„„^ „,^^^ i^^^ 

Shoa' [£k!-Sr23],^^^^^ I- ^°^™? '^^^n ,^-? P^- ,0^^^ 1^«. 
because they are proper names. ,^^" i« w*na nw niDDin pf. «.^» niDrn 
Thus, also, the future tense,as "IpDK, l^"?^l t^ ^1^1* '1^'. ^^^^ /"^'^^P ^^a 
J s/ioZZ wM/ni^, and ^i^BJ, /i« sWZ rl^ .l^^'P ^^a n^rnr i"'irwa pi ; aa^ 
. number, &c., which is generally ,«^o P^^p hod: nh ]rvti^']^ nhvt b ,^^^9 
defective^ the Massorites have not ica ^Dnorm 1)233 ^at< ,D»anDn on ^a 
noted as defective, because it is fi^onon 'i «5Ti? na^Doa pi 'p^Ton 3"* rip 
mostly so. And even verbs ru 

which the second letter is quiescent, because the middle-stem letter is 
Vavy as, for instance, S^J he shall return, S^FI thou slmlt return, KhK 
I shall come, K3J he shall come, K^IJ thou shall come, K33 we shall come, 
since these are generally defective, the Massorites counted the plenes. 

Take, for example, nouns, the last vowel of which is Cholem, as 
7^1| great, 1^33 honour, K'^liJ holy, D W peace, P^rn /ar, 3^TJ ««</^, 
PBV ^«or/A, 0^*^^ south, "l^aJ «^ra7i^, ^^NK^ /w/f^*, "iton an a««, D^nn d^<?p, 
as well as nouns which have an additional syllable, eiiiier at the 
beginning or end, as "l^^J? a song, ^^^K^^? cluster, fnST remembrance, 
pyjK^ madness, P'TJ? blindness, finSJP^ terror, &c., and those in which 
the Vav is the radical, as P^D ^ i^Zar^?, p3^ a dwelling, JvD «« jnw ; 
on all the above^ and the like, the Massorites did not remark plene, 
because they are* generally so written, but they counted the defectives, 
as B^iJ, hohj, occurs thirteen times defective;* also when it is in the con- 
struct, as K'Sp occurs three times defective;^ "^31 strong of, three times 

• The thirteen ingtances in which Wfp, holy, occurs as defective are as foUows : — 
Exod. xxix. 81 ; Leyit. vi. 9, 19, 20 ; xxi. 7, 8 ; xxiv. 9 ; Numh. yi. 5, 8 ; Dent. xxvi. 19 ; 
£zek. xlii. 18 ; Nehem. viii. 9, 11. They are enumerated in the Massorah marginaUs 
on Exod. xxix. 31. 

* The three instances in which the construct tZTIlp is without Vav are, Ps. xIti. 5 ; 
Ixv. 5 ; Isa. xlix. 7. They are mentioned in the Massorah marginaUs on Ps. Ixv. 5. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



146 

• Know that most of the words '"wn Kipoar O'D^im an o jn .^ 
with ClioUm in the Scriptures want '^a Kinip Df?in Sa ^p k^ -|k n»Dn i"«i 
the mater Uctionis Vav, Still, the «inr D^m ^a ^p vih d: ,TDn lana V'n 
Massorites have not marked as de- ^af? p^ne^ n^t^n pn ,Mte una v^in dj; 
/ec/irtf every word with Cholem n^an -WKa ,ann tj? i"nn dj^ D^inn pa 
which has not the Vav ; nor have .^i,^ ^^03 m i"n '^a iina>»a ,a"nK 
they marked as />^i. every word i, c,,^ pa naf, pm^ mfen )ai ,non 
with Cholem which has the 7rta<^ i/ ii l 

UctumU Vav: but they have only "«" '^ '^" '^ ^"="^= -'l '^ ^'^ 
noted those words as defective which , t i IL '" 

generally have CAoitfm with the Vav, T^™ d^«^"«' P'o "?=> ^^^"^ .» 
but which, in a few instances, occur r^onnira'j ,|nDnn nn pain on pnom ?p 
without Fau ; as I shall explain ,d*«^o" "« P^io on ,D>Kf?Dn f?p ]>3nD 
hereafter. The same is the case ^V^^ 1^ »'i ,nT im» niana nwaK nwa 
with the words which generally nan -napa nmpjno mi pa nan^n «^w 
have Cholem without Fav; when nanwM'nn oy pnirn pn ,Df?ip^ «te w 
these occur with Vav the Massorites : ^j^^mn tiaia TKan nwKa ,D*nDr f lap^ 
have marked them plene.^ ^^^ nj^vn «^» p oa JHI .^ 

e- The general rule is, that in ^^, ^i, p^ ^^j^^ ^^^^ ^„ ^^^^^^ ^t^^„ 
the case of all the words which ,^^ c^^ ^ ^^^^ ^„ 3,^, , 

occur more as pleru^ ihmdefecHve, ^^ ^^^ ^ ^,, ^ ,^^^^;; 

the Massontes enumerated the de- l l 

/.cfa-.; and whenever the defectives ^f^ '**" ""« "^^ ^J' ^"^ V^ ^■'«^" 
are more frequent than the pieties, «^° T^^ T^i ^^^itanrn V'n op nom onoK 
they enumerated the i>/^i/», as I "««^= '^'^'^ "1"^^^= V *'«*an* "^ .«^i 1 
shall explain in the following ion w ,k^dt Kf?D pap ia n^an* oai /n ' 
Section. Know, moreover, that the : k^ ion i« ,TDn nhn ]'ap pi pom 
vowel-point is never altered because f?aa dv -]^ n^ir «^ : '•DK^H lUin 
of its being defective or j9?entf, except ia'»r D^in nannKn inpian n»n^» K^pDn 
in the case of the Shurek with D^itatr n*Bj?DD ^in ,i"nn dj? k^d aina 
Fai% which is changed into Kihutz 
of the lips, as I shall explain in Section iv. 

1^ Know, also, that the meaning of the word is never changed be- 
cause of defective and plene. Hence it is that there is never Keri and 
Keihiv with respect to defective and plene, as I have already stated in 
the Introduction. Know, likewise, that there is a difference between 
the simple word defective, marked on a certain word, and the Massorites 
saying, and defective, with the Vav conjunctive, as well as between the 
simple pletie and and plene. This I shall explain in Part ii.. Sect. viii. 
I shall there also explain the import of the phrases, ' entirely plene,' 
^entirely defective,' as well as die meaning of ^jyartly plene and 
partly defective,' and ^partly defective and partly plene.' 

Section IE. — There is no noun to be found in the whole Bible, with 
Cholein as the last vowel, which is not written plejie, with the mater 
Uctionis Vav, except in a few instances which deviate from this rule, 

^ The whole of this sentence is transposed in the Solzbach edition. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



145 



Section IX. treats on words 
which have a quiescent Alephy either 
expressed or not, and which are 
called *with audible Alephs,* or 
* withotU audible Alephs,' 

Section X. treats on words, the 
final He of which is either plene or 
defective^ and are called Maphkin 
He, consisting of four kinds. 

END OF THE CONTENTS OF THE 
FIRST PART. 



v^v mten niK'aa W5^nn ^llin 
,nain3 na^nra w rains nru p)*?« jna 

Kianw m^DH nw^aa n^K'yn "flnn 
nS wnpi ,nte i« Ton p)id3 H^rm pa 






Section I. — ^I, Elias Levita, the ^iSn in^^Nt ^aaNt ipCJ'hnn "flnn 

author, have already explained, in jn «mv p^Ba ♦mNca naa nanon 

my Poetical Dissertation y^ the law ^rnam i»Dn nvm« orw ,K"in^ nvmn 

of the letters K"in», which prolong p, -,55,33, nf^on p^j^^^ n^^t, o^^^ p ,3 

the syllables, and are quiescent; ,nna n»« ;nf?injn mpmn »Dn *?p nniD 

for their nature is to be quiescent ,,^^ „^ ^^^^ ,^^^ ^^,i^^ ^^ 

in the nnddle and end of the word, ^^^^J ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^ 

as well as to indicate the five long , ^^^^^^ •^^^ ' „„»., wrxht 

vowels, respecting which I have "^?" ^^f '*=»"' ^P" ™ """^ '^^'^ 

given the niemo^cal sign, - Good ^^^ "^°" n^""'^ '"™ ^"^« '^•^^ "^ 

EHjahu.''^ Now, there ought pro- '"™ "t'"" '"»*"^ P"^*"" "^^ '"™ "^"^ ^»^ 

perly to be one of the letters ^VJIK ^^ ™"^ '"™ ^"'^ pnwni oSim thn^i 

after every long vowel. Thus, after *^pa ^^«^p» Dm ^anaoa wa* t^f? ann 

Kametz in the middle of the word )^y anaaea wa* T»Kai ^d'tdh maon 



D*«f?Dm nnann am npj^n o jni .^ 
Y'rm V'nn on maen 'Spa lana Dn»^» 
nh)T\n nnt^ V'»in ,na*nn pjttwa D*nan 
^pi ,nxm pTm nrw n"vm ,pmwpn 
,H"nm »i"«n Sp xn w k^d nna opon 



there ought to be a quiescent Alephy 

and at ttie end of the word Aleph 

or ifg quiescent; after Chirek and 

r0<?r^ there ought to be a quiescent 

Jod ; and after Choi em and Shurek 

a quiescent Vav> But they do not 

generally occur so in the Scripture, . 

and it is these which the Massorites ^5^ ^"'^" ^•^"^ ^'^^ '^""** "•«*=»* '^'^ 

call defective, and whenever they do • '^^•^^ ^'^"^^ °" '^^ ^^^"'^ 

occur they are denominated plene, 

^^f Know that the import of most of the defectives and plenes, 
which the Massorites have marked as such, is about the quiescent Vav 
and Jod in the middle of the word, Vav after Cholem and Shwek, and 
the Jod after Chirek and Tzere; and that in only few cases did they 
remark plene and drfi'ctive upon ^/e/>^ and //<?, as I shall explain 
hereafter. I shall begin with the absence of the Vav at the Cholem, 
for this occurs most frequently, and say — 

3 For a description of this grammatical ^ork, see above, p. 18, &c. 

8 It wiU be seen that in this mnemonical sign, aiTD Vpm TV rw, good Elijakn, are 
contained all the five vowels, (viz., a, e, i, o, n,) l^th in the original Hebrew and in its 
English equivalent. The discnssion of this subject, to which Levita refers, is to be 
found on p. 86 of the Poetical Dissertation, ed. Prague, 1793. 

U 



Digitized by 



Google 



144 



Section I. treats on defective and non np'pjy niK»aa pK'jsiin imn 
plene m so far as they relate to the nh^m nnn rrran I'N !?« pn now «!? «tei 

and 5W/., and Jorf after Chirek ^,n, .^.^ ,,^,,, ,,^^ ^^^^'^ 

Section H. treats on the pas- "'°''' '''^^^^ °^'"" """^ '"^" J"=^ 

sages wherein the Vav is absent Un^raw arnnnm 

after the CAoim in verbs and ^^ ^'^^""^ ""•*'=*=* '^^^^ "'^^^^ 

nouns, and the difference between '°^**'^^^ °^^"" i™* i"*i o»«^d on pn^o 

them. ^31 ,V'») anon on h^vhti onr oniNi 

Section HI. treats on nouns ^^"^ ^3^ °" ^p" T^^^ oiraav D^o^mn 

which are Milra and have a Vav ' ^loa i"*i D'Kf?e mm jwf? am nnon 

plene after the Cholem on the top, ,npn»n V'ln mK»aa ^y^mn imn 

and those which are MUra and : dtid» ^ap n^nnn nai man «»n w 

have not the Fflfi?; as well as of all ^-w na>n b nw^aa ^fiJ^DHH imn 

the Cholem of the participle Kal, ^.n Yv np p^n h"i ^n: pTn na 

which are generally defective, and na n^rr nam YV n^f^e ann hi 

most of the plurals feminine which ^ t^^l;l ."t! L , '^ 

have a Vav at the end. * ' ' ™" ^^^^ ^ ^*" ^^^ 

Section IV. treats on the absent ""^" ^"^*"/^^^?f ^^'"^ ^^:i^n 

Far of the Shurek, and on the ™^" "™ ^"^' I^^^^O'*^ '^i^mnK n«an 

Z'JAute being substituted in its , , : inDan na^af? yap nnn 

place. D»K^Dn m^en nw^aa ^y^nB'n imn 

Section V. treats on all the words "^^° ^^''""^ ''^** "3^^^ ^ °'""p ononni 
which have a long Chirek, L e,, :nnpT 

Chiruk with a Jorf, having mostly ^P "ioo3 i»» niit^aa ^i^DB^n imn 

t/od ; and on those words which d*k^ jnxp cna 'j w 'a na »»«r nf?D 

have Choleniy being mostly defec- i^a ik o't^^o 7f?ia it^ i onon inxpi 
tive of Frti; ' • 



D^on 



Section VI. treats on the qui- 
escent Jorf aft«r the Tzere and Segol, as weU as on the quiescent 
Jod after the Kametz of the third person. 

Section VH. treats on the plene and defective of monosyllabic 
words, being small words. 

Section Vm. treats on the Massoretic marks, or words, which 
nave two or three quiescents, some being plene and some defective,^ 
or all being plene or all defective. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



148 

However, I have noticed that he mSon pn »tdd w'kw *n»NT n^PlI 
only explains the words which occnr vfn ,n»DpD 'n w 'i w 'i w 'a mnwDan 
two, three, four, or five times, np 'a ik '♦ nwifon jnwa rwp noi ,nnr 
hut not more. Now what is to be ctki p^typ ^^^jj ^^y^ .^,,, Q^j^p^ f,^ 
done with those which occur from -^j^ |i,3 u^ q^q ^,^,4 ^^jjn ^^k R'^ap 
ten, twenty, to a hundred times, ^^l^ t^^ t^ ^^oDanw'nan 
&c. ? As for mstance, ^j>3, tw- 

m« ^yes q/, which occurs 189 tmies , l 

mi'kei which occurs 161 times! '™^^[ •'*^* "^'^^^ '"If^P"" ^^^^^ 
How is it possible to assign a rea- "'^^^^ ^^ 7«=»^^^ '"'^^"^ ^^^ ^^''^^^ 
son for all these ? But the words ''^^^ ^^^ '^ ^^ ^'^^T^^ nnsip ,ni3Ti 
of the Law are like a hammer, which • P"!*^ ^"" ,|DDB^di pni 

breaks the rock and divides it into 

many pieces, since the Law may be interpreted in seventy different 
ways. Herewith the Introductions are completed, by the help of 
Him who creates souls, and in whose name I shall commence the 
Treatise itself, and explain each one of the ten sections on plene and 
defective, their laws and regulations ; and the contento thereof are 
as follows: — 

was bom in Germany, circa a.d. 1280, and died a.d. 1840. The Oommentaxy to wliioh 
liBTita refers is an exposition of the Pentateuch, and interprets the saored text according 
- to the hermaneatical roles called MnQO«:i, redncing ereiy letter of a word to its nnmexiou 
▼alne, and explaining it b^ another word of the same qoantity. The great valne of this 
GommentaiT consists in its explanations of the Massoretic notes. &e portion which 
treats on ue Massorah has been detached from the general Commentary, and pnb- 
lished separately in most of the Babbinic Bibles. Comp. Eitto's Cyclop<ediay $. v. 
Jacob b. Ashbri. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



U2 

it not. Upon all this I have treated ifioa D»nw»an n^ h^\ ,p nrn innani 
in my great work, entitled The : oHin oroi ^njn manan 

Book of Eemembraneey where yon r* vAv mfe nxp w^anr d»iow B^I 
^^^ see it. ^ ^ ♦•la q^k iioi oin^an p ,ntrwn jna 

Some, however, maintam that q,^,^, ,d*o»di D^rnno ino tidSS 
the MasBorah does not notice words „„ ^, u.^^.., ,, ^i^^^ ^^^^ 

which are hable to be mistaken, ^,1,^,35^ .^ ^^^ ,^ t^^^i^ .3, ^^^^ 
but that it cites and counts them i* l l 

in order to deduce therefrom some ' ^ ' ,Jf/ J^^^^ * ^^ 

homiletical,exegetical,or legal point. "^^'T """"^ ^'' '"/^^^'^^P^^.^^^^ 
Thus, for instance, when tiie Mas- "l^*f^ '''^^'^ "^« "^^""''^ "^^ 1^^^^ '"^^^ 
sorites remark on n^B^ni, in the "' ^ "i^*^" P^ '°^'^ rmoon ♦^a nna 
banning, m 'i, " tt occur* ^Ar^f O'^^on f?p3 aipp* 'nS mw 10m ,nBo 
ttm«« a^ t^ beginning of the verses' ^^ ' ^"t 

^ it is because there is a Midrash ; 

so they also remark on Sll^i, and he divided^ 'i, ** it occurs three times "^ 
in harmony with the three separations which are recited at the 
termination of the Sabbath, viz., between light and darkness, &c. ; 
on tjBiy*, shall fly, 'n, "i« occurs twice" ;^^ and in a host of other 
passages. From all l^ese words some Midrash is to be deduced, 
and it is for this reason that the Massoiites have noted down their 
number. To this effect a book has been written, which is ascribed to 
B. Jacob Baal Ha-Turim, of blessed memoryJ" 

^^ The three instanoes in which iTtMrQ begins a yene are, Gen. i. 1 ; Jerem. xxrii. 1|; 
xxviiiv-l. Now the Talmud relates the following gtory :— DbWT rw Tinnb rt'2:pn XOpl 
vT\rh dVwi dm vainV rVapTT xopi vtn mwra Ttna bonoaiD yn Wifxrr V*awi irm imnb 
inn murra irrpTsa bonoat) jn irrpis V© nii 'no imai, God wanted to reduce the 
world again to void and emptiness^ because of the wicked Jehojahim ; hut when He 
looked at the people of Hie time. His mind was appeased; Qod {Main wanted to 
reduce the world to void and emptiness, because of the people of ZedekiaKs time, 
but when He looked upon Zedekiah, His mind was appeased [Eracbin, 17 a]. From 
this it will he seen, that the enumeration by the Massorah of these three passages in 
question is intimately connected with the story in the Talmad, where Jerem. xxvii. 1 and 
xxviii. 1 are bronght together with Gen. i. 1, shewing that God wished, in those two 
eases where iTtMrQ oocnrs, to destroy the work of the first rvVATQ. Comp. also San- 
hedrin, 108 a. 

^^ The three instanoes in which Vll^ occurs, are as follows : — Gen. i. 4 ; 7 ; 1 Chron. 
xxT. 7. From this the ecclesiastical legislators deduced, that ** Whoso recites the 
separations which God effected must not mention less t^u three .... because Vn^ 
occurs three times " (mVan rrobtJO ninB» vh nmcn to, PessacUm, 108 6—104 a). The 
reference here is to the prayer which the Jews to this day offer on the Sabbath evening, 
at the going out of the sacred day and the coming in of the week day, and which is 
denominated Havadulah {jfrUTi). In this prayer, which is as foUows, are contained 
the three separations in question :— p Vnion oViyn "fro la^rrtw »'^ nrw TPQ, Blessed art 

thou, Lord; rro»on ^> rmd") 'rawn or pa onas^ birw» p •^«r6 tim p Vn*? xcrrp. 
Our God, King of the world, who hast made a separation between the holy and 
the common, a separation between light and darkness, and a separation between 
Israel and the otiter nations. Comp. also Jacob b. Chajim's Introduction to the 
Rabbinic Bible, p. 12 Hebrew and p. 82 English, ed. Ginsbnrg. 

"^ The two instanoes in which "JDW occurs are, Gen. i. 20 ; Isa. vi. 2. From the 
combination of these two passages, in which alone the expression occurs, it is deduced 
that the angels are included in the winged creatures, created on the fifth day of the 
hexahemeron. Comp. Midrasck Rahba on Genesis, p. 8 a, ed. Stettin, 1868. 

1* Jacob b. Asheri, also called Baal Ifa-Tunm, after bin celebrated Ritual Work, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



141 

words in their proper seqaence. ]'inyiat3) 'n 110) hvnn^ ,vmv< hp nm 

Thus, on itaj [Gen. xviii. 7], the h)w inm ,^idw npam .yt npan hm 

marginal remark is, it occurs Jive pn»»Di ,r(piD inxon ,rm^n rmo^n ,mfT3 

times with Kametz, and the sign rDBf^«^ em t^n^na k^^d ,»mt^ p^Sa 

thereof is, in Aramaic, « an eo?- ^i^^,^^ .^^^ y^ ^^ ,y^^ ,j5f?i ^wiean 

eeUetit yoiUh ran and fmind wis- . q,^^^ ^^^i- ^^,^ S«iD» 

dom.** which is not according to the l ll^.% 
regular order : smce youth is taken 




' unto f A« A<?rd Jie ran '' [Gen. I^^ .^ko man nfwai "".th -mv f?a o 
xviii. 7] ; emd he found, from "awd .^nnD*? wantn mte f?p «!?« n^!? lana v6 
they found pasture'' [IChr.iv.^O]; »*/> ^>o?. ,a"a Saw* /S r^nni p:a 
and wisdom, from **f^ increased ]iaa jna nij^D^ »in^ p«r m^a ^aK 
wisdom'' [1 Kings x. 7]. ,11p^ hp pi ,n^i? lana nf? HDniD ^37 

I^As a rule, most of the remarks pDni ('t^ rrwt^na) y*pnn .^IBID^I 
of the Massorites relate to the words 3,^.^ ^pi ,n^!? una jtf? ina mpof? ]^ I 
and things which are liable to be ^^^^ „^,^^ ,.,, ^,^ ^,t,o '^ wn ' 
mistaken. Thus, on D>n7K nm> a«^ 

<A« 6ijy/n< of God, the remark is Tl, it occurs eight titnes,^ for in aU 
other passages it is nin^ nn, the Spirit of Jehovah, The same is the 
ease with the remark on ^7*1, and it shall be, **it occurs thirty-two 
times,'' ^^ as in all other places it is ^*}\\, and it came to pass; and 
80 in numerous other instances. Thus, also, they did not put down 
the word n^^, not extant, except in the case of those woixls which 
might be mistaken, fi& on '"1^1^^., O'nd it shall he seen, it is remarked 
hi no parallel; on te^];, it shaU he eaten, it is remarked, it occurs 
twenty-three times ; '® on ^^1^,1, and they shall cmne, it is noted, it 
occurs seven times, ^ But in cases of words which are not liable to be 
mistaken, such as riBmO, hovering, or ^1^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ gathered, or 
SlB^^I, and to imle, or y^pin, tlie firmament, &c., &c., these they 
have not marked witb n^^< Mostly, however, they noticed the words 
whieh in some places have the Vav prefix, and in others have 

1^ For these eight inBtances, see p. 139, note 117. 

"^^ The thirty-two instances in which ^m oocnrs with Vav oonfiinctiTe, in all other 
instances heing with Vav conyersive, are as follows :— Gen. i. 6 ; ix. 26, 27 ; Exod. ix. 22 ; 
X. 21 ; xviii. 19 ; Dent, xxxiii. 6 ; 1 Sam. x. b ; xx. 13 ; xxviii. 22 ; 2 Sam. ▼. 24 ; xyiii. 
22, 23 ; 1 Kings xiii. 33 ; xiy. 5 f xxi. 2 ; 2 Kings ii. 9 ; Jerem. xiii. 10 ; Hos. xiy. 7 ; 
Amos v. 14; Micah i. 2; Malachi iii. 10; Ps. ix. 10; Ixxxi. 16 ; xc. 17; ciy. 20; Ruth 
iii. 4 ; iy. 12 ; 1 Chron. xiy. 15 ; xxii. 16 ; 2 Chron. xviii. 12 ; xix. 11. They are enu- 
merated in the Massorah finalis, nnder the letter He^ 23 a, col. 2. 

iM The remark in the Basel and Snlzhach editions, that Vaw*, Niphal fatore, 
8rd person singular, ** occurs seventeen times (l"*),'* is surely a mistake, since the woid 
in question occurs twenty -three times^ as follows: — Gen. yi. 21^ Exod. xii. 16, 46; xiii. 8, 
7; xxi. 28; xxix. 34 ; Levit. vii. 6, 15, 16 (twice), 18, 19, xi. 34, 41 ; xvii. 13 ; xix. 6, 7, 
23; xxii. 30; Numh. xxvui. 17 ; Dent. xii. 2*2; Ivzek. xlv. 21. They are thus giyen in 
the Massorah finalis under the letter Aleph, p. 6 hy col. 2. 

1^ The seyen instances in which ^^^ occurs with Shera under the Far, called Raphe 
in the Massorah, are as follows : — Exod. xiv. 16, 17 ; Dent. x. 11 ; Josh, xyiii. 4; Is. xiii. 
2; Jerem. iii. 18; Ezek. xxxiii. 31. In all other passages the Vav has Pattach, whieh 
in the language of the Massorah is called Dngesh. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



140 

flnrf^aron, refer to the marginal re- a"' pHK^Sw nfiWD^^SK mn^^^niTI 
mark i"S "ti occurs twelve times.*' ^^^ nrw nhn hjf wp o^dj^dS "^,('i niD») 
Sometimes two circles are placed on D^ornan n*3*3p 'a ^p nmn^ ,o*Vijj? 'a 
one word, referring to two separate ,^,n, .^ (.^ rrwna) "h lOHD pja ,viru 
Massoretic remarks in the margin, i^^^^ ^^^^^ ^t^^ ,^„^ ^.^^^ ,„ ^^ ^ 
Thus, teno, /row mining, one circle |it,Q i^, i,p p^^ ^^^^-p ^.^j^ ^p pp^^ .^f, 
refers to '3, "tt occur* three times" i»:'h D^Tonn 

and the other to "it is one of the ^l^ i^^ ^^,^^ ^^^ j^^ ^ 

^w irorrf« in the Pentateuch wherein ' ' . ^^ 

K w deficient:*^ '•*"'P^^ ^^'^^ ^'^^^ "^^ ^'"""^ '""" 

1^ Notice, also, that when the ^^^^ '"^° ^*"" "^" '^^'^ ^^'^ '^^ 
total number of times that a certain ^^^ °"=^ ^^^^ '^^ n^piopn ♦wkt lana 
word occurs in the Bible is stated, =»'"^» ^F^ l^^ooi /? T1W Sworn ,«to 
the words themselves are never ,{^"^ n'p»») omp ^naVm ,('« rrwuna) 
quoted, but the beginning of the re- iit^S ,mrr p^t ,pm ja Sp ^p^ix mn* 
spective verses in which fiiese words ^wt<i on rht^ Sa ^ipiop n^jD ,Dip 
occur are given. Thus, on iw^ qwd^ ^TIK^ ona t<tniv o^pioen 
[Gen. 16], the marginal remark is, 'iwS f?p pw ,w« pwf?a p»D |n»f?^ wp 
" If occur* «cycn times, and the sign .,35, ^^^^ ^^ .^^.^^ p^t,^ ]in3D'Di 't 
thereof is « (^od caZW| [Gen i. 6] ; ^,^ ^t^^c^^ '^ 

* a/wi J MJtZZ bnng the blind [Is. L^ 1 «,^ n*n,r,t>rt ', r^n 1,1^.; m-, 
xlii. 16]; 'f^c jt«< Lord* [Zeph. ^^'^^ '^ ^" °^P^°^" ^' ^^^ »^ f ^ "'" 
iii. 5] ; ' therefore U is for* [Is. '"'^^^ ^''^ 'f'^''' "^^° 1° ^ ^ "'^"'^ 
lix 9 ; • <^^ indignation of the \^« '=^ inpf? jn^eni w ,n*ni paTi 
Lord' [Micah. vii. 9]; ^with the ^**?\.P*D^ «*vin pioon npp ]n» n^Vo 
Z^At He shaU rise * [Job xxiv. 14] ; rpa"' "^P ^nn ,wdd poon »in nSoinpf? 
'He discoveretJi deep things*** [Job ,Kif»n W Dnson mo n^opef? i3» iipi 
xii. 22], All these are the begin- ^a^ ,Dnai niwpa no* |d»d mrpS na 
nings of the verses in which the ex- 
pression 1IK? occurs. Sometimes the Massoretic sign on the text is 
in Aramaic. Thus, on '■\)vh in question, the sign is in Aramaic, *'tlie 
blind man cried, intending to go out by night, and he rose in the movning,** 
On comparison, it will be found that this sign refers to each of the seven 
verses quoted above. When, however, ttie commencing words of a 
verse are of frequent occurrence, such as ^n^l, and it came to pass, 
iTni, and it was, IITI, and lie spake, ^DK^I, and he said, &c., two 
or three of the principal words in the verse are selected for the sign, 
and not the very word which commences the verse. But this is 
easily understood. Sometimes the order of the verses in the Bible is 
inverted, to construe an attractive mnemonical sign, by combining the 

1^ The Massorali marginalis on Nnmb. zix. 1, which also meniioiiB twelve passages 
wherein pn» So rroo bM mrr IITI only quotes eleven, viz., Exod. vi. 13 ; Lent. xi. 1, 
xiii. 1, xiv. 33, xv. 1 ; Numb. ii. 1, iv. 1, 17, xiv. 26, xvi. 20, xix. 1. 

1^ The three instances in which Ml&rm occurs, are Gen. xx. 6; 1 Sam. xii. 28; 
Ps. xxxix. 2. They are stated in the Massorah marnnalis on Exod. xx. 6. The five 
instances in which Aleph is wanted, are Gen. xx. 6; Nnmb. xi. 11, xv. 24; Dent. xi. 12, 
xxviii. 67.' 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



189 

monical signs, the numbers of the ♦»Nna ,a^DiD mxpa D'rajyni mf?2:n 

words, and the subjects, with great ,n»p moD mpan «im ^ppnowai man 

brevity, indicating them by initial hs ^i /r\rr\h naw Tjrwa iKaiv nrna 

letters aiid Notaruxms; and this is l,,^^ ,^p .,3^ ^^^ ^,1,^ ^0^3 ^,,^ ^j^o 

caUed the Massorah j^aira, as I rnninS p^Doarnten p»D«a nf7pof? thk 
shall explam m Part m., called / » 

TA^ ^roifcw Tables. Moreover, on '''^^^ P» ,^r^:l n^Sp -ooar no Sj^ 
the centre of each word whereon "S^npoa onapD ':i nttan ('« nvKia) 
they made any Massoretic gloss, n^o pi ,|»ina ornan 'j ^)^ rrno ^ijpn 
they put a circle, referring to what Siap n'^p le^p /n^< ope p nKXDn 
the Massorah says respecting it. n^$ |vfrja n»Vp oi^nar no f?jy nmnf? . 
Thus, for instance, on ^?a»1, and ViJJ^vai ,»''3n npra -warrr loa ^-^ ik | 
he divided, which occurs three Tooar no ,mSD »n» |»a tdij? thk 
times in the Bible,"* the circle poa ^aioon rrhian 'a ^p tdij^ |»ina 
on the top thereof refers to the 'a Dinn'^Jfi "•/a^iaoi 'j Q\n^X'Kn3 
'3 in the margin, or the three times, 117*3*00^ '^ D^nSl^^'nn "• ranDDi 
The same is also the case when a ,3 ,3^0-, 3,^ ^t, rnp^^Ton mwoiaai 
word only occurs once ; they put ^,^^ ^,^i^^ ^^^^ ^^ c^„ 
a curcle on it, refernng to the ^^^ ,^ ^^ ^^ .^ ^ 

margmal remark, n^7 or '^ = wo , , ' 

oth^, as I shaU explain in the jllill 1? '"^^^ T ^"'^ T'' 'T* 
above-named Part. When the cir- °'^" "^ I"^ '^^ '=»^ '^^^^ '^ ^= 
cle is placed between two words, P' ""'('« r^^^n^) ^"' ^^^^•n^^1 
the marginal remark refers to both 

words thus joined together. Thus, for instance, the circle between 
D^^SM®^^a, God created, refers to the note in the margin, that ** thrice 
these words occur joined together ;'' ^^^ the circle between Dinn**^3B, the 
face of the abyss, refers to "it occurs twice conjointly ;'*^^* and between 
D^n^tC^nil, the Spirit of God, to **t< occurs eight times conjointly.*'^'' 
In the better Codices, the word conjointly is omitted, since the 
verse is understood without it, as I shall explain in the Second Part, 
section vi. « When three, four, or five words are joined together for 
some Massoretic remark, the circle is placed between every two words. 
Thus, the circles between f'lt^T] ' DKI D^OK'n * HK, the heavens and the 
earth, refer to the marginal remark a'^, " it occurs thirteen times f'^^ and 
between pnK ' ^K1 HJW Sk HIiT'im*), and Jehovah spake to Moses 

u* The three inatanoes in which Via^ oocnrs, are Gen. i. 4, 7 ; 1 Chron. xxv. 1. 

us The three pasBages in which D^r^H Hr>l occur conjointly, are Gen. i. 1, ii. 3 ; 
Dent. iv. 82. 

lu The two instancefl in which Q^rm ^3D occnr, are Gen. i. 2 ; Job xxxyiii. 80. 

U7 The eight passages in which Q>n^H rm occnr, are as f oUows : — Gen. i. 2, xH. 88 ; 
Ezod. xxxi. 8, xzxy. 81; Numb. xxiy. 2; Ezek. xi. 24; 2 Chron. xr. 1, xxiv. 20. 
They are enumerated in the Massorah magna on Exod. xxxr. 31, with the remark 
'yyy SroO Vsi, and ereiy passage in Samuel is like tJiem, viz., 1 Sam. x. 1 , xi. 6, 
xYi. 15, 16, 23 ; xviii. 10, xix. 28. 

lis The instances in which V'li^n MMI Omwn MM occnr, are Gen. i. 1 ; Exod. xx. 11 ; 
xxxi. 17 ; Dent. iv. 26 ; xxx. 19 ; xxxi. 28 : 2 Kings xix. 15 : Isa. xxxyii. 16 ; Jerem. 
xxiii. 24: xxxii. 17: Hag. ii. 6. 21; 2 Chron. ii. 11. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



188 

he, that it will soon make its ap- vnru nvho ,rrr\t<h iqdvd ^«x* n-mDa 
pearanee, as I have given it to be ms^Da nvM vmt nhMin -I'pa id^dih? 
printed in the great city of Paris, ^:nD-ix 

in the kingdom of France.^" nh^i^n rrmn ♦a if? yn nam .^ 

1^ Remark now, that the Chreat m,;TTpiMr noum ,f p n^ pn opoa rwxoan 
Massorah, which is extant, is almost ^^ „l,^^^„ ^^^ ^^^ t,^ ,,„ ^^^ ,j^ 
endless. Indeed I beheve"* that if ^^, onirpi o^aina oSa •D^a ♦» *n»nT 
all the words of the Great Massorah „^^ l^ „_^^ ,„^^ ^^^, .^ l^ 
m> m -r •» • i 1. J jf ovwxrt 7a moaa inuDa naT ,tdd 7p 

which I have seen m the days of j: ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^J „-,-u^ 
my life were written down and 1^1 !!^"^^P"=^ ^^"^ ^""^^ '^""^l 
bound up in a book, it would exceed \^^^ ^^^ P ^^° ■'=»™ ™ ""^^ «^ i 
in bulk all the twenty-four books of '^ °^ ,in»?nnn mapa )a mpan HT^DKI 
the Bible. I have ah-eady stated o^t^^P^ n^"^i^) ne noDian rmoDn 
in the poetical Introduction that it "*,»^nn tddd «^ m» lan ,h^iin pa-mi 
is not to be found collected in any : v"v ^y «nra ^n^^m h"i p"im 

book, except in the treatise Ochla dhdoh m^i^^ja aina kxdjv nn D21 
F(S-OcWa, which is so called from *3 ,n^TT3n moDno nnp t<ht< irh< 
its beginning words. Even the 3,30 onnai lana nh rmoDn *^pa *«-n 
greatest part of tiie Massorah which nj^^i ^pinrno j^xon -wp »a ;ii3vf?jn 



lana ^k ^omai hs w^ ^ano mop 



has been printed here in Venice in 

the Great Bible is taken from this _^,^^^ p^,^t,. n^«„ m^«-, p««.,^ 
work.^ Kimchi quotes it under ' "^ "^ ^ 

the root 3TP {vide in locoy ^'^^^"^ '™"' ™" ^"'" "^P^^^"" ^*^^ 

Now that which constitutes the ^f^^ "^ '«V^ '^P^ ^™ *^^^ 
Massorah marginalis is simply an "^^' rnvhsn a»aD oianai ,vrpa T»»n 
abridgement of the Massorah magna; T^^ ^^''^ '^^ ^^^P ^"^ T"«" ''^ »"0»^> 
for, certainly, the Massorites would noTpna ♦manar iDa ,im3op leon 
not write their remarks around the > ^'*V J^'mnn 

margins, since they were too smaD, pai oncon mxar nwrSoa pK 
and the space was too narrow, to oiaoi ciD'om D*min una ^omispn 
contain their words. They wrote 

their remarks in separate treatises, and taught them publicly; hence 
the works were largely circulated, and the Scribes, who copied the 
Bible, selected from iliem what they pleased, each one according to 
his fancy, and wrote it in the margin, both above and below. Some 
copied large pieces, and others smdler portions, according to the size 
of the book into which they were writing it, as I have stated in the 
poetical Preface (vide supra, p. 94). 

On the sides of the margins, however, and between the columns 
of the pages, the Massorites wrote down the suggestions, the mne- 

lU Yar the lUktare and hisfeoiy of this work, see above, p. 28, ^c. 

ui The Salcbach edition erroneously substitates TCffUOWj which I have heard, for 



UB This statement of Levita is contradioted by no less an anthority in Massoretic lore 
than the learned Frensdozff. Frensdorif shows that Jacob b. Chajim, the first editor of 
the Massorah, which is now printed in the several Babbinic Bibles, did not derive the 
greater part of his materials from the Ochla Ve-Ochla. Comp. Introdnetion to the 
Ochla Ve-Ochla, p. 10. 



Digitized by 



Google 



187 

with a short explanation, for it is n»\> o ^itd rwp op mn niann e|TOa 
difficult to understand it withont a : vitd ^3 iraan 

commentary. ttth o tdiw ^awinn ^ nnn ^33ni 

Now I retom to the former sub- itdk ♦k miDon ♦^a irp irn nwjmn 
ject, and submit that, after all the ^^ ^^^^ ,^3^ ,{^ ppt^ ^b^ ,j^ ^B3^ 
work which the Massorites have t,"n noK QirA Kf?i ^t^npnn noo f^aa 
done, it is unpossible for any ^,^ ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 
mistake or alteration whatever to ,1^ (^^ ,^) ^Ma -mDD laT ^ ia-», 
happen to any of the books of uo ^L-, ^« r.^.«n «^,» mw«, «^,nt« 
the Scriptures. It is, therefore, "^^^^ rn^T^Jat^T^ nhw n^^ my:^ 
not in vain that our Rabbins of ^frnf^i niHD^ vn mioon >f^a o noKm . 
blessed memory have said, ** The ^^^ 3^"^^ ^'^ '^'^ ^^ """^ '''^ "^^'^ 
Massorah is a fence to the Scrip- di'" '^^ T ^onovrr; pi m ,nn^nm p? 
tures," and that they have also mrpSi na^ten ht< anp^ yiDrrr 'D 
explained the words, ** Every man's l^« mhaa parn ^«XDS o»S^ai d'jdo 
sword was on his thigh, because of nhv ♦«ina yk ,iTa nwm mwDD D'3»:p 
the terrors by night" [Song of on*^ iD*aon» no hy jna* k^i rj*ar 
Bongs iii. 8], to refer to "the Mas- janom Q'^«SDa nSnjn noaa 'b^3K 
sorah, and to the signs designed to ^,„, ^i^^^^ nrmts^av awa npai 
preserve the law from bemg for- ^^ .^c^.^ nDnaimina moinoi mmriD 
gotten m the captivity. "^ Indeed, ^.n^p^n ^jpa mioDn ^^pa nai ^^na^ «S 
there were hundreds and thousands ^ ' # _ 

of MMSorites, and they continued J™ ^'"^ °" ^ "'^"^ '='=" ^^ 
generation after generation for many t * ^'^'^ 

years. No one knows the time ™^ '""'"^ ■'^™" '^^ K^ni.^ 
when they commenced, nor when ^^ i»^ .rmoDn 'yjpD o'S^ai o^rap | 
they will end in future. For even "iDoa DTianai ,Q'3iDip naia wrD3 ; 
at the present day, if any one ,nhjfm naar onerp la ^^op t»» Sn^n 
wishes to engage in the work, and 'n^ hnh mpM ni31'l3Tn IBO idv Tsopi 
make signs and rules whereby to 

find out the number of words, or other Massoretic subjects, he is 
quite at liberty to do so ; but only under this condition, that he must 
not add to nor diminish from anything which the men of the Great 
Synagogue have determined as regards plene and defective, Keri and 
Kethiv, the major and minor letters, the open and closed sections of the 
Pentateuch, &c., &c. Neither must he gainsay the statements of the 
Massorites resj^ecting the vowel-points and the accents, the number 
of words which they have counted, and marked with mnemonical signs. 

1^ Indeed I, the author of this book, have myself invented various 
Massoretic signs and rules, which are not to be found in the 
treatises of the ancients, and have embodied them in my great work, 
on which I have laboured more than twenty years, and which I 
have called The Book of Reniembrmwe. 1 hope to God, blessed be 

uo The saying that the Massorahf or the traditional pronnnciatioii of the text, is a 
fenoe to tiie ScrrotnreB, was pro^nnded by the celebrated R. Aldba, who flonrished 
drca A.D. 80-120 ; oomp. Aboth lii. 18. The explanation of Song of Songs iii 8, as 
referring to the Massoran, to which Lerita alludes, is to be found in Uashi's (Commentary 
in loco. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



186 

three parts, each part consisting of ,Dnrutn p^m win 'on np cj^wi p piefmn 

8 letters. The first part extends p^m ,nrT»jr phn nxn Tp nvn p *:»n 

from K to ID, and forms the units ; D T n B' 1 p Kini mven p^n *»*f?rn 

the second part extends from i to V, nimittn noDD nhv^ nr jD>«ai V ei I 

and constitutes tens; whilst the third ^^, ^^,^^ .^ «.„ ,.^ ,^ i^„ i^ 

part constitutes the hundreds, and „j,,^b |V'a, n"n hdito d"di ^n hdi^d 

consists of niMntrnp. In ,p.nn 4,^d n.i ,n"n no,«.D n"D, ,^"n 

this manner the value of the letters ' , / , ' , 

rises to thousands, n being 400, final '"^r" ^^^«" ^'^^"^^ r^f -.nn c,f,K paf., 

T 600, final D 600, final ] 700, 1^^ ■^^•*"' '^^ ^'^ '^^^^^ i^^ V^"^^"^ 

final 5) 800, and final j^ 900. For "^ T^o nop c)Tor nrnai ,ci*?« nwnpo 

the number 1000 we have to return "^^^ *nan3» no inn ,na^ 'k pn |»ani3 

to the beginning of the alphabet, ^» D^pwD ]3) ,mKD p»m pj^k «in» ,y"« 

and when written out fully ^^ it is n^vhm niNto rom pj^k n*»Ncia idd 

1000. Some say \hat it is on this o'pioDn nsoD pi ,T"f^ -]"« p»D npanm 

account called -^^<7?A. When ano- nnow d'd^r n»Dn I'^a rninn f^a ^v 

ther number is added to it, it is only nmnn f?a f?t? nrnw nsDoi ,a"ei mw 
wntten '«. This explains what I . nyj^^ Q,pa^^, ^^^^ ^^^ 

f^'cu^ \ They have also given .^^ ,,,o, ^npaiK, n^nrpn ^a ^.T^t^i 
1534 as the number of verses m .j ^ „ , , , 

Genesis, the sign of which jg " 'J ^^^n iDom /r"pi. r^^K a'n ^D^n 
r'h r'«; 6B42 as the number of .^"^r^^ r^^« o"a ^c^^mDODi ,n"n pof^H 
verses in the whole Pentateuch ; "T' "' 'J^ ^^"^^ '^^^^ -^^^ "^^ '^ P^ 
and 600,045 as the number of '"'^'•'^ '"^^ '^'^^ P^^ •'•"^^ ^'Wio "b^ 
letters in the whole Pentateuch. ,nnann punai ,imKian pKj nnpo 't »a 

1^ Moreover, we find that the '^^^ ,nmDm nnr m^D ia n»NcxD: »a 
Massorites have also counted each O'Ncxoa omoai ,nDn Ncnpn parfe k^ 
separate letter of the alphabet in ino^BiK *^iki pany ^*mnD^« neoa 
the whole twenty-four sacred Scrip- 
tures, and have ascertained that the letter k occurs 42,877 times, the 
letter n 35,218 times, the letter } 29,837 times, &c. Indeed a beau- 
tiful poem was written long ago on this subject, beginning ''The 
Tent, the place of my buildings," and I have heard that Saadia Gaon 
is the author of it. This statement is confirmed by the fact that 
there are in it foreign and obscure words, which are not Biblical, 
such as are to be found in the work, entitled Faith [and Philo- 
sophy] f^°^ which he wrote. I may, perhaps, append it to this treatise, 

"^ SaadiA's philosophical treatise, to which Lerita refers, was originally written in 
Axahio, circa a.d. 938-937, entitled nwiHpnrM^Hl nM3MOKS« nwn^. It consists of ten 
flections, and discusses the f oUowing subjects : — Section i. The creation of the world 
and all things therein. ii. The Unity of the Creator, iii. Law and Bevelation. 
17. Obedience and Bebellion, Divine Justice and Freedom, v. Merit and Demerit, 
vi. The Soul and Immortality, vii. The Besurrection. viii. Redemption, ix. Reward 
and Punishment. And x. The Moral Law. The original Arabic, with the exception of a 
nseeimen of the Introduction, has not as yet been published. It is in Ibn Tibbon*t 
Hebrew translation of it, made in 1186, and published in Constantinople 1562, Amster- 
dam 1648, Berlin 1789 ; and in Fiirst's German translation, published at Leipzig, 1845, 
that this treatise is accessible to scholars. 



Digitized by 



Google 



185 

[Levit, xi. 42] is the middle of all •»! (H «npi) HfiW ttm \tnn ;n'i^mva 

the letters in the Pentateuch; that ,|iod Cnii |k3d Cni ^u^nn rmm 

" Moses diligently sought" [Levit. x. ^pwea rmm *xn JWin PK V^V DE^I 

16] are the middle of all the words, ,^ p^ q^bo ^"^ p tbq, ^qd f^a p, 

^7 terminating the first half, and n^iDWarnrnm^ima^nf^nTWBf^nDDD 

** the breast-plate iLevit. vm. 81 , i ' i 

is the middk of aU the verses'. ^'^^ '^^'^ ™ '"^«^ P'" j'^ '^^' 
This they have done in all the 24 ^^^ ^^^ "'^"'^ ^^^ P^ ^">^<SM jd^ 
sacred books. ^^^ Moreover, they "'"'•^i^ nrnea nrmKm ,p*DS rni^ 
have counted the verses, words, :'>'b ?'« P'o ^»P nrom nwapBrm c|Vit 
and letters of each Pericope in m^o *« 1*h nj^n^"^ Tt» n» ^ n>ni 
the Pentateuch, and made marks :P'nn hv rrno towdh 'T»i ,5)f?K ^ 
accordingly. Thus, the Pericope rnioon ♦^pai n^apn '^j^a 'a JH .^ 
Bereshith has 146 verses, the mne- ^vnwn pjoa ni^iBan nvnw 'n lo^aan 
monical sign being the name Ama- *fy xx^^hros ,iDDDa ?"3 |^3 nrniKn vni 
ziah; A^ooA has 153 verses, the j^m ,pf?n f?af? mvnK t) irw ,n^?f?n 
mnemonical sign of which is Beza- 

leel;^^ thus giving a proper name as a mnemonical sign for each 
hebdomadal section, to indicate the number of its verses. Again, 
Bereshith has 1915 letters, and the sign is V'^D yiK' But I must also 
explain to you how it is that k signifies 1000, and final y 900. 

1^ You must observe that l^e Eabbalists and Massorites have 
taken the five final letters into the number of the alphabet, and thus 
made the entire letters to be 27 in number. They are divisible into 

^^ LoTita endently refers here to the fact recorded in the Tahnj^d {Kiddushin 80 a), 
which is as follows :— vrro rmrQ« nvnwn to ctidid rrro xznsro traiwnn iwnpa -p^ 
rrpDO V© n6aim rra^n ^ p'sn «rn «m mw "tD ^ mri'M V© p'sn pnn Viw Dnotw 
D'pDDi vsn ]W TED' mrn Mim cVrm ^w o^iin lyi |"*y *tP*D Tin nsDcns^v iKer^ort 
were the ancients called Sophsbim, because they numbered the letters of the Scriptures. 
ThuM they say that the Vav in pm fLeyit. xi. 42], is the middle of ail the letters of the 
Pentateuch / that vm VPn [ibid. x. 16], are the middle of aU the words ; that manm 
{ibid. xiii. 33], is the middle of the verses; that the Ain in *tP% [Ps. Ixxx. 14], is the 
middle letter of the Psalms^ and that "&u/ he, being fuU of compassion^ forgave their 
iniquity" [ibtd. Ixxviii. 88], is the middle of the verses. On the same page in the 
Tafmnd, we are further told as follows:— rraiQW D'aiOW niHD TOID© D*DbH TWOn n"n 
myavD dtdtt nai laoo "on rmom □♦^n r^ vr rmn xd yiDO vpnm oyoD, the Sages submit 
that the number of verses of the Pentateuch is 6888, that of the Psalms 8 less, and that 
of Chronicles 8 more. 

los From time immemorial, the Pentateuch has heen diyided into fifty-fonr sections, 
for the purpose of hehdomadal lessons, since some years, according to the Jewish 
chronology, haye fifty-fonr Sahhaths. Each of these Perioopes, called Par«Aa (rrerc), 
or Sidra (mtpD), has a special name, which it derives from the first or second woid 
wherewith it commences ; and Jewish writers, when quoting a passage from the 
Pentateuch, cite the respective names of the Pericope instead of giving the chapter and 
verse. Bereshith, whicn Levita quotes, is the name of the first Pericope, emhradng 
Gen. i. 1-vi. 8, and is the first hebdomadal lesson in the first Sabbath of the Jewish 
year. The name Amaziahy which is the mnemonical sign of the number of verses, 
indicates it by its numerical value, viz., n 6 -^^ MO, 4- S 90, 4- O 40, + M 1 = 146. The 
hebdomadal lesson, Koah, comprises Gen. vi. 9-xi. 82, and the 158 verses of which it 
consists are indicated by the mnemonical sign Beztdeel^ which is of this numerical value, 
viz.— ^ 80 + M I'i>^80and2r90+ l2= 158. A fuU description of the Sabbatic 
lessons, as weU as of the manners and customs connected therewith, is given in Eitto's 
Oyclopcedia, s. r. Haphtara. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



184 

preBerved the Law and the Pro- peo '^ai ,DTOp f?p Hnponi rmm n^pn 
phets in their proper state; and n-nnn rrrpai ,minn nn^a naa i»3 *^if^ 
there can be no donbt that, if they noo Saa Dneo *3» i*n m^i ,rr\iv\ 'nra 
had not existed, the cake would nitv^ mp nwa ,Tn» DtJ^aoD itw «npDn 
have been entirely consumed, and innansn nDo 

the law would have become, as it q,bi4^^ o-i3Bfn ds n^nn is^n 
were, two laws, and there would not ^g, ,y ,jj.pj^, u ^^ ^,^^3 ,^,^^3 
have been foimd two Codices among ^ q„^ m,DD ^<»t^npn neo r^j; 
aU the copies of the Scriptures ^. ^ j; ^^^ 

acreemff together, as is the case ' ' ' 

^th the books of other authors. 'i"'*^^^^ ^'''^''''' ""'l'^ "^^^^ '''^^ 

Look at the many changes and oiJinner nnmiD nif?D nxp roiD »in pn 
variations which are to be found in ,Qn*ian "w^a -"^^ »»^» " "^»^ ™«^ 
the Targum of Onkelos, though a ^^^ WVT |nDJ-n«DT «>*»"' ^njn^ ]i» 
Massorsli was made thereon, called^* ,13niK inDmnon 'a ^85^ ]ai ,n*jn^ -mr 
27w Massorah on the Targum of ,nf?>»a nann )ai ,p^ I'Da'nnDT 'a yyi 
the Pentateuchy because it does not nBf« nnrnwn idod ♦nenpna Qt*«xDni 
follow the plan of the Massorah on f^ D^hp:)H ir^m ,0131^ f?a f?)^ ^man 
the Bible in numbering the words, ^p o^t^ppi ^Q^t^^j ^p pan ,nmnn 
letters, &c., but simply enumerates ^^ c,^ iDiann Kin» dhcih »^i ,D^aina 
some particular words, the Targum ^,„„ ^^^^^ ,^ ^^c,,„ ^^, ,05^,,, 
rendennff of which diners from S 1 •vn*^*«.^ 

what U usually is in all other ;"f"" ^**^** "™ ^'^^ "^P^ ''^f^'^^ 
places. Thus, for instance, Wn^ i^«:niOK Dioa iiktki DiDia rm«^ «inn 
is rendered in eleven passages by •*)" '^'^^0°';' '^^ ^""^ n»K nrpnn IK 
Kjnyo* and in all the rest by »^^ ^"^ «'^ '^"^ ^^^^^'^ '=^ i^nnrnv 
rf)Hf ; OB' is rendered three times ma^nm o^piDon Sa ifflr "ip inpr 
by '^bn'lK*; )^Jf is rendered twice onh ivnp ia»B^ ,nLD^ ibd Sao nvm»m 
by 1<¥, &c., &c. See the Litro- "ip Dm^TntrnD p^anw nnm nhn pneio 
duction to my Lexicon, which I nmnn ♦xn («"* Knpn) pnii i"n »a ipt» 
wrote on all the Targums; viz., 

Onkelos on the Pentateuch, Jonathan on the Prophets, and Aquilas 
on the Hagiographa (some say that the latter is by B. Joseph), >^ and 
which I have named Methurgetnanf before it has appeared. I hope 
to God to publish it soon, and to be permitted to see it before I die.^<^ 

Li their works, however, the Massorites have toiled most diligently, 
and counted all the verses, words, and letters of every book, for which 
they are called Numberers = Sopherim. Hence, by their dili- 
gence, they have so far learned to know that the Vav in pn^ 

M The word tnpsn, which u caHedy is omitted in the Solzbaoh edition. 

^'^ In the Snlzbach edition, the abbreviation M^'*, cleverly has erroneonsly been 
resolved into DnoiH VT, some say^ which has no sense ; and DmnDl is snbstitnted 
for pDaTinoi . 

1^ As the discussion of the nnthorship of the Chaldee paraphrases is too lengthy to 
be entered npon here, we must refer to Kitto's Cydopcediu^ s. v. Jonathan b. Uzzibl, 
Joseph b. Chua, Okkelos, and Tabouv, where the necessary information is given 
at length. 

106 Levita did live to see his Chaldee Lexicon published. For a description of it, 
sec above, p. 69, &c. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



133 



,M D'Tipih pw yn^p i»iiKi ,pDv i^ 
b;*i ,n^T)^v yiap iS innpe^ np pm ,p3p 



matres lectiones, had to be dis- p^ jnm'a moir )nf? mpf? ^sixin irorr 
tinctly named. Thus, also, the "iiPDn m^riN |n^ |»Kr ,|Dp nriBi pp yopn 
short Kametz and the short Pa<- -^^'d^ ,rxy^ pDa ^mnar laa aiTT f?jr 
«a<jfe, which have mostly no matres nnoi pp yop |n» |nmnD mz» p^ wnp 
fecttow^5, as I have explained it ^ ,3^, q,^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^u^^ 
m the ** Poetical Section^' had hke- ,^„ _^l, ,^, ,1,' ^^l ,^^^ , '' i, 
"Wise to be specified bv names, l i r » r '^, ' , 

that is short \an^etz L short ''^''^ ^^l "'^^ ^^^" "^ ^^^^ '^"^ 
Pa«acA. Afterwards came some °'^°" '^^ '^^"'^P^" ^"^ ^^ "^^"^ ^^•^ 
grammarians who changed these : m»a i-ja mp p^-jp 

names : they called the short «Tipe^ r*i ,D^in w nmpa^ mipw tr^ 
Kametz Tzere and the short Pflrf- pnx* no^v iran i^ Kip ]ai ,mD «So i^ 
tacA Segoly wherewith all others uroiti : b^''^ ^x^a^ ^^pei iD*Da» n^oa loa 
agree ; but they do not agree in «f?, ^^b nhn w mipjf? ]*«nip onaaefHn 
the names of the other vowels. ,^g^ ^^^ y^ ,3 ,im»*X7n j^wd vtpT 

Hence there axe some who call ^np -^^ ,3 ,t, ^Rnps, oonpni n^p-rpnon 
the vowel ib< Cholem and others who "^ ' ' ' ' "^ '^ 

call it Melaphum; thus B. Solomon 
b. Isaac [Bashi] calls it, in his Com- 
mentary on Ezod. XV. 5 and Isa. , , 
i. 31, which you may consult. We 'P"^^" '^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^ '^^^ ^^^P ^^ n^P 
Germans call the vowel i|K Mela- r»'^ ^^ «T P^ n^» '^ np» «'*'» 
phum; but I do not know whence P^'^a P ^y^ «in«^ af^^^ ;iiDipD naina 
we obtained it, for in none of the ,^ni na» pnf? mp nnan n^nm ,»aTjr 
works by the grammarians and the hv pTnn o ,^h Tnai i",]iep nar nxS> 
punctuators do we find it caUed so ; t^in nr '^a K*nw h"i ,n3ep npian 
they designate it Shiirek. Again, y^op nvn dj? Kin» invKi pa» if? wipr 
we call the vowel JJ Shurek, whilst . qtio oTrr 
the grammarians call it three- ^... 
points, or Kibutz; generally, how- ^' '''P^^^* "^" '^'^ '™^^" '^^"^ 
ever, it is caUed Kibutz of the i^m k^ D^DpeninnipnBf ^mnai ^m^aw 
Upsy and some caU it Kibutz oi****^" «*? nSnjn noaa ^p3n dji ,'3*00 
of the Mouth. The vowel K is ^'^^^^^ '^V^ '^' '^fPO «^« Q^^in ,f7f?a 
called Chirek : there are some on '3 ^^ani ,*mKaw lea ^a im iDpr 
who call it Sheber; it is so called 

by Ibn Ezra, in many places, and he states that this is its name in 
Arabic;' whilst the sage author of the Khazan calls Chirek the 
long Sheber and Tzere short Sheber; but I am certain that the 
short Chirek, that is, without the Jod, was called Sheber, and the 
long one, with the Jod, was simply called Chirek, 

Thus have I expatiated at large upon this subject, till I have made 
it evident that the vowel-points and the accents were neither given on 
Sinai, nor were they invented by the men of the Great Synagogue , 
but that they are the work of the Massorites, who flourished at a later 
period, as I have stated. In short, they are the self-same who havo 



V^ Leyita*B allnsion is to be fonnd in the Khosari ii. 8, p. 191, ed. Cassel. 



Digitized by 



Google 



182 

this r the short Pattach. But no moon ^aa oiDBra naw^ nmpan "wr 

mention whatever is made of the o^inVi ,*« fn»n^ wnp pn fnyap't nSnJ 

rest of the vowels thronghont the pwan 'j^i K^wh^ ,'w fiap^i ,w pmr^i > 

whole of the Massorah, both magna mm^a nxan* nrna ^ttttk niD» imp 

and i?arra, wherin Chirek is called ^lo^^ o^o^a t^^^n, ..^ To^^oa nr» 

*p, CAoim ^K, SAt^r^A: 4X, Kilmtz K, .,jj^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^ •,„! ^« nn vhn n"a 

and the 5A«^a and the three CVm- ^; t, ^^.^ t,^ ,^ ,3^ j,,„t^ 

ta;,A. are caUed by quite (Merent ^^ ^c,,„ ^ ,,^ ',c,/^ (.^ „,^) 

names, as I shall ezplam m Part n., '»^ , l ^ l^ ii 

section 8. For instance, the Mas- "'^ ^" i'M.»'T'J^ ' ^^' 

sorites remark, " There are twenty^ ^f^ «^^ "•'"'^^- ^'^ ^^ P" '"'^^^^^'^ 

one words which occur twice, once '^'^" 1"^ ^^^^^ nwnoiam ,pTn i^a^nai 

with ^K, and once with m, as lb«n ,miDDn ^^pa ]iwf?e irn ,pTi» im .pn»n im ^ 

[Ezek. xxviii. 9], and 3J0?C' [Micah niwnnf? na p anar iDion niDanm pn/ 

i. 7] ; and they have no parallel ;"» irmoDn pan niwi 

but they do not say one with Cholem nh rvoh npon iJ^mn ^nnyi .^ 

and one with Shurek» They also ^rme^i ppS wipe^ loa mD» |nS imp 

note, " Twenty -seven words are p^ pt, g,, f,^^^^,^,^,p3n ^,, ^jjf? nn 

written with *K, every one of which ^^ ^^ \^ ^^^^^ ,,,„ l,..^ ^^n y,^,^^ 

has no parallel, as 17J [Gen. xxiv. rr)rm ]nh wnp «f7i i^sn moB^a ipDon^ 
23], ^^B2 [Exod. Hi 27] ; "" but „,^ ^t, '^^^^ ^ t,^^ ,01^,^ 
they do not say that they are written 

with Chirek. Those Codices of the Massorah, in which the name 
Cholem, Chirek f or Shurek occurs, do not state the language of the 
Massorites, but display the wisdom of the transcribers, who wrote so 
in order to show that they understood the Massorah. 

^* I shall now^oo state to you the reason why they did not give names 
to the other vowels, just as they named the Kametz and the Pattach. 
It is this. The forms of all other vowels have signal letters appended 
to them. Thus, for instance, since the Vav and the Jod are the 
matres lectiones of the vowels ^^, ^^, ^6? ; hence, the Massorites were 
satisfied with these designations, and did not give them any other 
names.^* But the Kametz and the Pattach, which have no such 

M Both in the Massorah finalis, under letter Far, and in the Ochia Ve-OcMa, section 
!▼., where the list in question is given, it is designated ]^3ll m"3, twenty-one pairs. The 
expression "^hto^ words, in the text of Levita, must therefore he a slip of the pen. It is 
also to he remarked, that in the Ochla Ve-Ocfda the names of the vowels are given 
(□1C \pp im DID M^ in), which, according to Levita, shows that it is a later addition, 
and that the titie of this mhric in the Massorah finalis is the genuine old designation. 

^ The list of these twenty-seven instances is given in l£e Massorah finalis, under 
the letter Jod, and in the OcUa Ve-Ochla, section ocxiv., pp. 46, 127, &c. Neither the 
Massorah finalis, however, nor the Ochla Ve-Ochla designates the list in question, 
'H |*a*n2T "fTD T"D, twenty-one words which are written with *H. In the former it is 
expressly entitied jTiTia *♦ l^nDl, which are loritten with Jod Chirek, thus giving tiie very- 
name of the vowel-sign which Levita disputes ; whilst in the latter the ruhrio in question 
is entitled '1 anD 'rroi ta} Vnyn rsoa •» "^HD "^ in bOl fjO V 3, twenty-seven words, 
which only occur once with Jod in tie middle of the word, and whicli in all oilier 
passage* are written with Vav. 

100 The Sulzhach edition erroneously insert n:m, and now, hefore nny, now. 

Ml The whole sentence nnnw n'»D«? pb iKlp Htyj l!?Hn niowa ip*DDm, and they wem 
satisfied with these designations, and did not give them other name*, is omitted in the 
Sulzhach edition. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



181 

they answered me, **NoI bnt we ,^*^ 'S itdk*! ,mpi:nn Sp omon 

have been conversant with that unipsD pv^n nu D'tt'pn ijn3MV m^k 

language from our youth till now, *^a irrnpS i3n» o^pir pS ,nm Tpi 
and, therefore, know how to read ^:h'*^p *iip3 

without^points." Thus far their o-mn tdV Sj-wm rew-wet^r nn 

You. therefore, see that it is ^ ( ' P v 

possible for a lU to learn by »^' "^ "^ ^^^^^ '^^^^P^ ™^^"^ 
habit to read without points. T^^^ '^ "^ ^^"^ '^'''^^ ™^" 
The same was the case among P"'" ''"" ^"'" ^"^ '^'™' ,rmp'7 DD"pnn 
us, prior to the invention of the 1^^" ^^P^ P»^ "'" "«^"i wo^ r'i» '^a 
points, and it continued till the '■'^k om ,nmDDn *f?jya jdt np Tioni 
time after the close of the Talmud, D'^na n^oan vm ,H»»tpD t*«Ti t*«»n3D 
which took place in 8989 of the it<v Sao prS ^mci Nipoa o*t*«*pai 
creation = 486 after the destmc- nh omrwi ,Dnn rmna ivi ttk omn»n 
tion of the second Temple. Since nav 't on^^p n*pn n»«3 ,DniM lop 
then, the sacred tongue began gra- y^ nD3'"T« m^wa nana rnpinn 
dually to disappear, till the time of ,^,^ ^^ q,^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 
the Massontes who are the men of ^^^ t^^ ,^''^^^ ,^ ^^ ^^^ ^,^^^ 
Tibenas, which is Mouzia. They ^ ' ,, ' 

were gr;at sages, imd thoroughly ^^= ="^ J' ** ^"■'=»** J^ P^ '^^"''"^ 
conveiiajit with the Scriptures and °"^ •^''^^^^ ^^^" ^"^ i^ ''"^'^^ "'^ '^"» 
the structure of the language, more """^^ ,miDDn »»3k rn nno o nppn 
so than all the other Jews who lived • '^^P^ ^^ ^^^^P 

in that generation, and none like mioian »f?j;a o .tikxd lal? m IN.^ 
them have existed since. This is ,rtnoh^ yopf? pi ^nnipaS mD» wnp nh 
attested by R. Jona [Ibn Ganach], nxS wnp» u**m ,Si3om ♦•utn oWaai 
the Grammarian, in his treatise on l^«a»al ,nrTD a"a S»Si ,yiDp a"a 
the Quiescent Letters^ which is as Dn»3*a opo iSnan o^aiwtnn o^pipTon 
foUows : " The distinction between ^^^pfy ^^y^ „„m ^,o»n m'lpa 
the n with and without the Dagesh ^ _ „^,^, t,,^, ^-r^m 

was weU understood by the men of ^^^ ^, ^,^, ^,^^ ^^ _ ^^, 
Tibenas, but not by us, for they * ^ * 

knew better the purity of the language than all other Jews." Thus, 
also, says Abraham Ibn Ezra, who writes in the book Purity as fol- 
lows;^ "This is the manner of the sages of Tiberias, and they are. the 
foundation, for from them were the Massorites, and from them we 
have received all our vowel-points." 

1^ This, however, I observed, that the Massorites did not give 
names to the points, except to the Kametz and the PattcLch^ in which 
are included the Tzei-e and the Scgol; that is, they called the Tzere 
Kametz and the Segol Pattach. It was not till the rise of the first 
grammarians that some distinction was made between these names, and 
that they were thus designated. Thus, for instance, they called this 
point 7 Uie long Kanwtz, this t short Kametz, this t long Pattxich^ and 

^ The expreBsion V*^]^, thus far their remark^ is omitted in the Snlzhaeh edition, 
w LeTita^B quotation is to be found on p. 7 a of the Zachoth (JTffW) = Ptarity, ed. 
Lippmann, Furth, 1127. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ISO 

conyersant with the language, he 'rpvw ^h) ,vBa n^w rmv iv crtapD 
>coiild easily remember the words -nat^ i^ hpi jvn mm pw^a 'pa n»n 
which he read, and whenever he o^ip dmxqv mpo ^aai ,«np«^ nif?Dn 
met them again he read them with- pj,^ -^,nn ^p,, f^^ -^j^atit, ,^2, n^a^o ,t,3 
out difficulty. To make this more . ^^^^ ,„,^ „,, ,^ 

plain to yon, listen to what I have ^i^^ ^^ ,^,^^ ^"^^^ Wnn ^ 
seen, and 1 will relate it. ^ i ^^ 

e- Now when I was in Rome, "'"'••-Ihv ^PnDn,nDDi«aD^«n^aa^r« 

I saw three Chaldeans, who arrived °"^ '°^''"«, "^^ ^^"^^^^ P«'^ ""* ^^^*»« 
from the country of Prester John,<^ '3^»"" ^^^^ ^'^^ V^"^ "m •'^'ti* ^'^^ 
having been sent for by Pope Leo X. ^ "^^O" P«ff?n bw ••'aTj? \wh «in 
They were masters of the Syriac nnarwn jv^'iJiwn ^ai dttidd lanaa i3» 
language and literature, though their criva ]wh Mini ,ntn pvf^a dh^ Kin 
vernacular language was Arabic.** ,»Saa it»< ,nDiK p Qi Kipan .£( 
The special language, however, p^y^ w ,»«cniB w ,'HT^a im ,m»« w 
wherein the books were written, n^ -iaf?i ,^h ^^yi r^^w pa» ^ 
as well as that of the gospels of ..^ prnDoo rvinh ,mnn» nvD"wn 
the Chnstians which they brought ,^^^ ^, i^ i^ ^,^0 ,t,^ i,,,^,,^ 
with them, was Synac which is ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^,^^ ^,^„^ ^^ ^^,^ 
also called Aramean, Babylonian, „,^,^-, ^,„^ ^rt-, l«., r^w^^ 

Assyrian, Chaldee, Tursaea or Tar- "^"^^ "^'"^'^^^ ^^"^ "^""^ ^ ^ '"^^ 
guii, being denominated by these "^^^ ^^^'^T """"^^ ^^^"^^ °^»^?f 
^- seven names. Pope Leo X. ^'^^^^ ^^^^ '"*^"'^ •*"^=*J^" P*''^ 
had sent for them, in order to cor- i^o^^ dt-iSkvi ,Dpi ^nSa D^Snn 
rect by their Codices his exemplar d'»*di r»niK it»< r^^'^^pi oaS r^n 
of his New Testament, which ,was 

written in Latin. I then saw in their hands the Book of Psalms, 
written in Syriac characters, as well as translated into Syriac ; that is 
to say, the text was written with Syriac characters, the origin, 
pronunciation, and form of which greatly resemble the Hebrew. 
Now I saw them reading this Psalter without points, and asked 
them. Have you points, ot any signs to indicate the^ vowels? and 



M PrestAT [= Priest] John, is oelftbrated, both imong Latin and Oriental writers, as 
a Christian sovereign and priest in the far east of Asia. It is said that the information 
about him was first brought to Pope Engenins HI. in 1145, by two Armenian delegates 
who visited Borne. And a letter of Pope AleTander m., dAted 1177, is still extant, 
whieh this PontifF addressed to the said Johanne$j Bex Indoram^ and in which he is 
described as a Christian king of Asia, desiring nnion with the Catholic Chnrch. The 
story about this romantic monarch was so eagerly seized by the faithful of the 
middle ages, becanse his supposed eiistenoe oonntencted the imfayourable impression 
which the conquests of the Mohammedans and Heathens achieved in Christian countries. 
In the fifteenth century, he again appears in the annals of history, as Pre$byter Johannes 
Bex, in Africa, and more especially in Ethiopia. Levita's reference is most probably 
to Nestorians or Maronites, since he describes Syriac as their ecclesiastical language. 
For the story about Prester John, see Ersch and Gmber's Allgemeine Encylclopiiaie, 
section iL, voL xxii., pp. 219-21 ; Hanog, Bedl-Encyilapddte fUr Protestantische 
Theologie und Kirche, vol. v., 818; vol. vi., 765, &o. 

^ The Snlabach edition erroneously substitutes n3]^ Hebrew^ for ^inv Arabic, The 
extract of the above passage in Eitto'i Cyclopedia^ 8. v. Xixbnbb, having been made 
from the Sulzbaeh edition, contains the lame blunder, and must therefore be corrected. 



Digitized by 



Google 



129 

Sntra remarks, this discossion is txnh vn h^ nmi oro oi /i^i o^opo 
necessary, in order to know where : dv *'r t rTor no ]«p p^dj^d 

to place the dividing BCceni{Chagiga m-npri wp mown o mrw niyi .£( 

6 b). From this, too, it is evident ^^^ p^ ,^3^ ^,^1, p,,, p,^ onDPoni 

that they had no accents (see Rashi ^i^^ dL,,^ f^j^, ,^, ^^ ,l,33, ,0^^^ 

Fourthly, — ^Ahnost all the names » ' 'r \ ' 

of both the vowel-pomts and the ' ' 1 l l 

accents are not Hebr^.bntAramean '^= ""*"" ^= "^\';'* "" \»";f" 
and Babylonian ; as, for instance, * '"'^^ l^*''^ T°^ 

r^^c, Segol, Choleyn, Melaphum ; «' ^ipaw ^f? ina o '» -itDW p!? 
80 also JfopiA, Dagesh, Darga, ^"^^ rTiof^nn 'Dan 'O'a maj Kf?i rrn 
r«Wr, &c. Now, if it were true r^'^* ^'" •^^ '^ ,nf?nan now 'r» »d'3 
that they were given on Sinai, ,o*DxrDi Tipi »^a Knp^ n»«>pa rn *a prh 
what is the meaning of Aramean ,npDDna yr^n ryra^n aipna iMnp 
names at Moont Sinai ? Were not -nrMa piann monna |*3pn na»DD Dipoai 
aU the commandments given on ^y^ ,^0^^,, ,03 ,D*«'3:n 'dd i^api ipor 
Sinai in Hebrew? D'oam n^n:n naaa *r3«^ imnoD D*«'aai 

I therefore submit that it is per- ^^^^ ^^^^^ mnao naa on^'a vn» 
fectly evident to me that the vowel- ' ' 1 It ' 

pomts neither existed nor obtained r l l 

^ the days of the Tahnudic sages, *^=^ ^^^ ^P"^^ ^^"^h naor y ,-m ittk 
and much less in the time of the men : o^Dpoi mpi 

ofthe Great Synagogue. These men ^^? '^^^^ "'" 1'^ "^^^^^ ^^^"^^ 
did not require them, for they nf^^ipn ipa^ to^^ nmpm i^<xd» 
could read without vowel -points nrw iti ,Tipa irw idd -|inD n3ia3n 
and accents, making a pause where nanr \\vh7\ rvn lo'ipn \\vh *a jrhnw 
the sense required it, and reading urh rrn vkh »a ,D*Br3i cjd jpn npa ,o^a ia 
on when the sense did not require -wr»oi ,DnDTK f?pD i^:b^ np ,mnR pr^ 
a pause, just as they had heard and i^t nvi ^nrniKn Tanr y^ nof? thk ipj 
received it from the Prophets ; as /^ ,jj i^ .^ ^^^^ .^^ -^ y^^ ^^P 
our Babbms of blessed memory say, 

''And the Prophets transmitted it to the men of the Great Synagogue'* 
[Ahoth L] ; and the sages who were in their days, viz., the great and 
small Sanhedrim, as well as the priests who served God at ^e altar, 
received it from them, generation after generation, till by habit they 
knew how to read without vowel-points and accents. 

Now there are some who might ask, How was it possible, before 
the invention of the vowel-points, to teach a child the correct reading 
from a book which was not pointed? But this is no question. For 
the sacred tongue was the language which all spoke, both young and 
old, children and women, since Uiey had no other language till they were 
led captive from their land. When, therefore, a child was being taught 
to know the letters, his teacher read with him from a book each verse 
two or three times, till he was familiar with it, and as the child was 

•• The Stilsbaoh edition erroneoasly has nmparr t» l ftD« r i p mown O : 

S 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



128 

For if the vowel-points had come r^hnri nn^ji o'dd iipan rw dk 'a ,-]3 
from Sinai, and the words in ques- npn hn idi^ om onf? n^*^n ,13 nmpj 
tion had been pointed in a certain : Kin p ^a ^or»i |*a» ^♦arcm ",-|a 
manner, God forbid that the Bab- no /f?n n^n nf?nji mriK n^iti nijn 
bmsshonldsay,"Donotreadso."« „„ at^r ^a unna h<aaa f?"n nDK» 
The intelligent student wiU under- ^^^ ,., ^i^ «, ^^^ ^ 

stand and admitthat it is so. ^J^ („.^ ^^^^^ c^ ^, ^ ^^ «^ 

Secondly, — What is still greater '^ ' ^ V , 

proof, is liie foUowing rem^k in ^'^' "'"^, "^""P" °"^ "'" "*^ l'"*"^ 
the Talmud r^afta Baf^ira, 21 5), 'I'^^P =^"=> -^n-iip rrni. nrupa Va ^| 
" Joab slew his teacher because he "■ "^^ *^' *^ *" "•'^ P** 

had performed the work of the Lord ^op piB^ ^^o^*' ™o "*^i ^'W 
deoeitfuDy, in reading to him "»5T OTiat man xrhr^ i^»i pioD ^p nram 
instead of "OT (Deut. xxv. 19)'" pio^D^ tdh mei? id ,(Y'a nior) TOiii 
Now is it credible that he would 

have attempted to read "^T with two Kametz, if they had had the 
points, and the word in question had been pointed "t^T with six points. 
By the life of me, this could not have been done, according to my 
opinion.* 

Thirdly, — In Chagiga, where the passage "they brought burnt 
offerings and killed sacrifices," &c., (Exod. xxiv. 5) is discussed, Mar 

^ The Talmndio diseiuflioiis on tliiB phrase are to l« found in SarJi^dnnt 4 a; 
Sebachimy 37 b; Peuachim, 86 h; Kiddushin, 18 h, Leirita's argmnent, deduced from 
this &ct, has also heen esponaed and elaborated by Gapcllns, Arcanum Punctat. lib. i. 
cap. y., sect. 4, &c, ; and Morin, Exercit. lib. : ex. ziL, cap. 8-A ; ex. xr., cap. 8-6. 
Comp. also Oesenins, Chsehichte der Hebrauchen Sprachet p. 182, &c., Leipzig, 1810 ; 
Hnpield, Studien und Kritikeny p. 654, Hamburg, 1880. For the atiemnts to refate it 
on the part of the yowelists, see Bnxtorf, the father, TthenaSi cap. ix., pp. 76-86 ; Bnxtoxf , , 
the son, De JPunetatorum Antiquitate, p. 108, &c. ; Gill, A Dissertation concerning i 
the Antiquity of the Hebrew Language, p. 168, &c., London, 1767. \ \ 

» To understand Levita's allusion, it is necessary to relate the dreumstances which 
called forth the story quoted in the text. " B. Dime, of Nehardea, maintains that he 
only is to be appointed as teacher of youths who has a good pronunciation, eyen if he ie 
not so learned, since it is difficult to unlearn an acquired mistake in pronunciation." To 
enforce his axiom, the Babbi narrates the following story, which relates to Joab's slaying 
the whole male population in Edom (1 Kings xi. 16, 16). >md n^ yckk TITI nap^ MDM ^ 
tDi M« rrt iD« ]anp idi p« Km rxh yank pes iDi n« rmnn itoi rrb -idm 'an may wmmd 

rrt iD« TPttQ Dijfrr Mrm *nnm rrpaiD rrt "^om ttd-i "n roiOo ttoi» ii-m a^roi rn id« 
rrtojp «b noMi M3>n rp^p ^fyckn vem dto ^am otio itvo a»n3. When he returned to 
Davidt he asked him. What is the reason that thou hast acted thus t [i.e. slain the males 
only], whereupon he [Joab] replied. Because it is written. Thou shalt blot out the males 
of Amalek [Deut. xxy. 19 J. He [David] then taid to him. We read Secher = the 
memory, to which he [Joab] replied, I have been taught to read Sachar = males, 
and went to inquire of his Bdboi, asking him. How dost thou teach me to read it t 
He [the Babbi] replied, Secher = memory. Hereupon, A« [Joab] seized his sword 



kold of a curse. He [^oab] said agam, It is written, ** And cursed be he wk 
leeepeth back his sword fiom blood.'* Some say he then kilUd him [his Babbi], and 
some say he did not kiU him (Comp. BaJba Bathra, 21 a-b). Leyita's argument, deduced 
from this, that the Talmndists must haye had an unpointed text — Buxtorf, the father 
(Tiberias, p. 86), Buxtorf, the son (De Antiquitate Punctat. n. 108, Ac), Whitfield 
(A Dissertation on the Hebrew vowel-points, p. 269, &c.), and Gill (Dissertation, p. 166, i 
&c.) haye tried to refute. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



127 

with divisions into verses, then with hp ^mooa p tthi ^tropoa p imi 

vowels, then with accents, then with rrm»mi« ijd ivm iv ,TDnm vthnn rrrow 

definitions respecting the preserva- m nnna nvDv inp*i vmv nn ,^''3p 

tion of |>Zcti« and defective^ and even fj*i^ ^^^ „^p ^^^ niaaf^a iiDr'n^nr 1 

tiie exact nnmher of letters ? " ^ ^.^^ ^i, ^^ ^^^^ ^^ i 

Thns fiir his remark. From tins f^ oam ,A A» p nDi ^n'oni f^i^f. 

we see that he was not of opimon ^,^ ^^^ i ^^ .' ij^ «,^^ ^« .^ 
that Moses wrote them, bnt that , jl l^ l 

it was only preserved in- memory '^ ^ '^*^" l lT ^^ ' 
what Moses' pronunciation was, » : rmoDn ^-^pa "tj a» mnr 

viz., what distinction he made be- ^^'S'™* r"^ T^p^ '''P'' 1^ ^^^ «£ft 

tween the pronunciation of Ka- ••'^ »**"'^P oiip iti nh D^cpem nnip3P» 

iw^;!f and FaUach, between Tzere rxartx ^ t<iip thk h<fn ,Ki?p pta 

and Segol, &c. Would that this nnna m»«na ni irain^ ^h rn ,'nDWin , 
sage author had explained to us :mma3i ^ 

whom he meant by "they put" — Saa ^tc^ ^S *a miritin n^Kin 

whether the men of the Great Sy- ,,1, mrnoi rrnanai mof^na V'n nai 

nagogue or the Massorites. I q*^ l, op^ ,^ ^^^ q^^b ^^ ^f,^ ^^^ 

^^that It refers to the Masso- ^.^^ „^^p„ ^"^ ,,„ ^ ^^ ^^ ,^ 

^ ^ Now this is my opinion upon ^ ""^ '"^ ^^P "'"^^ °^" °^" '^" t?^ 
the subject. The vowel-points ^d ^^^ '^^"^ ^^^^ P ^7 ^^ ^» 
the accents did not exist either be- ™P ^^ ^'^^ ™^ *"*"'" '"^ ,in^ni 
fore Ezra or in the time of Ezra, or l'» ^^^ ^^ H^ «^« 1^ "^ ^^ r^^^^ 
after Ezra till the close of the Tal- «^»« T3| *T" ^•^ ("'"^ "T?"'') "^"^ *^^^^ 
mud. And I shall prove this with ^, «f?« (3 D'f?n) -pi D4n npn ^ ,^ 
clear and conclusive evidence. tm vn Hipish ok r» ni»» no )ai ,-itt 

Fi>»«, — in all the writings of our rrjfwh *h rfytt ^a *npn ♦d^ ♦a jrrDoish 
Rabbins of blessed memory, whether Kipf? ^.f^.^ vn «f?« ,-npan onS vn «f?» 
the Tahnud, or the Hagadah, or ^t^ ^3 ,«,„ «,,, ,to» na^ef? ,Tip3 ^f?a na 
the Midrash, there is not to be 

found any mention whatever of, or any allusion to, the vowel-points or 
accents. Is it possible that, if they had the vowel-points and accents, 
they would not even once have mentioned the name Kametz, Pattach, 
Segol, or Tzere? or the Paskta, Darga, Tebir, &c.? Do not reply, 
that their existence is implied in their remarks respecting certain 
words: "Do not read so, but so;" ex. gr., Do not read 1!33, but T^S 
(Is. liv. 18); Do not read nm, but n^\ (Ps. 1. 28); as well as in their 
declaration, " There is a soUd root for tiie readmg of the text, and 
there is a solid root for the traditional pronunciation:" since, 
according to my opinion, all this fiEivours my conviction, that they 
had not the vowel-points, but that they were in the habit of reading 
without points, and therefore they said, "Do not read so, but so." 

w> Eren those Boholan, who lihe Lerita regard the Towel-points as a poBt-Talnmdio , 
inyention, xnoBt unhesitatingly affirm, that lovn, and they put, is the predicate of 
r^yn noaa ^»a«, the men of the Great Synagogue; comp. Khosari p. 249, note 8., > 
ed. Cassel, Leipzig, 1858. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



126 

have also found the following words, ^^h^ O'oa irw iipin *a npi^ wS »» ",V'n 
m a book called The Purity of ps^^ na^pn lan irna hk ^in^n npar 
the Language:^ "We must know ^n^^^pm nipiann ^a D^poirn u'an rnpn ' 
that the points were given on Hjf^tDa nam ]iaa nwa m^nini niaepn 
Sinai ; not that they were put on ,^0 n^an*? b^^ ^a ^nenn h<in pmn no 
the Tables of Stone ; but when ^, ^ ,3, ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ 
the Lord spake m Ihe holy ton^e, i^ ^^^^ ^ ^^; ^^^^ ^^ 

those who heard him could dis- ^ ^ J ^ - ,^ ^ ^ ; 
tmgmsh between the vowel-pomts ' ' • » • ' Li m l 

and syllables w both short and long. .^^ ^ ^ , '^ ^^ "T* ''^ 

Just as the vigour of the human "Jowsa ^"^n 1DD f?pa oann ana D31 
voice utters higher or lower notes ^^^ P^ '^^ ''=>"" '^ "^"" ^''^jod *i 
according to reauirement, so ought •^s*''^^ "larm I'Dpni Kimea niaaSa "jidv 
we to distinguish from the mouth D'aVcn pav iDri ip /lai Q^&jyoni 
of readers between K with a Ka- Dip*npn nrM Dnn noian^ niniK D'Dv&ni 
metz and K with Pattach, between ijpn i»k ^ airnn noi ,np"nDD nf?apa 
K with Tzere and K with Segol, be- ^-^pja p -mn) ,ntnn D^pioea Hipon 
tween )fi< with Cholent and K Chateph- 

KametZy between ^k with Vav and K without the Vav, between *K i;nth 
Jod and K without Jod"^ Thus fer his remark. 

The learned author of The Khosari also remarks, in section 
iii. [81,] as follows:"' "The master replied, Doubtless the Pattach^ 
KametZf Sheber, Sheva, and the accents were committed to me- 
mory * * and they put the principal vowels and the accents as 
marks, to indicate what was received from Moses by tradition. 
What thinkest thou about it ? that they have received the Bible first 

M Wolf {Bibliotheea Hebraea i. 80, 160) ooniectareB that the Purity of the Lan- 



guage {n*rDO ns), may simply be another name for the well known work of Ihn Ezra, 
entitled Purity (n^ns)« ^oted in the preceding note. After carefnlly pemsing, 
however, Ibn Ezra's work in (question, and not being able to find in it Levita's 
potation, we endeayonred to obtain some information on this subject. And acoordinsly, 
in addition to the information in a private commnnication from Dr. Steinschneiaer, 
that the Zachoth Sephasajim is " stiU extant in a MS. of De Bossi (Cod. 764)," at 
Farma ; we have receiyed frt>m the learned librarian, the Abate Pietro Perreau, a 
description of the codex in question, of which the following is the substance. The MS. is 
a folio on parchment, written in Babbinical characters, and contains fonr works : i. The 
Hebrew Lexicon of Solomon Parohon [an account ojf which will be fonnd in Kitto's 
CyclopwdiGf s, v. Pabchon] ; ii. Several Sections ( D nyt?)t also by Parchon, being 
a supplement to the Lexiocm ; iii. The Zaeh Sepfujuajim^ which only extends over four 
folids of the MS., and is complete, as is evident from the conclusion DTiEjn MS S^t here 
endeih the Purity of the Languages ; and iv. The Instruction to the Reaaer of the 
Scriptures (MTTipi irmn 1E3D) [a description of which has already been given. Vide 
supra, p. 123, note 81]. 

n The word mVt pm, and the svllables, is omitted in the Sulzbaoh edition, whilst 
rnVnam, the Umg, is wrongly put before niaBpTi, the short. 

^ This sentence is erroneously transposed in the Sulzbach edition. 

80 The author of the Khosari is B. Jehudah Ha-Levi, a very distinguished Hebraist, 
Poet, and Moral Philosopher, who was bom in Castile circa 1086. For the life of this 
literator, as well as for an analysis of his celebrated work, entitied Khosari, to which 
Levita refers, see Eitto's Cycla^cedia, s. v, Jehtti>ah Ha-Lbyi. It is to be remarked 
that Levita's quotation is not literal. Thus the word rp^am, and pronunciation, after 
-QOm, and Sheber, is omitted, drc, &c. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



125 



to the words; in which case the cmv maiu dki ,it mna hnntrh Dr6 



Israelites would have derived no 
benefit from seeing them. Or we 
must say, that he did affix them 
to the words, and come to the 
conclusion that he wrote another 
Codex, besides onr Pentateuch, with 



\y^ rmnn tdo nSi idd onS anar ' 
omjf/am niM\pTi cap »^r anj^Dinn 
^a na"m pmit i3rrr ij^ dttdp ia Kipi 
oiti .inna irm »Din i^ pnjm nxir nj 

pomts and accents, and recited it » . ', ' ' • 

^th them, till they knew it, and ^^B^^l-^^n^ pnn nn ,of?a om onDon 

that afterwards, 4ch one who '"^PP^ ^"^ ^ ^"''™ °?^ ''^'^ ^^ 
wished copied it. In this case the *' ^"^^ 'nanaw ica D'if?« mm neoa ^ 
question arises. How could the i?"« omait ^n npi pi ,f?^a mpm u inai 
points and accents be forgotten, un- d'3"i C3V'«d v^ *^"n /nnv.lBDa 
less we say that all these copies smai ,raia3 nai nh) p'ODDn rw d«p&q 
were afterwards lost? which is fdto- rtm n&nK ^mi 13^ /iai }nan nv& 'ai 
gether incredible. Even the expla- on 'a pjri poDon npo ^h ,^nj ]inDn 
nation which the sages give of Neh. rrn nh p^oBon 'a ^^am ,TDion imjr inn 
viii. 8, quoted above [p. 108, &c.], n^pon «?aa wtei nan ^a ,inr)a oan inrw 
does not at aU mention the points. ^^.,,^1 ,V'ajr ^i«fi oipca Kf»t p-DDnnf? 
This 18 also the opmion of Ibn Ezra, . ^^ ^^ ^ 

peace be upon him, who says m his 1 /^^ 1 ^^j^. 

Grammar, entitiedPtinty,"" There ^^"^^^ ^*^ in» tk 1^ 3m n^m 
are many commentators who main- ^^^'°'=^'' °^^ ^'^ '^ P" l'"^ "^ 
tain that those who divided the ^^^ ^^^^ °^^^ "^ P"" '^"^ ^^^^ 
verses committed blunders, but this P^^ 1^^ ^^ J^"^'^ V^^^ D*3TKD 
is not correct. To this class be- r'^'OD ijto umft^v inpi |*Kr inaio 
longs R. Moses Ha-Cohen, &c., but D^nBC' nv mpin nrat TDoa wm pi 
I am perfectly astonished at it, for 

how could the divider commit blunders if he was Ezra the Scribe ? In 
short, after the divider there were none so wise as he was, since we 
see that, throughout the whole of the Scriptures, he never made a 
pause which is not in its proper place.*' Thus far his remark. The 
meaning of p^DfiD is the one who made the dividing accents. 

Now I am astonished at his speaking here of one divider, since 
there is no doubt that there were many dividers, as I shall show 
hereafter ; and since Ibn Ezra himself speaks of them in the plural, in 
his grammar called The Balance. At any rate, his words here show 
that he was not of opinion that the accents* were given on Sinai.* I 



V The passage alluded to is to be found on p. 78 a, (, ed. Lippmann, Fiirth, 1827, 
and in its entirehr is as follows i—ono ' mn33 noH M^ 'Vkxian MM uytMa cri*^ CTvnDD «r 
mm lara p^ .o'5 jnoD d«) tw pidd d^d V» w 71120 (h"7 i*) irv) Taaob o iDiro ^pan d'^ 
m Vyj 'CrnpOTO dpto ofraw ttbtd na^i »(a'j uxo) vna? pno mSi t» pii ( a'a pipan) toin 
if) ♦3W 'OyQT onvnb onnn rrw Mnpoa oyiOD mu» «^ Trm naia n«so« •^laya rw 
nMTi mpD3 DK ^ msn ¥h - • • *nn. Both Buztorf (De PuneUUorum Antiquitate, 
p. 11, &c.) and Morin (Lift, ii., Exercit. xii. c. 7) have elaborated npon this passage ; 
the one tiring to prove from it that Ibn Ezra maintained the antiqni^^ of the Towel- 
points, and the other to show that he regarded the Uassorites as haying liTed after the 
dose of the Tahnnd. 



Digitized by 



Google 



124 

but they were forgotten again, till /w^ |«5 ip in^Jii mtj^ Haep ij^ inm^w 
Ezra came and revealed them.*' n&N -]tt ^dmh nt )*3D '33'm nDMai ,^ 
i^ Thns hi its remark. Now the di9 ibtr minn rMW pfio u ]'mi9 ttin 
tmth is that I do not miderstand «^a tyiwQ ido n^n ,^inv^ *3a ^yeh nrc 
this truth. But it is undoubtedly d^didd *dio *323d *^ai ,D*Dp& ^f^ai iips 
true that the law which Moses put [i^^^ ^^ ^^l,^ ae^vn Ditn imaH irrKa 
before the Children of Israel was a ^.,, ^^^ ^^ ^,„^ i^^ ^^^p, 

plam Codex, without pomts and ^ ^,^^ ^^,„ 

without accents, and even without *lx ,^,^«^ u «, , */i^^ -,h^« ,•^n 
the division of verses, as we see ''^^^^ ^^^™^ ^ ' ^^ '^J" jj^'' '""^ 
it to the present day.® According '^ ^ "^^"^ 

to the opinion of the KabbaUsts, ]^ ^'P'^ «^" ^^ ^'"^ 'f ^ 
the whole Law is like one verse, n3"pn» nwi dk ,np wtd pao' k? ♦ro 
and indeed, some of them say, like rim pan nm n"p laai ns^S nt^nn 
one word, from which they combine ,f op 7 Kin nm n» lis^h ,r« ^r o^Dponi 
sundry Divine Names. Thus says mn nci ,nxr»<iri n»i ,nnD T«in n»i 
Nachmanides of blessed memory, p, .^ ^,n ^ij, ,,^1 n,n n,^, t»,ao - 
in the Introduction to his Com- ^t,, t^^^,L, q^^^q^ ^^„ „j^,.^, ot,^ 
mentary on the Pentateuch, which ^^ ^^^^ ^ ^,,^ ^^ ^^ 

you may consult.®* 

Now, I submit, if it be true that the points were given on Sinai, we 
cannot escape one of these two alternatives. We must either say that 
God revealed to Moses, our teacher of blessed memory, the forms 
of the points and accents in fire, saying, this 7 is the shape of 
KametZf this t the shape of Pattach, this t is the form of Tzere, 
this 7 is the form of Segolf this ~ the shape of Zarka, this L the 
shape of Pazer, and so on; and that Moses, our teacher of blessed 
memory, showed these forms to Israel, and did not affix them 

of the Scriptures (comp. SteinBohneider, Bibliograph, ffandbueh, p. 95, Leipzig, 1865). 
It WAS fint publiahed 1^ Jacob b. Cbajim in the niargin of the Massorah fin&liB, Venice, 
1&25, to which edition Lerita refers. It has nnoe been reprinted in all the editions of 
the Rabbxnio Bibles, and has been republished separately with a short eommentaxy bj 
Zebi b. Menachem, Wilna, 1822, and with corrections and Geiman notes bj the learned 
Frensdorlf, Hanover, 1847. Levita's quotation will be found on p. 1 Helnew text, and 
animadverted upon p. 1 in the German notes, of the last mentioned edition. 

tt The Svnaffogal Scrolls of the Law, out of which the hebdomadal lessons are read 
among the Babbinic Jews, have to the present day neither the vowel-points nor the 
accents, nor any of the Massoretio glosses whatsoever, {vide supray p. 44, &c.) It is to 
this fttot that Levita refers. 

M Ramban n"in is the acrostic of JOTO p 7TB9Q \ B, Moses h. I^achman = Nach- 
manides, the distinguished Talmudist, Commentator, Moral Philosopher, Eabbalist, and 
Physioian, who was bom at Gerona, in Catalonia, circa a.d. 1196, and died at Aooo drca 
1270. The passage to which Levita refers, is as follows:— nOM ^ nVsp 'ISTI XO* TSf 
fn V» awrm ibio ttw |»»a rnonh rnp^no rra^nrro m"prr ^ vnrato rfriD rmnn Va »3 
pDTTjr 11^ p mvin Vai tyrhvk vrars* wwra p:o nnrw m:irf) p^rv itwhtq pioe 'O Vidd 
Twao ^ ]rm"»nBD»a'», We possess a faithful tradition that the whole Pentateuch consists 
of names of the Holy One, blessed he hej for the words may he re-divided into sacred 
names of a different import, so that it is to he taken as an allegory. Accordingly, the 
words UTfM vna, mOHTO (Gen. i. 1), for instance, may be re-divtded into the words 
DmbM MTOTP xovra. This ts the case with the whole Law, which consists of nothing but 
permutations and numerals of divine names. For a sketch of the life of Nachmanides, 
see Kitto's CycUpcsdia, s. v. ; and for his relation to the Kabbalah, see Ginsbuxg, the 
Kabbalah, p. 108, -&c., Longmans, 1865. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



128 

make the words plain did not exist, mawi jnnaDv onapiam ytpyn ♦ViV^i 

how could one possibly understand no^ pja ,diik*3 y^nh h^^^ omt j^n 

plainly whether nth^ means where- dm to wi ,^'33^ ,to^ ^noVte ,nt5!«> ,toV^ 
/or^, rtftriZ^ttfum, Solomon, garment, . n.f?»\ir»rnaiB n^n m«t 

OT verfect?** Thus far his remark. 1 .....^ 

I leave it to the reader to judge . ^1 ^«..^« .^.^i,.^ 

whether this is reliable proof. 'npT hcS, ,fcnipn npin Kipn nDon 

Again, I found another book, "'«'« ^*"P" P ^^' ^^"'^ "'=»"^" «*;" 'f 
which seems to me to be the work °'^^**^ ^^''P ''^P^" ""** ""^^ "'J^ •*' 
called Jn5tru^n'ow/orfA«i^fld«-, and '^^ "™ "^^^ "^P^ '^ WP^ »*^ ™^ 
the author of which I do not know, d^^P^ pw ipT i^«i ,]^vt 'a nrpaw 
say as follows :" " There are some n"pn rwD^ 1^ win n^i wik npii «f?K 
of the punctuators who, not knowing ^p irpn k^ ,^i jo innni nrw Kpit k^h 
thoroughly the true nature of the wxoa *3 npari f?3n ni te n^ii ,^"ajr n? 
points, ask why we do not find ope aiD iDoa iHawr ica ,an^ nmpt 'a 
two Sarkoth on one word, seeing :Kp-iTnmiDna 

that there are two Pashtin f But _ ^.... 

had they known that there never ^'^^^^^ ™ °^™ "^=^ ''T*'^ ^^^ 
existed more than one Sarha, and "'^^ ^^'"^^ ^"'^^^^ '"^^''^" ""^^^ 
that no more than one Sarica, fol- "'^^ '^^ ^ ^''^ ^^^ '^' ,'3irDrn 
lowed by a iS^^ro/, was revealed to our "'^ ^^"^^ '^^rr ipra TKannr loa jipan 
teacher Moses of blessed memory, «^» *3«d ]ro iipanw mn nw » wirS 
they would not have asked such a 

question.** Thus far its remark. Now all this is vain and wrong, 
since two Sarkos are frequently found, as I shall show in my book, 
entitled Good Sense, under the form Sarka. 

Again, I found in the treatise published here, around the Massorah 
finalis, which some say is The Book Shimshoni, but which I say is B. 
Moses the Punctuator's, as I shall show in part iii., called the Broken 
Tables, as follows :^ "It is true that the points were given on Sinai, 

^ The Horajoth Ha-Kore (wmpn rmn) = Instruction for the Header, by Ihn Balaam, 
(flourished, a.d. 1050-1090), disciums, in twenty-four chapters, the accents and yowel- 
points of the Hebrew language. From Dnhes' pabUcation of the Introdnction and Table 
of Contents, it is eyident that cap. i. — ^rni. of this Treatise are deyoted to the doctrine of 
the prose accents of the twenty-one sacred books ; whilst cap. xriii. — ^zxiy. are taken up 
with the metrical accents of the three remaining books, riz., the Psahns, PlroTerba, and 
Job. The seyeuteen chapters which discuss the prose accents were re-cast by the 
author himself, and designated Mnporr 'nasff^, A Treatise on the Accents of the Scriptures. 
It was first published by the learned John Mercier, Paris, 1865, and Heidenheim inserted 
twelye chapters of it in his work D>Q]mrr noDOQ 1E», On the Laws of the Accents, 
Bodelheim, 1808. The second part, which assumed the name of rV^DH ^rm^ "VD, 
A Treatise on the Accents of Job, Proverbs, and the Psalms, was also published first by 
John Mercier, Paris, 1566, and recently by G. J. Polak, Amsterdam, 1858. Comp. Furst, 
Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenUbiaiscnen Oesellschaft, yol. zx., p. 201, Leipzig, 1866; 
Bteinschneider, Catalogue Lior, Hebr. in Bibliotheca Bodleiana, col. 1294, &e. 

a The Treatise on the Vowel-points and Accents, by B. Moses the Punctuator, who 
liyed in London circa a.d. 1280, is alternately designated Tiparr ^, the Laws of the 
PoinU [vide infra. Part iii., sub rttn; Wolf, Bibliotheca Eebraea i. 822); rpn nWJ 
mr33iTt, the Oates to the Vowel-points and Accents (comp. Massorah margtnalis on 
Amos iy. 1 ; Ps. cxxxyi. 8) ; mraam TiMrr ^om, the Method of the Vowel-points and the 
Accents (Wolf, Bibliotheca Hebraea i. 592) ; and Mmpn rcr^. Instruction to the Reader 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



122 

memory did not say, in order that r» P|>^nf? V'n nDH«f?mi ,[%|] of^ina 
the vowel-points should in any way ^^,^'3^ ^a'oa nro^ lana iwta mpinn 
be changed from what they were as man irKa ,n\n naia d:d3^ w^ nam 
given to Moses on Sinai.**" Thus ^jdj ^jaa 133 tdk» nt) o^imo n^ 
far his remark. But one must ,e,w -npjn opnoi « f?"n ,trfi^irnD .£( 
hesitate to accept this statement, ^^^.^^ ,3 .^^,„ .^^y^^^ ^ap^, ^,3 ^un 
inasmuch as it contradicts what he ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ « , ^^^ 

has said before on the Ntphal conju- '^^ ^^ ^ i^,. l^ ♦jirani 

cation of the regular verb, which is^ '^ y»i.rP ' 

&a8 foUowsT- The inventors ^^"'^ ^'""^ na^DKinoya ,nfm ria-m 
of the points made a distinction nDa-H'iairTTTTVh-npamapnnrK 
between the singular third person r« '^^^ nrof? WW nr^a pa tdw 
praterite and the participle, as they niVipr risn pi -np^n rmar TDif? laixi 
are pronounced alike, and pointed P)*^nn7 idw ^a? ^wopn ram mSnin 
the past tense with Pattach, under '^n^ xa ^nipan tow «*ki mjnam 
the second radical ppW], and the IB^K law la^Ki '«i ^»w "TK^^ -ttDiKiBP 
participle with Karnetz [^T^B?].** m^ /nana nrita man pan^ r» i»ia 
Thus far the substance of his re- : y^rh ^aiM 

mark. We therefore see, from his »^^ ^l, ,5^, TTlDDn nDD f?pa nnDI 
own words, that even he believed 
that there were men who invented 
the points, namely, 7 T 7 T 7 
&c. Hence it is evident that when 
he remarks, "as they were given to 
Moses on Sinai," he does not mean 
to say the form of the points, but 

the five major and the five minor sounds; and this is the reason 
why he uses the words '' to change the vowelsj'* and does not say the 
points. Thus, also, when" he said, **as they were given,*' and not 
** which were given,** his words are to be understood in the same way, 
and I have no need to dwell on this point any longer. 

B. Levi b. Joseph, author of the book SemadaVj says, at the begin- 
ning of his work, as follows :" " If any one should ask, Whence do we 
know that the points and accents were dictated by the mouth of the 
Omnipotent ? the reply is. It is to be found in the Scriptures, for it is 
written, 'And thou shalt write upon the stones all the words of this 
law very plainly' (Deut. xxvii. 8). Now, if the points and accents, which 

77 KimoU'B remark, to which allneion is made in the text, is to he found on p. 26 h 
of Levita*8 own edition of the Michicly Venice, 1545, and on p. 81 a, ed. Hechim Fiirth, 1703. 

78 This quotation is to he found on p. 18 &, &c., ed. Venice, 1545, and on p. 61 a, ed. 
Furth, 1793. 

7> The Snlzhach edition has omitted the word m, whaU 

w Nothing is known of this Grammatical Treatise, entitled Sepher Ha-Semadar 
(TiDDn "SOQ) = ike Booh of ike Vine-Moaaom, or of its author, hejond the fact that it 
is also quoted hj A7.7.ariah de Bossi {3£eor Enajitn, cap. lis.), who endorses the ahore- 
named ar^pments for the antiquity of the rowel-points, and by Samuel Aicheyolti, in his 
Grammatical Treatise, entitled Arugath Ha-Bosem (ovun X\xr(Sf) = A Trellis for 
Aromatic Plants^ published at Venice, 1602, and Amsterdam, 1780, who also espouses 
its sentiments. Comp. Butorf, De Punetatitrum Antiquitate, p. 42, ^c, Basel, 1648. 



11 pan TDHJ miain »dd *3 pna |*kd tdwh 

nan ^a rw D'iann h^ nanai a»roi 
,(i"a onan) ziart mta rwtn minn 



Digitized by 



Google 



121 

verbs, Job, the Five Megilloth, V»»n jtmh^n ran ,^^^ »^»d D»^nn ^naa 

Daniel, Ezra, and Chronicles. It piD avo^ o»ani3 m^»iDn 'm ,n"T untp 

is the custom to put the Five pjoia roian iraa jmn o^impw ttdh ♦dS 
Megilloth in the order in which '^rnnoKn^np mrpnn t» i3«m 

they are read in the Synagogue, ^rnait i^KDipDn ip ^nj^jn nnjn^ 

according to their respective sea- ,^ ^ „ I^^jl L '^^_,tSL^ 

Bons,^t is. Song of Songs, Ruth, ^» T^ Ti niin^ mm nDipm nf^nna 

Lamentations, Eoolesiastes, and "^"^^ ^"^^ '"^5^^ ^''V^" P^J^^. 

Esther." '°'^' '^ ^^^^ '^^'^^^ ^^^ onDiitn lu 

i^ Having now reached the place ^"^ ,nrmKen cap iD«nm iioin »nDi 

in which I, at the beginning of this "^J^ ^^^ *'^P«' mri^ nnaina ^arrai v 

Introduction, promised to state my iDoar rrnoKn n^apn laji ,S"n npi 

own opinion about the points and up h2H ^inpi *3Dd ^npn feia* "imtn 

accents, I shall first do battie lan vipDw «^i itri nh) *r«»D kS ran 

against those who say that they nn^panrr ,vf?p nir»^ nKir iDo ik ,mn 
were given on Sinai, and then : »3»dd lana o'Dpesni 

state who invented them, and , ^ i ..,^^ 

when they were originated and ^P :>i~ '^^^atrnD fa aina* ^i3m 

affixed to the letters. But if any- '•'^=»''=" ^^ ^ °'^^'™" *^^'' ™P=» ^^ 
one should prove to me, by clear «*3» '^^ ^^^^^ P'""" ^^ r^"" 
evidence, that my opinion is op- r^T^*'" V^ "^"^ P^ l^J^ ^"" "''5*® 
posed to that of our Rabbins of *»o fopa ''V^ ,oaaaTOa nan yi) 
blessed memory, or is contrary to Tip3 n»n» c|po Kfa inw Knp* dhi ,t|pDn 
the genuine Kabbalah of the Sohar^'^ 

I mU readily give in to him, and declare my opinion as void. Up to 
this time, however, I have neither found, nor seen, nor heard, any 
evidence, nor anything approaching to it, that is worthy to be relied 
upon, that the points and accents were given upon Sinai. 

I shall here state what I have found written on this subject in some 
treatises of later writers, but not in the works ^ of the Rabbins of blessed 
memory. Eimchi, in his Michlol, afl;er citing the statement of the 
Tahnud that it is necessary to make a pause between the conjunctions, 
remarks thus : " — ^^ (Deut. zi. 18) is pointed with KametZf because of 
the Makephf and if it were read without the Makeph, it would be 
pointed 722 with Cholem^ and this, certainly, the Rabbins of blessed 

7^ The Five Megilloth are regpectively read everf year, on five annual festiTals, aa 
follows : — ^i. The Son^ of Songs on Passover ; ii. Ruth on Penteoost ; iii. Lamentations 
on the Ninth of Ahj xy. Eoolesiastes on Tahemaeles ; and y. Esther on Parim. These 
festivals oecar in the snooession in which thej are enumerated. Hence the present order 
of the Fiye Megilloth. 

7S The important passage iniTn *tCDao nnOMn nbapn 133% or against the genwnt 
Kahhalah of the Sohar, which was first animadyerted npon by Aw.anah de Bossi {Meor 
Enajim 287, &c., ed. Vienna, vide supra, p. 62), and of which the Bnztorfs made each 
terrible nse against Leyita (Commentarius Maaoreticua^ cap. iz., p. 74, ed. Basel 1620), 
is entirely omitted in the Snlzbach edition. That the 8ohar does mention the yowel- 
points has already been shown {vide supra, p. 48), and Levita's assertion to the contrary ' 
IS to be accounted for on the supposition adyanced by De Bossi, that it arose from his not 
haying read the Sohar, which haa not then been printed. 

78 The Sulabaoh edition ezxoneoiuly has nni M^ *p«« instead of na*Q M^ iH. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



120 

and Hagiographa. Thus, when they ]v^ ,oaxff onannn uns nvK anoon 
[Ezra and his associates] found the nnsv n^hrm ]3i o&>93 Nin anav n^jrv 
very autographs of the authors jmrpo m j^a pi ,nD^w anar ♦^rDi ,-m 
themselves, as was the case with ryhzph oonx vn nS ,dt3 ihtdj ncn 
the book of Isaiah, which Isaiah ^nSts itVo oipoa .mwftanoa mn^an k^« 
himself wrote, the Psahns which ^^^ ^^^^ ^i^ ^ i^^^ ^„ ^„ , 

David wrote the Proverbs which ^^^ ^^ ,^^„ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

Solomon wrote, and with all or part ^ , ^ 

of the books which they possessed, '"^ ""^ '= '™ "^^ "^'^ "^ '"^^''^^ 
they required no tradition to guide '''^' °^''=»" °"^ '"^"^ onaino dhdo Y'ar, 
them, but copied exactly as they .°*3^rtai o-H^aa mn ^a^p'yn 'j qtod 
found it: plene wherever there was ^^^ "' '^^ "' o^ainai o'K'aa omoi 
pim^, and defective wherever there : ""tf^a K^aa ^"n nmow moa 

was defective. But when they did ^o'K'aJ ^p j-no ^"n ^r ]mD inn 
not find the autograph itself, which rrpr* nnai* ,o»afe ^Nior d'Ddibt pwm* 
seems most likely to have happened, nn paina htt ino-i : nrp '-m ,^»ptn* 
they undoubtedly followed the ma- nirp on^rn t» nf?np *^o avit O'^n 
jority of Codices, which they had col- ^,,3,33 o^^q, o^opQ D,;n„, n-T thdh ' 
lected from different places, one here .,*^,m^ «»»-i «m. m ,.,^ tm 

and one there, as the twenty-four „^ ^^^ ^ ' ^^ , ' '^^ 1„.. 
books were then not jomed together V # 

into one volume. Now they [Ezra '^^'P'"'^ "^^''^ *^°^ "^^^* ^°"^P"«=' P^ 
and his associates] have joined them P'^° f *^^ P^ '^^^^ "^P "*" "^^^/^^^ 
together and divided them into three '"^^°= '=»** p^pnaian omoo neo Saa 
parts : the Law, the Prophets, and ^"^ "^1°^ °'^^"'° °" o^nenxm n'T3a»Kn 
the Hagiographa, and arranged the ^^ I^^^o mDon ^^jya D*ainaa \2h ,f?"n 
Prophets and Hagiographa not in i»r nn .»Wd avK D»^nn n"T ,inn V'tn 
the order in which they have been p^ ,vnvf ^K'n ,nnoK ma'p n^np Dnvn 
put by our Rabbins of blessed me- pio D*nr»»n neoa Sa» pmeon neoa 
mory, in Baba Bathra, [14 a]. 

lie foUowing is the order of our Rabbins, of blessed memory : — 
The position of the Prophets is — Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, 
Jeremiah, Isaiah, Ezekiel, and the twelve minor Prophets. The order 
of the Hagiographa is — Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, 
Song of Songs, Lamentations, Esther, and Chronicles, and they 
[the Rabbins] gave appropriate reasons for this classification, which 
would be out of place here. 

The Massorites too have adopted this order in the Prophets, only 
that they have put Isaiah before Jeremiah and Ezekiel, because he 
lived before them. The same order is also found in fell the 
correct Spanish Codices ; whilst the German and French Codices 
adopt the order of the Rabbins, of blessed memory. But in the 
Hagiographa, the Massorites have altered the order of the Rab- 
bins of blessed memory as follows : Chronicles, Psalms, Job, 
Proverbs, Ruth, Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, Esther, 
Daniel, Ezra, which is followed in the Spanish Codices ; whereas 
the German Codices have the following order: — Psalms, Pro- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



119 

in the Pentatench. " There is un- *33ki pata v* npo n*3B ^3 ^pi "; mina 
douhtedly a reason for all this, but ♦n»Kiw no wen D^ra ]«3i ,«njn» vth 
I do not know it. I have now : pnai y^^ j'jpa iita^ 

satisfied my desire in explaining o^KfTDn pjpo djtd nai« nnjn .^ 
that which I deemed necessary ,3^33^ ^^l^^ ,3 ^^^j^, l,,^^, p^noTim 
about the nature of the Keri and ,^,^ ,^^ ^t^ ,^ ^^^ ^,^c^ ^ ^^„ 
the Kethiv. i 

«r I shaU now say something ''^^ P^ '^"'^''^ •'^ ^"^ "^^"'^•'^ ""^ 
about the nature oiplene and d.>c- "'"'^ ":° °^^'=^=> "*" ""^•^^ '"^'"=> ""^ 
five. First of all, I say, it appears '^"^ '^P '^^^ ^^ ^^ '^^ ^^ 
that, to the words which were found "'"=^ D»TOiKn nj^T 'd^ K^aan naoT ujer 
written pU>ne or defe4;tive, nothing o*«VDm D^norm pi ,p: Kf?i c|»Din kSV 
new whatsoever was added by the 'bi3 DTa inx&3 dm p'a^naai o'M^asair 
men of the Great Synagogue out of 

their own understanding; but that Ezra transcribed them, into his 
copy of the Law, just as he found them in the Codex of the Law which 
was made from tiie scroU of the Law of Moses received from Sinai, 
and which the prophet Jeremiah concealed," according to the opinion 
of some, without adding anything to it or taking anything from it. 
The same is the case with the defective and plene of the Prophets 



tmon . . 
traiaon 2 



crainarr 
*3Dwart 



ni32n . . 
Tpin . . 



. Zeoh. xi. 


2 


Tiar . 


Ezek. xlii. 


9 


yyT 


Chion. xxxT. 


a 


Sorr . 


. . P8.y. 


9 


T'Q??3» . 


Prov. xxiii. 


6 


101D3* . 


Ezra viii. 


17 


^bvasy . 


Jerem. xxv. 


7 


wib . . 


Chron. xxvi 


21 


DUi-rt . 


Numb. xiv. 


86 


TTib . 


Joshua xix. 


22 


*XVttr) 


iRHiah Ixii. 


3 


y\Db . 


Jerem. xiy. 


U 


HDItDD^ 


Jcrem. xiy. 


14 




Jerem. yiii. 


7 


n*i:o . 


. Ezek. xli. 


10 


nTDTO . 


1 Chron. iv. 


20 


213 . , 


1 Chron. xii. 


8 


•213 . . 


Chron. xxxv. 


4 


niTO3 . 


. P8.1xxiv. 


11 


trCWIDS 


1 Kings vi. 


6 


DIO 



. Ezek. xlyiii. 14 
. 1 Chron. xx. 6 
2Chron. xxix. 14 
. . Ps. Hx. 16 
. . Ps. cxl. 10 
. . Prov. iv. 16 

2 Sam. iii. 15 
Jerem. xvi. 16 

Jndg. xxi. 22 
1 Sam. xviii. 6 
. Ezek. xxii. 18 
. Isaiah xlii. 24 
. . Ps. cxxix. 8 
. 1 Sam. XX. 1 
Jerem. xlviii. 21 
. Isaiah Ivii. 19 
, Nehem. x. 20 

Isaiah iii. 16 
. Nehem. vii. 52 
. 2 Sam. xiv. 7 



13» . . 

omwf 






DTxaxo . 
maw . 

'iW3n . 

aiv) 

ni©n 



. 1 Sam. xxv. 18 

Jerem. xl. 8 

Amos yiii. 4 

2 Chron. xiii. 19 

. Esther viii. 13 

. Jerem. xiv. 8 

Jerem. xlviii. 4 

. . Ezek. iv. 15 

. Numb. xxvi. 9 

. 1 Kings xiv. 25 

. Jerem. xviii. 16- 

Jerem. xv. 11 

. Jerem. xliii. 10 

1 Chron. xxiv. 24 

. . Zeph. ii. 7 

Ps. Ixxxv. 2 

Prov. xxii. 20 

Numb, xxxii. 7 

Prov. iii. 30 

. . Job XXX. 32 



It will be seen that the Massorah finalis, under letter Jod^ where the^e alphabetical 
lists are found, oniy gives seventy-two of the former, whereas of the latter it gives 
seventy-five. Comp. also Sojpherim vii. 4; Ochla Ve-Ochla, sections Ixxx. and kucxi., 
pp 24, 85, &c. 

^ Levita is surely incorrect in his statement that not one of the variations specified 
in these lists occurs in the Pentateuch. In perusing them it will be seen, that in the list 
of eighteen words (No. 69), we have Oen. xxvii. 29 ; xliii. 28 ; in the Itst of seventy words 
(No. 71\ we have Gen. xxiv. 33; xxv. 28; Exod. xvi. 2; Numb. i. 16; xxi. 32 ; and in 
the next list (also No. 71), Gen. viii. 17 ; xxxix. 20 ; Numb. xiv. 86 ; xxvi. 9 ; xxxii. 7. 

i "^ According to the traditional explanation of Dent. xxxi. 26, a copy of the entire 
Pentatench was deposited by Moses in the Ark of the Covenant (Comp. Oittin 60 a ; 
Baha Bathra 14-15 ; Menuchoth 30 a; Jerusalem Targum on Deut. xxxi. 26). This 
Codex Jeremiah concealed when he concealed the Ark, together with the Tabernacle and 
the .\ltar of Incense. 2 Maccab. ii. 5. 



Digitized by 



Google 



118 

in the text written with a Joti in the «d^«i ,v'n ]>np^ imian pxona tv 
middle, and in the margin read with po nrw oj pM ^,-]fin3 yho 'p )o Mn«a 
Fav, and the alphabetical list of 
70 words in which the reverse is the case ;^^ not one of all these occurs 



Josh. zziy. 8 

1 Sam. ix. 26 

1 Sam. zxiy. 19 

2 Sam. xzi. 9 

1 Kings i. 87 

2 Kings ix. 37 

Isaiah xli. '28 

IsaUh Hy. 10 

Jerem. xvii. 8 

Jeiem. xl. 16 



ny . 
xffon 

pi. 

TVO . 



Ezek. xxxiii. 16 

Ezek. xxxiii. 43 

Ezek. xIt. 3 

. Hag. i. 8 

Roth i. 12 

RothiT. 4 

. Ps. vi. 4 

Ps. Ixxiy. 6 

. Pb. xo. 8 

Prov. XXX. 18 



y>a 



Ptov. xxxi. 16 
Prov. xxxi. 18 
. . Job i. 10 
. Job xlii. 16 
Lamen. ii. 19 
Lamen. v. 1 
Lamen. y. 21 
. Ecd. yii. 22 
Nehem. ix. 6 



rwn 



P • 

»T . 

X09T) 

The twenty words which^ on the contrary, terminate with He in the textual reading, 

bat not in the marginal reading, are : — 

. Josh. yii. 21 nrwin . . Jerem. xxvi. 6 rtlim . . . . Ps. li. 4 
Josh. xxiy. 8 mp . . . Jerem. xxxi. 39 rrarw . . . Prov. viii. 17 
. 2 Sam. xxiii. 20 mo^ . . Jerem. xliii. 11 TTS^ . . Prov. xxvii. 10 
. 1 Kings yii. 23 nM3»3 . Jerem. xlyiii. 27 nnpD . . . Dan. ix. 18 
Jerem. iii. 7 nvn . . .- Mieah iii. 2 rriM . . Lament, iii. 10 
Jerem. xy. 9 Pnp . . . Zech. i. 16 r^H . . . Ezra y. W 
. Jerem. zyiii. 10 rrDT . . . Ruth i. 8 
These instances are giyen in the Tract Sopherim viL 2 ; Massorah margiiialis on Prov. 
xxxi. 16 ; Lament, ii. 19, v. 1 ; Eccl. vii. 28 ; Massorah finalis onder letter Ifsy and 
Ochla Ve-Ocfduj sections cxi. and cxii., pp. 81, 99, &c. 

71 The following are the words which in the textual reading have Jod in the middle 
of the word, and are with Vav in the marginal reading :— 






T31M . 


. Ps. Ixxyii. 12 


yawai . . 


1 Kings xvi. 34 


rwTo . 


Isaiah xii. 5 


nanH 


. 2 Sam. xxiv. 18 


10*071 • 


, Isaiah X. 6 


ni''D*o 


. Ezek. xli. 8 


vana 


Isa. xxiii. 13 


am . . 




C^D»D3 . 


. Ezra ii. 50 


rr^TXM 


. 1 Kings vi. 21 


n*S3i . 


Isaiah xlix. 6 


Tva^ . 


2 Sam. xiii. 82 


VOl 


Prov. xxiii. 81 


•n^nai . 


. Dan. ii. 22 


□n3*i? . 


Hos X. 10 


D«aa 


. . Ps. Ixxix. 10 


rraD'Di 


. . Dan. iii. 10 


rrbr 


1 Chron. i. 51 


era . 


. Gen. xxv. 28 


rrtoni . 


Lament, iii. 20 


Dn»ffiD . 


1 Chron. ix. 28 


vnna 


. 1 Chron. xii. 10 


rrrai . 


2 Kings xxiii. 86 
. Ps-lxxi. 12 


*Mnp . 


1 Chron. vi. 20 




. . 1 Chron. xii. 5 


rror? 


. Nnmb. i. 16 


D'JTJDn 


. 1 ChroD. iv. 41 


TXOI* 


2 Sam. XV, 8 


n'tn . 


Isaiah xlii. 20 


DttT^ 


Gen. xxiv. 38 


^3' . . 


. Ps. Ixxii. 17 


n*Mi 


. ^Eocl. v. 10 
Isaiah xxviii. 15 


^3*^1 


Exod. xvi. 2 


lana* . 


. .Ps.lvi. 7 


B'TD 


xoy*y 


. Numb. xxi. 82 


iTDna* . 


Ps. cxl. 11 




Jerem. xviii. 22 


mn 


. . Josh. XV. 58 


IQ*!"* 


. . Ps. Ixvi. 7 


oan^tD 


Jerem. xxix. 14 


"iD*an 


. . Judg. vii. 21 


ITSp* 


, Job xxiy. 6 


D*aa"»w 


. Jerem. 1. 6 


wvyy 


. . Jndg. xi. 87 


«rT33 . 


Jerem. xlviii. 7 


^''': 


Lament, ii. 14 


^Tr*i 


. ISam. xiii. 8 


«nr!? . 


Nehem. xii. 16 


. , Mi-ahi. 8 


•vm 


2 Sam. XX. 6 


yxsb 


2 Sam. xviii. 8 


rpTn^TU 


. Hos. vi. 10 


Wd 


. 2 Sam. XX. 25 


Tiao 


2 Sam. xxi. 20 


rnn . 


. Jobxix. 29 


hw^V) 


1 Chron. viii. 25 


2 Sam. xxii. 51 


. Ezek. XXX. 16 


nrri 


. . Ps. xvii. 14 


rvp2i*D . 


2 Kings xvi. 18 


tron . 


. l^v. xvii. 13 


. . Ps. xlix. 15 


2 Kings iv. 5 


pnsan . 


Prov. XX. 80 


xTxy 


. . Job vii. 6 


VTTa 


. . Ruthii. 1 


onn . 


Ps. Ixxxix. 18 


TlTH 


. . Jobvi. 2 










The foUowing is the Alphab< 


»tioal list of 


words, which, on tl 


le contrary, 
the margini 


have Vav in the 


middle of the word in the te 


Ktnal readily 


g, and have J.>d in 


il reading — 


n-iDH 


. Gen. xxxix. 20 


D2niH . 


. . Jerem. 1. 41 


•na . . 


. Prov. xxiii. 24 


Va"»aM 


. 1 Sam. xxv. 18 


*3wa . 


. 2 Sam. xvi. 12 


«im . 


. . Ezraiv. 


TjnaM 


. 2 Sam. XV. 20 


ma . . 


Jerem. vi. 7 


Msnn . 


. . Gen. viii. 17 




cnobna 


Nahnm ii. H 




. Jerem. xix. 2 


^7\H. 


2 Kings xxiv. 15 


1 nn-a . 


. 1 Chron. vu. 31 


mn'm . 


Jerem. xlviii. 5 



Digitized by 



Google 



117 

which have no Vav oonjuoctive in ^pipi na^npnia m jnonn yho a*n 
the text, and yet are read in the 'ewa r^i |«^n n-n"; lona pVoK-^i 
margin with it, and the 11 words 0-37*; ^Dna yho «-m ,]»npi wna^n 
in which the reverse is the case; « ^^ ^3, ^p^p na^nn cpoa «*n n'-on 

saffix Fav in the text, and are 

read in the margin with it, and the 11 words in which the reverse is 
the case;^ the 29 words which in the text want HetA the end, and 
in the margin are read with it, and the 20 words in which the reverse 
is the case ; ^ the alphabetical list of 76 words, every one of which is 



y«nMpn . 
nD3 . . 

PPMbO • . 
?TWW3 

-jifyn . . 

noi* . . 

nasnn. . 

The list of these transpoBitions is given iii the Massorah finalis, under letter Too, 
and in the Oeh^a Ve-Ochla^ section xci., pp. 27, 98, &c, 

* The twelve words which are in the text without the Vav oonjnnotiTe, hut are read 
with it in the margin, are as follows : — 



Ezek. xlii. 16 


mabvi 


Proy. xxxi 27 


^TO© 


. . Ezra ii. 46 


Exek. xliii. 15 


Tnaaira-i . 


. Joh. xxyi. 12 


DTiVaoi 


. . Ezraiy.4 


Ezek. xliii. 16 


nna> . , 


EcoL ix. 4 


movn 


. . Ezra viii. 17 


. Ps. Ixxiu. 2 


riKi^m^ . 


Esther i. 5 


D'WTsa 


. . Nehem iy. 7 


. Ps. cxxxix. 6 


po^o . . 


. Esther i. 16 


^-M). 


. Nehem. xH. 14 


Ps. cxIt. 6 


THT . . 


Dan. iy. 9 


ni*y 


1 Chron. i. 46 


Prov. i. 27 


Kaanam 


Dan. y. 7 


imnin 


. 1 Chron. iii. 24 


Prov. xiii. 20 


Vain . . 


. Dan. y. 16 


ITD® 


1 Chron. xxyii. 29 


Proy. xix. 16 


tain . . 


Dan. V. 16 




Proy. xxiii. 5 


MaaTsm . 


Dan. y. 16 


nyiT^ . 


2Chron. xxiz. 8 


Proy. xxiii. 26 


HDinDm . 


Dan. y. 29 







'3^32 



T^' 



2 Kings iy. 7 

Isa. Iy. 13 

Proy. xxyii. 24 

Proy. xxiii. 24 



T» -Tob ii. 7 

♦T . . . . Dan. ii. 43 
vh ' . . Lamen ii. 2 
M^ . . . Lamen. y. 5 



0»3pl 

i3na« 



Lamen. S. 8 
Lamfn. iy 16 
Lameo. y. 7 
Lamen. y. 7 



The eleyen words which, on the contrary, haye Vav conjnnctiye in the text, hnt not 
in the marginal reading, are as follows : — 



01 . . . 2 Sam. xyi. 10 
n^maDDi . 1 Kings yii. 86 
nntni . . 2 Kings xi. 1 
2 Kings xyi. 17 



wpni 



13Wn7Tl 



ncd . 



. Dan. ix. 6 
Nehem. xi. 17 
Proy. xxiii. 24 



Jerem. iy. 5 

,. Jerem. y. 24 

1>rsvi Jerem. yiii. 1 

tal . . . Lamen. iy. 12 

These instancee are ennmeratei) in the Massorah marginalia on Dan. ix. 6 ; Massorah 

fiualis, nnder the letter Vav ; and Ochla Ve-Ochla, sections cxyii. and cxyiii., pp. 82, 101. 

^ The eighteen words, which according to the Maasorah want the suffix Vav in 

the text, are as follows : — 

1 Kings ix. 9 

1 Kings xii. 7 

2 Kings xz. 18 
2 Kings xxii. 6 

Isaiah xzxyii. 80 
Jerem. xlviii. 7 






Gen. xxyii. 29 
Gen. xliii. 28 
Judg. xxi. 20 
1 Sam. yii. 9 
1 Sam. xii. 10 
1 Sam xiii. 19 



mn*i 

VlDHI 



*11D 

by*i 
nrw 

bap 



. Ezek. yii. 21 
Dan. y. 21 
. Ezra iii. 8 
Nehem. iii. 80 
Nehem. iii. 31 
Esther ix. 27 



The eleyen words which on the contrary terminate with Vav in tlie textual reading, 
hnt haye no Vav in the marginal reading, are as follows : — 

T»OK»l . . . Josh. yi. 7 "wa*^ . • 1 Kings xii. 8 vns*^ . . 2 Kings xvi. 16 
noKn . . . Josh. ix. 7 wan . . 1 Kings xii. 21 IMST . . Ezek. xlyi. 9 
inOKn . . 1 Sam. xy. 16 "imiDO^J . 2 Kings ix. 38 ^TQjn . Nehem. iii. 15 
v^n . . 2 Sam. xx i. 84 wan . . 2 Kings xiy. IS 

These instances are partly enumerated in Tract Sopherim yii. 1 ; and entirely in the 
Massorah marginalis on 1 Kings i. 1, xii. 8 ; Massorah finalis under letter Vav ; and 
Ochla Ve-OchUit sections cxix. and cxx., pp. 82, 102. 

70 The twenty-nine worJs which haya no He in the textual reading, hut haye it in 
the maxginnl reading, are as follows : — 



Digitized by 



Google 



116 



It is astonishing that in the pi niiha iH»t)3 vth rtah nmr\h li^) 
Pentateach there should only be 66 T5?3 j^a^nsT 3*3 ]no nrn a»n3i np n*o 
Kem and Kethivs, 22 of whice relate nn^rpa pn Kirr» pann* neoi ,my3 janpi 
to ?np3, which is written in the ibqi »a"^ la wxttii rnirm moaa 
text 1P3, and the marginal reading nmrm p n»p>ann woa ninr f?niD» 
is rnx?3; whilst in the book of ,,,„^,^.^^^^^t,^„,.i, ^^^^^^^^ 

Sere occur 82 « and in the book of '"''^"^ 1"° ^^^ °^ 1^ '"^'•'^" ^^-^ 
Samuel, which in quantity is about '''P"^^^' ro-^P^OT T^d a*D f^rnm 
a fourth of the Pentateuch, there 

are foxmd 188.^ It is also to be noticed that, of the many Catalogues, 
Registers, and Alphabetical Lists of the Keri$ and Kethivs in the Great 
Massorah, not a single one is found in the Pentateuch. Thus, of 
the 62 words in which two letters are transposed;"^ the 12 words 

88, 55, 67 ; xxy. 28 ; xxxrii. 3, 29 ; xxx. 11 ; xxxiii. 4 ; xxxiv. S (twice), 12 ; xxxri. 5, 14, 16 ; 

xxxix. 20, 22 ; xliii. 28 ; xlix. 11 (twice) : £xod. iy. 2; xiii. 11 ; xvi. 2, 7, 18 ; xxi. 8 ; 

xxii. 4, 26 ; xxyii. 11 ; xxTiii. 28 ; xxxii. 17, 19 ; xxxy. 11 ; xxxyii. 8 ; xxxix. 4, 21, 88 : 

Leyit. ix. 22 ; xi. 21 ; xyi. 21 ; xxi. 6 ; xxiii. 13 ; xxy. 30 : Numb. i. 16 ; iii. 61 ; x. 86 ; 

zi. 32 ; xii. 8 ; xiy. 86 ; xyi. 11 ; xxi. 32 ; xxvi. 9 ; xxxii. 7 ; xxxiy. 4 : Denter. ii. 83 ; 

y. 10 ; vii. 9 ; yiii. 2 ; xxi. 7 ; xxii. 15 (twice), 16, 20, 21 , 28, 24, 26, 26 (twice), 27, 28, 29 ; 

xxyii. 10 ; xxyiii. 27, .'O ; xxix 22 ; xxxiii. 9. The nnmbers, therefore, giyen in Eitto'i 

CyclopoMUa of Biblical Literature^ 8. v. Kkri and Kbthiv, mast be corrected. The 

instances in which the Keri and Kethiv are on the word 193, haye already been speoi- 

fied. Vide supra, p. 109, note 4H. 

^ According to onr collation of the text, we find thirt\i-Jwe Keria and Kethivt in 

the Book of Joshua expressly so marked, yis.. Josh. ii. 13; iii. 4, 16; iy. 18: y. 1; 

yi. 0, 7, 9, 18, 16; yiiL 11, 12, 16; ix. 7; xi. 16; xy. 4, 47, 48, 68, 68; xyi. 8; 

xviu. 12, 14, 19 (twice), 24 ; xix. 22, 29 ; xx. 8 ; xxi. 10, 27 ; xxii. 7 ; xxiy. 3, 8, 16 ; 

and at least three, though not designated Keri, are neyertheless snch, yiz., xyi. 6 ; 

xyiii. 8, 9. Comp. also ibid. y. 15 ; yii. 21 ; ix. 7 ; x. 8 ; xii. 20 ; xy. 63 ; xxiy. 19. 
M Eqnally wrong is Leyita's statement about the number of Keria a .d Kethiva in 

the books of Samuel, inasmuch as a careful perusal of the Massoretic remarls will 

show tiiat there are 161, and not 138. They occur as follows : — 1 Sam. ii. 3, 9, 10 

(twice) ; iii. 2, 18 ; iy. 18 ; y. 6, 9, 12 ; yi. 4, 6 ; yii. 9 ; yiii. 8 ; ix. 1, 26 ; x. 21 ; zi. 6, 9 ; 

xii. 10; xiii. 8, 19 ; xiy. 27, 32 (twice) ; xy. 16 ; zyii. 7, 23, 34; xyiii. 1, 6, 7. 9, 14, 22; 

xiz. 18, 19, 22, 23 (twice) ; xx. 1,2 (twice), 24, 38 ; xxi. 12 (twice) ; xxii. 18, 17, 18 (twice), 

22 ; xxiii. 6 ; xxiy. 9, 19 ; xxy. 3, 18 (twice), 34 ; xxyi 6, 7 (twice), 11, 16, 22 ; xxyii. 4, 8 ; 

xxyiii 8; xxix. 6 (twice) ; xzz. 6, 24 :— 2 Sam. i. 8, 11 ; ii. 23; iii. 2, 3, 12, 15, 26 ; y. 2 

(thrice), 8,24; yi. 23; x.9; xu. 9, 20, 22, 24, 81 ; xiii. 82, 34, 87 ; xiy. 7, 11, 21,22,30; 

xy. 8, 20, 28 ; xyi. 2, 8, 10 (twice), 12 (twice), 18 ; xvii. 12, 16 ; xyiii. 3, 8, 12, 13, 17, 18 ; 

xix. 7, 19, 32, 41 ; xx. 5, 8, 14, 23, 25; xxi. 4, 6, 9 ftwioe), 12 (twice), 16, 20, 21 ; xxii. 8, 

16, 28, 33, 34, 61 ; xxiii. 8 (twice), 9 (thrice), 11, 13, 15, 16, 18, 20 (thrice), 21, 37 ; xxiy. 

14, 16, 18, 22. These, it must be remarked, do not include either tne Keri Ve-lo Kethiv 

or the Kethiv Ve-lo Keri, which have already been enumerated {vide aupra, p. 109, n. 61). 
^ The sixty-two words in which two letters following each other are transpooed, are 

as follows : — 

-pi'ao . . 2 Sam. iii. 25 
nin^m . 2 Sam. xiy. 30 
nn-ori 2 Sam. xv. 28 

nvm . . 2 Sam. xviii. 8 
ir^p . . 2 Sam. XX. 14 
nnuin . 2 Sam. xxiy. 16 "|rr»-»nai 
^TTwm . . 1 Kings yii. 45 D^nynn 
DTttDon . 2 Kings xi. 2 TvrmM 
niD' . . 2 Kings xiy. 6 »'7iD3n • 
•riDHi . . Is. xzzyii. 80 -pTwrn . 



^ . 


. . Josh. yi. 13 


pi . 


. . Josh. XX. 8 


W)i . 


. . Josh. xxi. 27 


>3\0D>rn 


. . Judg. xyi. 26 


natniYi 


. 1 Sam, xiy. 27 


maa . 


. 1 Sam. xix. 18 


ma . 


. 1 Sam. xix. 22 


ma 


. lSam.zix.23 


maa . 


. 1 Sam. xix. 28 


vran^ . 


. 1 Sam. zxyii. 8 



cmtD . 



Jerem. ii. 26 

Jerem. viii. 6 

Jerem, ix. 7 

Jerem. xyii. 23 

Jerem. xxix. 28 

Jerem. xxxii. 23 

Jerem. xiii. 20 

. Jezem. 1. 15 

Ezek. xxxyi. 14 

. Ezek. xl. 16 



Digitized by 



Google 



115 

^ Now it is eyident, from all I kxo3 «^» ♦naio n^ipn b^DHI .0 
have said, that the Ken and Kethiv nnn ^p k^i ,»tei ion j*:p Sp a^nai ^"yp 
never occnr with respect to plene *nN^a ph ,a^pf? riTnpjm o^Dponc 
and defective f nor on a siogle one of Dnerpn nooa vtDpn h^h Tnmai Taioa 
the vowel-points and accents. Let na d^ddw o^iepn op o^Snjn npanwi 
me, therefore, warn and caution ,^^^ i^^ ^^^^ t^^ n^^^^ ^^^^ ^.,„„ 
every one who reads the folio or -^_ -„^^^ „x,^ ^^.^-n^,- ,^sL,^mvs -,-.«. 
quartoeditionsofthefour and twenty ; ,' i , , ' 

books pabushed here, m Vemce, in , l > ' 

the year 278 ( = 1517),« to pay no ""^ ^"^ ^^^ "^^^ ^« ''''^'^ '^^'^^P^" 
attention to the false remarks printed ^'^^^ "^^"/^ >*^^ *"f = "'•^^^ '"^'«^J^" 
in the margin, in the form of Keri ''^^ ^^ «' '^ ri'?«o»"? "*o^ pa J^t «^ 
and ^^i^iv, ;)im« and defective, ^^ nrp nSi pan mioon p»D pn^ nSt 
MUel and Milra, and variations csnooa poi^n o^opoS wwDr »:dd «Sk 
in tA« vowels and accents, or to any ,nT w nin n«>a» nm pT Kf?i ,r3D^ vrw 
of those things which ought not o^opD^i ,D'3Da nrwi j»)na Trw ana ph 
to have been done, as I have stated a»opDf?i ,vina nowm D*ioa rxawx n^an 
above. The author of them did not y^ pt, n'?D«a nipa vrDD nvn .lenS 
know how to distinguish between . ^„ ,„„ ,3 ^i^ p^^f^^ ^^^t, 

his right hand and his left. Not ^^^^ ^^^.^ „^^' ^^ ^^^^^ 

bemfif a Jew. he knew nothing ^ ' / 
abou^t the nature of the Massorah, ^^^^ '^ '1^ ^^^ ""^^ opnr a^nam 
and what he did put down simply ^^^"^ i^'^^J P^-^P" ^j' r« npn'. >r«Dn 
arose from the fact, that he some- »^^^ ^^ **^ '"^^*^ "^^ ^"^ °'"''=»J'"^ ''^T^" 
times found variations in the copies P^ *™^^^ ^noTin D3»aD 'rutxai ,D»nB^ 
which he had before him, and, as ^,^ry:i n-o jro ^P'TDI }«-)p p^o 
he did not know which reading was *• D*ainaa tD"awi ^'w^aaa i^ani 

the correct one, he put down one in 

the margin and another in the text. Sometimes it so happened that 
he put the correct reading into the text, and the incorrect one into the 
margin, and sometimes the reverse is the case ; thus, he was groping 
in darkness, like a blind man. Hence, they are not to be heeded, 
for they are confusion worse confounded. 

Now, before quitting the subject of the Keri and Kethiv, let me 
remark, that, being anxious to know the number of all the Keris and 
Kethivs throughout the Scriptures, I counted them several times, and 
found them to be 848, and indicated this by the mnemonical sign, 
''Kaijan Ve-Kathhanr ^ Of these, 65 are in the Pentateuch,** 454 
in the Prophets, and 829 in the Hagiographa. 

^ This refers to the first edition of the great Rabbinic Bible, in folio, published by 
Bomberg, 1616-17, and the quarto edition, also published by Bomberg, 1517. Comp. 
Wolf, Bibliothtca Hebraea ii. 867 ; Masch, BtSliotheca Sacra i. 17 ; Steinschneider, 
Catalogue Libr. Hebr. in Bibliotheca Bodleiana, ool. 7 ; Kitio, Cyclo^cRdia of Biblical 
Literature, s. v. Rabbinic Biblbs. 

« That is to say 848, which is the numerical value of |an"3i X'"V* viz., p 100, + 1 800, 
+ MO, + > 10, + ] 60, + 1 6, + D 20, + n 400, + a 2, + ] 50 = 848. 

^ Levita is surely wrong in saying that there are onl^ sixty-five Keris and Kethivs 
in the Pentateuch. In again going through the Massoretic notes in the Bible, we have 
found eighty-two. They are as follows :— Genesis viii. 1 7 ; x. 19 ; xiv, 2, 8 ; xxiv. 14, 16, 28, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



114 

we have followed in these matters is pne nan« idd3 nana^ ina? taa^onn 
the famous Codex of Egypt, which yht< D*nana vSj^ msiodv neoi ,S*n 'n 
contains the twenty -four hooks, and T'a hhys Kinr nnxoa piTn hbd Kin 
which had heen in Jerusalem for ^,30^ n,^^, nnao nf?»iTa rm» nnoD 
many years, in order that other ,^1, ,,30,0 bn vn v^pi ,DnDon 13230 
Codices might be corrected hy its ,n*,ni ,na-.n 0^3^ ia p-rpnvn^H |a in^ani; 
text; and all followed it, because , ,-,,m»n*i ,n^ „,n^ n»,^«« 

Ben-Asher had minutely revised ~°° ''^ ' T^ ^ 

it for many years, and corrected ^^^ P] «ina^na^anD«. mm neoa 
it many times. According to this, '''^^ '"^'*" '^»"*^" ^^^ ^"**'^P ^J^ T^did 
many copies were made ; and I, ninai^om ,»^d: |'a n«np ^ pamo mio 
too, followed it in the books of ,D'3Bpn D^opea i«^»n p*K D^oroa jn^rar 
the Law which I myself have writ- 'ai -im KorDai mioi P)pm ano paa 
ten, in all its integrity.'*" And we 1BD2 ae^n nKiao n»n» ni ^ai ^pore 
also, throughout all these countries, ny ^,n"pa iman »mp» n»K Dyi3 110 
follow its readings, whilst the Orien- o^ina nhn ]y» m nipaa pra v mmiSon 
tals adopt the text of Ben-NaphtaU. j^,^^, .^g, i^,.,^ ^p^, ^.^^ ^^^^ 
The variations in the accents be- ^y^^, ^^^^ 

tween them are confined to the ' . ' ij^, 

smaller accents, such as Metheg, ' " 

Makiph, Munach, one Pashta, or two Pashtas. All this will be 
thoroughly explained in a separate Treatise, called Good Sense, which, 
by the help of the Lord, I intend to write." These variations 
between them, which also extend to the vowels, only refer to Cholenty 
Kemetz-Chatephy Long-KemetZy Pattach, Sheva, Chateph-Pattach, as 
well as to Dageshf Raphe, Mitel, and MUra. 

ii. A Treatise on the Massorah, entitled the Maaioreth of Ben-Asher (yoH p miDT3), 
stating partly the Massoretic remarks on each word in the margin of the text itself 
(D»3Dn n"iDO .n^ai'^a moo), and partly at the end of the Codex {Massorah finalia). 
Comp. Pinsker, Likute Kabmontjot^ text p. 130 ; iii. A Treatise on the Accents 
{msstiTl ynpltal IDD), first printed in the Rabbinic Bible, Venice, 1517 ; and then 
again by Leopold Dnkes, Tubingen, 1846 ; it. .4 Treatise on the Consonants and Vowels 
(mTip:m nvm«n "^"r^ ^CD), of which fragments only have survived, which are inserted 
in his treatise on the accents, and against which the celebrated 8aadia Oaon wrote a 
dissertation ; and v. A Treatise on Assonances {^T^ Wyyiyd), giving eighty Hebrew 
words, similar in sonnd, bat differing in sense. Moses b. David b. Naphtali, again, or 
simply Ben-Asher, as he is generally caUed, represented the Easterns, and wrote in the 
interests of the Babylonian school, i. A Model Codex of the Bible, and ii. A Treatise 
on the system of vocalisation and accentuation. Comp. Fiirst, Introduction to the 
Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon, ja^ xxi. A list of the variations between these two repre- 
sentatives of the Easterns and Westerns, is given at the end of the Rabbinic Bibles. 

^ The Treatise on the Love of Ood (totw '^DD), which Levita qnotes, is simply one 
of the component parts of Maimonides' gigantic work on the Bibucal and traaitional 
Laws, c&Ued Deuteronomy ; Second Law (imn TOWO), or Jad Ha- Chezaka (np i nn T) = 
the Mighty Hand, in alln&ion to Dent, xxxiv. 12. The part consists of the following 
six Halachoth (niD^), or Trcu^ates : i. On the reading of Shema ; ii. On Prayer and 
the Priestly Benedic ion ; iii. On Phylacteries, Mezznza, and the Scroll of the Law; 
iv. On the Fringed Garment; v. On Benedictions, and vi. On Cironmcision. The 
quotation in question is from Tractate iii., and the portion which treats on the Scroll of 
tne Law, or nilchoth Sepher Thora, viii. 4. The reference in the text is, to say the 
least, most indefinite. 

^ The treatise on the accents, entitled Good Sense (D91D 1^!D), to which Levita 
refers, appeared within twelve months of the publication of this statement. Vide supra, 
p. 03, &c. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



113 

the Prophets.^ And as ihe points *^,Q'M*a3n& i^apv >D3 onDpn -nwni 
which were added in after time are d'^cdi ninm on pTm wp3v ni-np:ni 
sii^ply sigms and marks to indicate pa -|«r nh p Sp ,Dnn nnan^i noiar*^ 
the pronunciation, therefore, they y:^^ mwiWn O'Di^'nn ]3i ,a*n3i np 
do not come withm the province of n,^,p33 ~ ^^^j o, .^ ^^Kaij^oS wane] 
the ^m and ^tft/iir. The same is „*..,^, l.. „. -«**,«„--,, >^m««».<. 
the case with the vanations between .^ ^_^ ^_ ,«,- wt,^^, «^ „n ,«' 
the Easterns and Westerns, not , , , • 

one of which is on the vowels and ^ T^^^^ !^^^ "1^^^^ ''^ '^»'**" 
accents. By the Easterns are meant °"^^'='«' TBi^^i ,DniD3 nsf^m ,onKnp 
tiie Babylonians, and by the West- ^^^^ ''T^^ =**"^^^ '"^*"^'" ^^"^^ °" 
ems, the Palestmians.« We in all '^ ^'^^ "»^ : D*opo> nnip33 r^»i ,iDn3i 
these countries are descendants of iToinv oiip nTWi o^bi^tth ^snos 
the latter, and therefore follow their yni mnJi^Dn Ssh .ca'opeam nnipsn 
readings and submit to their autho- nmp)3 Rf?K p»wr ,»SnB) pi "wr |3 ; 
rity. Now the variations between noinv nnK i3n3)r peo |i» pnDpoiJ 
these two are, respecting words and . pa^t, i^p „„ ^anDpom mmpanl 

letters, Ken and JT-^^Wr, />Z«ntf and ,3^ ,,„ n^^n Q^j^r, ,3^ ^^^^ ^^ 
defective, but not in vowels and .--./-,„-, -.-, •-„„,., miw. %»i»n 
accents. And this is a proof that ' ^' 1 

these vanations were wntten down ' ' ' 

prior to the invention of the vowels and accents. The variations, 
however, between Ben-Asher and Ben-Naphtali, which simply refer 
to the points and accents, were unquestionably written down after the 
invention of the points and accents ; and this is easily understood. 

4^ As to these two men, they were the heads of two different Mas- 

soretic schools, and their respective names were Jacob b, Naphtali 

^ and Auron b. Asher.^ Maimonides, of blessed memory, writes in the 

^ Treatise on the Love of Ood, cap. viii., as follows : ** The copy which 

•7 The word* cavaano -jVap© "JtiD onoon n>«n>, and in the other bookt a$ they 
received them from the Prophets , which are essential to the aignment, are omitted in 
the Sulzbadi edition. 

68 From the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmnds we see that, as early as the third 
century of the Christian era, there existed differences between the Eastenis and 
Westerns, which afFected both the reading and the ex^esis of certain words (oomp. 
Oeiger, in the Hebrew Essays and Reviews, entitled, Kerem Chemed^ toI. ix., p. 69, 
Berlin, 1856) ; and that many of the deviating renderings of the Septnagint and <^ the 
so-called Jonathan Ghaldee version of the Prophets arise from their following the more 
ancient Eastern readings. These two schools produced in tiie middle of tiie sixth 
century the two systems of vocalisation which we have already described {vide eupra^ 

L61, &e.)y and bequeathed to us a list of their variations fpm^), which is given in the 
hbinic Bibles, but which is both exceedingly imperfect and incorrect. It is to this 
list that Levita refers in the text. The indefatigable Finsker, who created a new era in 
the history of the Karaites, has greatly enriched and amended this list from two 
Codices, of a.d. 916 and 1010. Comp. Einleitung in doe Babylonieeh-BebrOische 
Punktations-ayetem, pp. 121-182; Vienna, 1868. 

n Aaron b. Moses b. Asher, or simply, Ben-Asher, as he is generally called, 
flourished circa a.d. 900, at Tiberias. He was the most accomplished scholar and 
representative of the Tiberian system of vocalisation and accentuation, and wrote, in 
the interests of the Westerns, the foUowing works : i. A Model Codex of the BQtle, 
{ytM tl XD), famished with the points and accents according to the Western school, which 
became the standard text, and which Maimonides described in such eulogistic terms ; 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



112 

wrote so. Whereupon they wrote n^THN^n Ssa i»p jan ,np mnDh^l 
in the margin * * Read mnaw . ' * The : nh^n neoa v 

same thing they did with all the npn i»p n^njn noaa »r3H ^a b^DHI 
other post-exile books. ^n"pi nwwa nSapn 'b Sp rT?inaw 

In short, the men of the Great 0^,330 ^t^apn 'b hv o^ainai D^H»a:awi 
Synagogue made the Ken, in the .^ i,j^ ^,1,^3^ ^jjoa«fi ,nnnn ^oam 
Pentateuch, m accordance with a ^-.^.•, h,^e«^*^,-,-^ ».t.* «*s»- »^»^-.«^-. 1 
tradition from our teacher Moses, ^ • o* n 1 wn 

peace be upon him; in the Prophets , i_ -.\.Jf -f^ 

Zd HagiSgrapha, in accordance '^^•^'^^ '=^^ "^ ^^ -T" "^"^^a, 
with a tradition from the Prophets V^^ nwp3 -w^t ^a "tv ,noana iin'?i 
and sages of succeeding generations; '^P ^^^^ **^«^ r^ni**^ "' "^^3^ '^"^^^ *T 
and in the post-exile books, in ac- «^» V'l .o^ipf? h^di Ton p:p hy a^nai 
cordance with the directions of the **^d «in a»nanr Kipon ^aa n^D wtafDi 
authors themselves ; but never on ^hv ^tah opom n^^ ^ P^n Kin npn) 
account of any doubtful readings, t<hn^ ion n>apa nhnn riKiin nsra^n 
as many have supposed. :caSipS 

«^ Now, when I gave my heart p^, ^^^ T.3n \-ikxd nr mjn .^ 
to inquire into, and examine with nmpjn pip f?p a^na) np k»d3 «f?r ,i^ 
wisdom, aU which has been done in y,^^ ^,^3 ^^^ ^«^ ^^i^^^i^ ^^^^^^ 
^e matter of the liTm and Kethiv I ^ ^ ^ ^,^^^ 

discovered that the Ken and Kethiv , \ l„ , , * ^ 

are never found on /?^« and d4/(?cfu'^. , ', l- l l l l L. 

That is to say, there is not a word ''^' .'^'W^^i P' "^ ••'^^ .P^^o^ ^'J^'^o ^ 
to be found in the whole Bible which "^ 'J' "^^ P) 'P^» ••' ^« P«^» ^J^ 
is written in the text pl^ie, and the •• O'^bdo >nf?a im d^p^dodh D^opono 
the marginal reading of which is ^^^ npiSno Pin»n «f?r ♦Bf? Dyom 
defective or vu:« t;er«a ; and the r»*'T»p vn ^an »a /ii^on wnpa ^«nBf' 
reason is, that the sense of the ,n"p rrvni^ iSapv loa ,iip3 »^a rmna 
word is never affected by its being 
defective or plene, 

^^ I have also discovered this, which is important to remember, 
that the Keri and Kethiv are never to be found on the vowel-points 
and accents. That is to say, there is not a word to be found which 
is pointed in the text in one way, and the marginal reading of which 
is in another way. Nor do the Keri and Kethiv occur with respect 
to Dagesh and Raphe, nor in Milel and Milra, nor on right and 
left [i. e. the point on letter e^], nor on Mapik and no Mapik, nor on 
either of the accents pausal or non-pausal. 

And the reason of it is, because there never was any difference 
of opinion among all Israel about the pronunciation of the words; 
for all alike read the Law without points, just as they had received it 
from Moses ; and the other sacred books, as they received them from 

Comp. loma^ 21 h. In fhe Midrash Babba, on fhe Song of Songs, vxii. 8, where the same 
thing is recorded, the holy oil (rnwan pio), is snhBtitated for the Shechinah, as one 
of the flye things. Comp. p. 26 a, ed. Stettin, 1863. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Ill 

hundred and twenty persons — ^noted ^»*nrT rhnn mp t<h n"p i3»m hb'Db^ 
down according to a tradition which ,Dnh yMn nmon p nm t»d^ n^naa 
they had, informing them that our j^i^inn pvin*^ "tdd n''^ i3»m nroa^ 
teacher Moses, peace be upon him, pra imanai 'ci o'K^aj^ o^apn D^jpi^^ 
did not read this word as it is written 3^31^ ^^ ,„^ .,B,on „,„ ^^,p, nntnpa 
m the text, because of one of the . ^^^ «-,>,-, ^,-, 

many secrets known unto them ; l^^ „,-„n^, n*..^^^ .^ f^■. ^m^ i^> 
that our teacher Moses, peace be r ' l^ 

upon him, deHvered them« to °^'=^^'^ '^^^'^^^ "^=P "'^^"«' '^^^^ 
Joshua, Joshua to the sages, the r«T^ vm K^r ^^ *dd 1.^ nniin ^DDm 
sages to the prophets, &c., &c., who P^-« ^*n «^ "^^^n nr^oa ^3k ,)n3«3 
put it down in t^e margin, as the P^V tiv m DDxp onanon *3 ,nf?ap^ 
Zm has it, and that Ezra was the ^^ ^"^^ dpi^ rwnar nrw n^D ntxavai 
writer thereof. This is, therefore, p^ i»h ,3inan ovdi p:pn n^na 'ea 
the very thing which he wrote in lana m ,nnnia p ana nof? Dpan lanon 
the Law of Moses. no ae'inD n*n» ntai ,nn«npa j^ino n^n 

The same thing they did with all mn 13 p^iait >3n» kSi ^p ^»»pS 'nrpnrr 
the words in the Prophets and ^K^pg^^ p, ^p a^a no^ optjn neat 
H^ographa, respecting which they .^ n^ ,^n) IDDKI U nVlKI ^jn iDoa 
had a tradition from the Prophets ,t^^ ^i^^ i^ ^^^^^ 

and the sages, dehvered from mouth ^^^ !Zl .-^^, '1' ^J^„., ^^L ^^ 
to mou^that they are not to be ^J"^ '"'^ "^^^ '"I^" '^''^"=' ^^ ^ ""^ 
read as they are Written. But as ""^^ l^'^^" "^^^l^ ''"^ ^'^^'^ " ^*" 
for the post-exile books, they re- V^ ^^'^^ ^'^ "P ^*"="^ '^"^ '^"'P^^ 
quired no tradition, for their authors 

were themselves present with them. Whenever, therefore, they [the 
men of the Great Synagogue] found a word in them which appeared 
to them not in harmony with the design of the context, and the simple 
meaning of the passage, the author gave them the reason why he had 
written in so abnormal a manner ; hereupon they wrote the normal 
expression in the margin as the Ken. Herewith the question is fully 
answered, which I asked above about K^l [Ezra iv. 2], since Ezra did 
assign a reason why he wrote in such a manner. In like manner, when 
they read in the book of Haggai (i. 8^ ^33 1, Haggai himself told 
them not to read '^^^^\ but 'J??*?^, as ii the Pi were written out at the 
end, and told them that it was owing to the five things which were 
in the first temple, but not in the second temple,"^ that he 

« In the Snlzbaoh edition, i^DTi, tJu secret, is inserted after *1DD, ht delivered. 

(V According to ancient tradition, the following five things, which were in the first 
TemplCf were wanting in the second Temple : i. The Ark, with the lid and the chembim 
npon it ; ii. The fire from Heaten (comp. 2 Chron. vii. 1) ; iii. The Shechinah ; iv. The 
Hol^ Ghost ; and y. The Urim and Thnmmim. The absence of these fire, the same 
ancient tradition declares, was indicated by the absence of the letter n, which nunericaUy 
represents ^t;«, from the word in question. Hence the remark in the Talmud : l*> itSM 

rm«i «mpn rmi to>dw ©« craroi m>K)i ttm wj -jIw ':« vrrpoV pwm tnpp p yrm 
D^>m, B. Samuel h. Enia sayeth. Why has the Ke^iv TiMn, and the Keri iroxi ? 
What is meant by the absence of the U 7 It is because of the five things which made the 
difference between the first and second TempU. They are as follows^ the Ark^ Ac. 



Digitized by 



Google 



no 

any one might listen to me, and ex- •*'2»*w d'^i* ^^ •*/"! ,D"^n jna tdi^ 

plain to me how it can be said of iB'oinr dtiw iVdki ,rmm |nD thk "pn 

them that they are a Law of Moses K'an nh pnv »m o /nioon »^a jpp^j^ 

from Sinai, when, of all the instances pnpn pi /n ve^an rmoDn »Spai /n "pn 

here adduced, not a single one is to /♦ w^an oni 'i K»an prw» m ,pnD k^»i 

be found in the Pentateuch ? And ,rmna «]pnD tttk d: ]^ nhw rfyn ^^ao) 

even of those marginal readings n»n nhv no D"f?n ♦"vn tdk^ ^k a"Hi 
not written in the text, which the ..„^ ^^33 ^l,^ 

Massorites added (for R. Isaac only « ^^^^^ ^, ^^i^^ ,,c^ ,^ ^t,^ 

SZ .^''S a'^^^^^^^ ^y^^ ^-^=»^ ^^''^^^ '■'P '^^ ^^^^-^^^ 

eight), as well as of the words ' i if ,l 

^tten in the text, but not read (for '^" ""^^ '^ ™^ ™^ J^™^ '^ ^" 
R. Isaac only- gives six, whilst pro^ ]:^^ nh^ ynp hv p-^ ^i:^ nh pnt^ 
the Massorites give ten),— of either '°*^*»" '' ^^^^ W" 1^" •'i™' r^T «^^ 
the one or the other, not a single " T* /•* ''^o^ '''^*^»' ^^"^^3 "^^^^ ^^^ 
one is to be found in tiie Pentateuch. o"^n ana^ on hSkw R»n nSap dk 
And if it be so, how can it be said '^i^i ,no« onnani ncK on 'a m^apw 
that it is a Law of Moses from Sinai, rmnav a*nam npn inhv now »n»»n m ■ 
which did not, as yet, exist at all ? •ante nnai 'jin djw n"a »»»i ,D"^n on i 
And as if this trouble were not n^ona mip ,nnTpi f?K»'D rran >*n ! 
enough for us, some later writers ^^^^n orrSp iif?3 nipi ^aani ^ann 
must needs add that -every Keri ^^^^^ ^^^ ^i^^^ .^^^^ ^^^ 
and Kethiv, throughout the whole _.^,_ _,_„ _l---, ,^ l„ „,-„^ ^.^ 
Bible, is a Law of Moses." But '°'=^ """'' "^"P" ' ^^ °^=*™ '•'^ 
where have they been authorised to say this, since R. Isaac has only 
said it of the marginal readings not written in the text, and words written 
in the text but not read, which are the smallest of the seven classes [of 
Keris and Kethivs], as I shall show in the Second Part, section one ? * 
If it really is a tradition that the former alone [i.e. those given in 
the Talmud, Nedarim], are a Law of Moses from Sinai, I must accept 
it, for our sages are true, and their words are true. But for that, I 
should have said that the Keris and Kethivs, which occur in the Penta- 
teuch, are a Law of Moses from Sinai; and that the men of the 
Great Synagogue, i.e. Haggai, Zachariah, Malachi, Daniel, Mishael, 
Azariah, Ezra, Nehemiah, Mordecai, Zerubbabel, with whom were asso- 
ciated other sages from the craftsmen and artizans, to the number of a 

Comp. Masaorah mtigna on Dent. i. 1 ; and on Ruth iii. 17 ; Sopherim yi. 8 ; Ochla Ve- 
OcTua, section xcvii., pp. 28, 06. Of words mritten in the text bat not read, there 
are eight instances, viz. : — 



DM, «/ 2 Sam. ziii. 88. 

C3«, »/ 2 Sam. XT. 21. 

M3, now 2 Kings t 18. 

Hm, accusative . . Jerem. xxxriii. 16. 



DW, i/ Jerem. xxxix. 12. 

•pT, he shdll tread . . . Jerem. li. S. 

XCran^Jive Ezek. xlviii. 16. 

DM, if Rath iii. 12. 



Comp. Massorah magna on Rath iii. 12; Sofiherim vi. 9; Ochla Ve-Ochla^ section 
xcviu., pp. 28, 96 ; Kitto's Cydopadia of Biblical Literature^ a. v. Keri and Kethiv, 

<s The word DJ, even^ is omitted in the Solzbach edition. 

^ The Salzhach edition erroneously snbstitates DM ^3, but, for p, aidj/. 

^ *m, of than, which is important to the sense, is omitted in the Snlzbaoh edition. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



109 

the Keri and the Kethiv originated mapa a^nam npn n»n dk niyi 

through the above-mentioned doubt- ^ nipDon i«a»w »wt rm ,V'in mpeon 

ful readings, we shotdd expect these Gianni ,D»Tfion npi^no »Da ,mpDn -|nT 

doubtful readings to occur accident- ^^ uv tjtt ,n)n nrwi nan nnn ona ^D:r 

aUy, according to the differences of p^^ p^opa na^^ nnn nf?D f?p nf? p» 

the books, and the accidents which ^j;^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^.^ 

befelthem,~tobeonehereandone ^,^^ ^.d,^ ^^^^^ , 

there — ^here a httle and there a httle * ^ ^,,„, ' , ' „ ••JL..-^ 

-but not repeatedly to occur in one V'^P' ^''^^ r='~ /" ^^' ^'=^'2™ 

and the same word. Thus, for ex- f ^j* "^•'^ "^;»'^^ '''"l^'"^ 'f^ =^'^^^ 

ample, niyj is written in the Penta- ^^ ^J^^ ""^^^ '^ ^I^ P^^" Sea ji*t>j 

teuch twenty-two times ny^, without ^ ^''''^V) D^Plsy 

i?^, and read niyi with H^« ; ^"an pea itdh» no »^> nrp nnvi 

D^^isy, tumors, which occurs in the |anai ]ana k^i pnp px» *an idk ,^"n 

text six times, and is read DmntD, hSi ]^np ,»rDD nvo^ na^n pnp kS 

the piles^ ; pis^lj, destitutes, found /i3) Sw nrKa ,K^«",inaf?aT mD jana 

five times in the text, and read t^ nf^o,^ jo |»np k*?i |'np Kf?i jana 

D^^y, ai^icteci, and twice vice ^i^^ ^^^a 'arm nm* nnnn im^ -im* 

versa 'f'^ and there are many more ,^-„ -^ ««-.«,t, ,«,,» ^i^,, ^, si*,^, ,^^ 
,,-.;., -T . '^ ,, Tan' Tit »33ian »7 W31W in* ^1 *\ lamp 

the hke mstances. Now how could ' ' ' ' ' ^ 

the accident always happen to the expressions TM^V^, D^bl&y and D^^^y ? 

And my difficulty is increased by what is said in the above-mentioned 

section of the Talmud [Nedarim 87, b], and these are the words: 

'^B. Isaac said, the words read from the margin but not written in the 

text, and the words written in the text but not read, are a Law of Moses 

from Sinai ; the words read from the margin, but not written in the 

text, are niB, Euphrates [2 Sam. viii. 8], and ^H, man [ibid. xvi. 28] ; 

whilst the words written in the text but not read, are K^, tiow [2 Kings 

V. 18], and inT, he shall tread [Jerem. li. 8], &c."«* Would that 

has Bhown that its existence oxtended over a period of one hundred and ten years, so 
that Levita's argument hased upon the shorter period is groundless. 

M In the present text, we have only twenty-one instances in which the text has ^0^3 
and the marginal reading TTQ^s, viz., Gen. xxiy. 14, 16, 28, 55, 57; xxxiv. S (twice), 
12 ; Deut. xni. 16 (twice), 16, 20, 21, 28, ^ 25, 26 (twice), 27, 28, 29. 

^ The six instances in which the marginal reading substitutes D^TimD for the textual 
U*^ISS are Deut. xxviii. 27 ; 1 Sam. v. 6, 9, 12 ; vi. 4, 6. Comp. Megtlla^ 25 & ; 
Sqpherim viii. 8 ; Massordk magna on 1 Sam. v. 6 ; Massorah jinalisy s. v, «?"o ; 
Ochla Ve-Ochla, section 170, pp. 38, 114; Jacob b. Chajim's Introduction to the 
Rabbinic Bible, p. 9, &q, EngUsh translation. 

<^ The five passages in which the Kethiv is D^3]^ and the Keri has n^'yp are as 
follows : Ps. ix. 13 ; x. 12 ; Prov. iii. 34 ; xiv. 21 ; xvi. 19. The instances in which the 
reverse is the case are Ps. ix. 19 ; Isa. rxxii. 7. 

^^ Levita's Quotation of B. Isaac's statement is abrid^d. Jacob b. Chajim gives it 
entire in his introduction to the Rabbinic Bible, p. 6 m the Hebrew and p. 12 in the 
English translation. Of words read from the margin and not written in the text, there 
are ten instances, viz. — 

»ja, the sons of ... . Judg. xx. 13. I nvtt*, Sdbaoth . . . Isaiah xxxvii. 32. 
n"©, Euphrates .... 2 Sam. viii. 3. | O'Ma, are coming . . Jerem. xxxi, 38. 

XCTH^tnan 2 Sam. xvi. 21. vh.tohtr Jerem. 1. 29. 

p. thus -2 Sam. xviii. 20. *Sj. to me Ruth iii. Ft. 

V33, his sons .... 2 Kings xix. 37. '*?«, to mr Ruth iii. 17. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



108 

ample, the book of Ezra fiv. 2), Ci «^1p) D*na)i lanjn vh) ^ra mip 
where the textual reading is fcOI. with nt irp dm ,i"na np l7l j^ina una oni 
Alephy and they [the Men of the ,i^ ik ¥h mn on ipT «^w ,pBDn niapa 
Great Synagogue] wrote in the mar- s^ praa^ dv n*n Kni]; h^i mvpn^ r» 
gin, read fti with Vav. Now if ,t^ ^ pj^f^^a itf?! ana dm Min pn^ ••V 
they did it because they were in ^onnooar aviai ^p nMra pi ,V'na' 
doubt, not knowing whether to '^^na onn onanon niD '-mr loi^ tmi 
read vh or i^ : we ask, was not l 

Ezra there present with them ? and '^ l l £_ l l 

did he hiJself not know whether °^^" ^'^\^ «^ ^^^^ ^"^^ "'" •^^ 
he wrote fcAl with AUph or 1^1 with P' 1«^^^ "^^ '^ '»"" '^^^J^^ ^^^"'^ ^ 
Fav ; The same is the case with ^^^^^ ^^^ '^^ ^^^ P"' ""^ '^^ 
the other Zm« and Kethivs found *': T'^aMnn nbpa) «p^ij^ Tioai 

in their books. And it cannot be 

answered that it was after the death of the said authors that the re- 
maining members of the Great Synagogue wrote the Keri because of 
doubts, since there was no dispersion, nor were the books lost in 
^^ those few years, for the whole period of the Men of the Great 
Synagogue did not last more than about forty years, as is shown in 
Seder Olam*^ and in Ibn Daud*s Seder Ha- Kabbalah.*^ Besides, if 

iiveH of the foUowing fire classes of the Jewish nation, i. The Chiefs of the Priestly 
Divisions (3« n*a >«»n). ii. The Chiefs of the Levitical Families (tm^ ^XOtn), iii. 
The Heads of tTie Israelite Families (nyn rj»n). iv. Representatives of the Cities or 
the Elders (d»3^" wp«<^^vTepot), and v. The Doctors of the LatOj or the Scribes 
(omy)D 'Crao yfMtifianU). The nnmher of one hundred and twenty memhers was, 
however, not adhered to after the death of Nehemiah, and ultimately it was reduced to 
seventy. The period of its duration extended from the latter days of Nehemiah to the 
death of Simon the Just, b. c. 410-300; thus emhraoing about one hundred and ten 
years. See Kitto's Cijclopcedia of Biblical Literature^ s. v. Stnaoooue, the Great. 

*8 The Seder Olam (dVo? niD), or tJie Succession of the World's History^ is an ancient 
Jewish Chronicle, written hj B. Jose b. Chalafta, of Sephoris, who flounshed circa a.d. 
100 — 150. It briefly chronicles the events of the worla from Adam to the war under 
Bar-Kochba, the false Messiah. It is also called Seder Olam Bahba (Mil Dbv yVD),= 
the Major ChronicU of the Worlds to distinguish it from a later Chronicle, entitled 
Seder Olam Sutta (wiDll oViy TID), = the Minor Chronicle of the World. The best 
edition of it is that by Meyer, Amsterdam, 1G99, which appeared together with the 
Seder Olam Sutta^ a Latin translation, and very elaborate annotations. Levita moat 
probably refers to chapters zxix. and xxx. 

*7 The author of the Sepher, or Seder Ha-Kdbhalah (n^apn TID or "eD), = the 
Succession of Tradition^ Aon^iam Ibn Daud or Rahad (l"3Mn), as he is called by 
Levita, which is the acrostic of Til p DTrOM \ R. Abraham b. David^ — ^was bom eir(M 
1110, and died as a martyr 1180. 'llie chronicle of this distinguished moral philosopher 
gives, in the form of annals, the history of the world from Adam to his own tune (1161), 
showing the uninterrupted chain of tndition to his da^, against the omnion of the 
Kamites, who denied all tradition. As supplement to tms chronicle, Ibn Daud wrote a 
succinct history of the Roman Empire, from its foundation by Romulus till the West 
Gothic King Keocared, entitled, Memoirs of the Events of Rome (nan nn rroi), and 
the History of the Jewish Kin us during the second Temple {"ixo mn bwrwr b^ mi). 
Ibn Daud's Histories were first published, together with the Seder Olam,, Mantua, 1518, 
then in Venice, 1545, Basel, 1580; the SepKer Ha-Kabbalah, by itself , was published 
with the Seder Olam Rabba and Suttay Cracow, 18-0 ; and with a Latin translation by 
Gilbert ^'cnobrard, Paris, 1572. Levita's allusion will be found Sa-6a of the last 
mentionoii edition. It must be remarked, that neither the Seder Olam nor the Sepher 
Hn-Ktibhah h says that the Great Synagogue only continued for forty years. Graetz 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



107 

Treatise, cap. vii.^ Abravanel, how- ifiDTpna orr^ ivn ^wananni « nsoo 
ever, rdfutes them in his introdnc- ,Drmp ]prh ^vn \\9h ^nKm /tn'' idd^ . 
tion to Jeremiah, and attempts in kj^ man an 'a t^^hphp K»n inapni' 
a very lengthy manner to correct ,1, j,j^ pU,, ,|t45iam I'Seai ,pxnS 
their blunders ; bat his corrections 44. q^ -iniciS 

are his blunders, for most of his ^^^ t,j^ 3^^, ,3^ ^ *pVn najm IK 
arguments are untenable and shal- „,„ ,^ nnti-i-i-, n» ^ni*in«^«n m»^« 
low. I shall, therefore, not enlaree 1.. t 

nponihe^ >"3n mpDomiapa a^amnpmr V'n 

Let me, therefore, simply state ^BDa d^idoh a^am np ^3; nt»t^nD ; 
my own opinion upon this subject, ^^"^ ^*" '^^^ ^^^^ '^" ^^ "^"" I 
and reply to the afore-mentioned ^^^ ,n^3on ana '31101 ,n"n >tdd ana 
writers. Now, I submit, if their ™a hvum « n"a '»»t) rn 00x3; on 
opinions be really true, — that is to 

say, if the Keri and the Kethiv are owing to doubts as above mentioned, 
— what shall we say to the Keri and the Kethiv which are found in 
the books written by the captives themselves, such as Haggai, Zecha- 
riah, Malachi, Daniel, Ezra, who wrote his own book and the Chroni- 
cles ; and Mordecai, who wrote the book of Esther ? Were not these 
themselves among the Men of the Great Synagogue ?^ Take, for ex- 

48 The Kimchi, referred to in fhe text, or Reddk (p"T)), as the Hebrew text has it, 
which is the aerostio of ^TTOp Tn \ B. David Kimcki, is the yonnffer brother of M. 
Kimchi, to whose grammatical treatise, entitled, the Journey on the Paths 0/ Knowledge^ 
Leyita wrote the commentary already alladed to, (vide aupra^ p]^. 18, &o., 80, &c.) 
D. Kmchi, who was horn in Narbonne, 1100, and died about 1285, is the author of the 
celebrated grammatical and lexical work, entitled MichJol^ which Lerita edited with 
annotations {vide supra, p. 79, &c.), as well as of yalnaUe commentaries on nearly the 
whole Hebrew Scriptures. Comp. Kitto, Cydopcedia of Biblical Literature, new ed., 
s. V, KiMCHi. The passa^ detailing his opmion on the origin of the Keri and Kethiv, 
to which Leyita refers, inll be found together with an English translation in Jacob b. 
Chajim's Introduction to the Babhinic BUtle.y. 5 in the Hebrew, and 7 in the English. 

Ephodi (iDM), is the appellation of R. Isaac b. Moses Ha-Levi, the celebrated 
grammarian and polemical writer, who flourished a.d. 1360-1412. It is a contraction of 
mi TO^nmo ^3M 'TDM, thtis sayeth, or / Provhiat Duran ; and though it is the name which 
he especially assumed after 1301, to conceal his real person from tne Christians, who, at 
the peril of his life, compelled him to abjure Judaism and join the benighted Christians 
of that day, he is also known by the name Prophiat Duran. His excellent grammatical 
treatise, entitled the Grammar of EphodhS» Tvgjffo), to which Leyita refers, has only 
recently been published for the fi^t time, Vienna, 1865. The passage in question is to 
be found in cap. yii., p. 40, and with an English translation in Jacob b. Chajim's 
Introduction to the Babbinic Bible, p. 4, &c., in the Hebrew, and p. 6, &c., in the 
English, ed. Ginsbuiv. For the life and writings of Ephodi, see the Introduction to his 
Ghnunmar, entitled maase Ephod, pp. 2-49, Vienna, 1865 ; and Kitto, Cyclcpcedia of 
Biblical Literature, new ed., s. v. Prophiat Duban. 

*^ Abrayaners yiew, which Leyita does not eren deign to state, and which he so 
cayalierly rejects, is giyen at length by Jacob b. Chajim, in his Introduction to the 
Babbinic Bible, pp. 5, &c., in the Hebrew, and pp. 7-11 in the English. It is to be 
remarked, that the theory of this celebrated statesman, philosopher, theologian, and 
commentator, who was bom in Lisbon in 1437, and died at Venice m 1508, has a greater 
amount of truth in it than any other hypothesis on this yexed question. Comp. Kitto 's 
Cydopwdia, s. v, Kjebi and Kethiv. 

tf The Great Synagogue (nV^T:in nD33), to which such freonent references are made 
in this work, denotes the council, or synod, first appointed by Nehemiab, after the return 
of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, to reorganise the religious life of the people. 
It consisted originally of one hnndred and twenty members, comprising the representa* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



106 

Accordingly, I find it very diffi- kitj? an^r inn n«D ^h nrp ni ^B^l 
cult to make out what it was that iTa Twxm dm npihm pMD» «^ *3 ,^1/13 
Ezra wrote in the Law. For there h^i c)»oin »h) mrw ]3 ana mm n"o 
are only two alternatives. Either ^bq p^npon neioa «f?K n^n nh a"« ,p-u-' 
that he possessed a scroU of the ^^^i ,if?nKT nn*n nVpo noi ,-irwTDOD' 
Law, and mi^e another copy from ^^^ t, t,,^, ^,,.^ .^,, i,^ 

It, without addmg to it or taking ^ ^ ' ^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^ 

from it anything, m which case he , , ,, T 

would he n3g more than any ""^ ^'^^ "^7 " ^^'^ '^' "^^ ''''=*^ 
other scribe who copies one book '^7°"^ ^^^^^ '™^P"^ "^^^^^^ ""*" 
from another; but, from this, no niSn^ nrmnt /noinoT nimne m^rnDai 
distinction could have accrued to ,n3iprD nriK ana nim "mf? nonai mitjpi 
him, since any one of the ordinary rn»a n"D nKjfOj nhv ]»2»n^ n»p «ni Di 
writers might have done the same nt ^h nwpn d«» nna nD«ai ,Wiv' ^aal 
thing, as it is difficult to believe that : ^h i»3D |'K1 o^ann hn tdimv 

there were no other writers in all ,b^ nn ^a^nai np ]»:pa ^ n»p pi 
Israel except he. Or it may be said ^.^^^^ ^,^^^ ^^^ oiannnn an njn 
that ttie scroll of the Law which he ^^^^„ ^^^ ^^^J „^,^^^ ^^^^ ,^ 
had before hmi was not correctly i,,^L^^ ^,.^^ ^.^^^^ ^.,^, ^,i^i^, 
written as regards plenes and defec- ^ ' 

tives, opm and closed sections, large ^"^'"^ ^5^'°^ '^""^^ '^"^ "^^P^ 'J^'^^'^ 
and sfTiall letters, &c., &c.,« and he '^''^' '=>"" ^r^^^" "P^ ,mi^i^mDpn 
wrote them correctly. Here, again," ■'™* °"^ ^^^^ ''^'^^^^ "P^'™^ ^•'^o 
it is difficult to believe that there ^^'^ ^^'^^ ^^^ oipoai ,DnpT 'd^ ann 
was not a single correct copy of the yina Tnitm D*3DaD nmtn lana ,inan Tf 
Law to be found among all the y^ /iai innpa vh^ mt^r^ lana in^i 
people of Israel. Forsooth this 't pnea moKm ,pBr)n»a p"'nn nonpna I 
difficuliy puzzled me so much for 

many years, that I mentioned it to the learned, but they could not 
give me any explanation of it. 

I have, also, felt a great difficulty about the import of the Keri 
and the Kethiv. Now, according to the opinions of many modem 
[grammarians], the Keri and the Kethiv originated in the following 
maimer. During the first captivity, most of the canonical writings 
were lost, and even the few books which had been found were 
impaired by being thrown about; and as those who were skilled in the 
Scriptures were dead, Ezra and his associates restored the crown to its 
pristine glory; for they corrected these books, and when they found 
variations in the books, they decided to follow the majoriiy [of Codd.], 
and wherever they could not decide properly they wrote down one read- 
ing in the text and the other in the margin, or put one down without 
punctuating it, &c. See KimchVs Introduction to Joshua, and EphodVs 

^ An explanation of all the Massoretic phrases inll be found farther on, and as we 
cannot nve the pages, not being as yet made np, we most refer to the Index, which will 
enable the reader easily to find the requisite information. 

^ The word m, tkisy is omitted in the Snlzbaeh edition. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



106 

in the middle of the verse, accord- n»n» loa ,|»jpn nana »d^ pioen j^afwa 
ing to the sense of the context, imp n^nra Worn ; D»3pA n^pno Kiip 
in the same manner as our teacher nriK jnTM nnyn non K^n on^ 
Moses, of blessed memory, read to ,nn« ntea opo poDD rrn ,(h'' onai) 
the elders. Thns, for example, when ^^^ K'DK'n KIO yn kid p '-mKi 
he [Ezra] read to them " are they not ^^^.^ ^i, ,^^ i^u^ ». y«p ,«^t ^^^^ 
on the other side Jordan, beyond?** ^^, _,-^ ^,\^ ,>,„ -„e»««- ,e^^ ^«,^^ 
he paused a little at the word ,,,^^^ ^ni «n* -i, «.«r^^ ^,-,«t, 
"beyond,** and then read " the way ^'^ ^^^" ="^ '™ "^^ ,piDDnTi3an^ 
where the sun goeth down** (Deut. "'^^•''^ '"^^ '''^' ""^ V'^ '^ '°^;" '''^'^ 
xi. 80), as Rashi explains it on this ^'"^ ''^ '""'^^^^ '^^? ^'^i' '''""'• 
passage fvirf^ in locoj.^ It is this ^^^^ ™^'™^ ^^^ '^^'^^ ^^ °"^ cmip 
which our Rabbins, of blessed me- "^o^ ,|a^^^ r*T P» ,np"nDD oTa 
mory, call^ati^^ or division according O'ump vnv Wa pan^ ]nti ,a't» nwarw 
to the sense, because the pause makes miDcn lana anv m ,nB hv rmoDn anh 
the verse intelligible and perspicu- »»nw ma K-jpDn *"^a hv »"a ,minn ^p 
ous ; not that they had the accents ^a-y ana k^ »nTp poo *^a *a ,Drn lan^a 
which we now possess, for they had j<-)iy |^,n ^^^a p »a ,na^ nro n-nna pn 
not as yet been invented, as I shaU nm^ in: X^ neiD nninn THO ^D^D 
show m the sequel. And as to ^^^^ ^ ^g, (.^^.,^) L,^^ .^Sk 
the other remark, that "and they p,^„, ^^^ .^^.^ ^^^^ ^i^^^ ^^^^ 
caused tnem to understand the i^r\^ -^qd ^^ p^t^^ j^^p^ p, vpni 
Scriptures,'* means the Massorah; :K^Ofi^ ih^ n 

the explanation of this is, that they 

read every word as it was transmitted to them from our teacher Moses, 
of blessed memory, ex, gr. the Keris, and the Kethivsy as I shall explain 
afterwards. It must not, however, be supposed that they [Ezra 
and his associates] read to them [the people] the Massorah from 
tradition, or that they wrote the Massorcdi on the Pentateuch, much 
less on the whole^ Bible, as we now have it ; for there is no doubt that 
Ezra did not write anything except in the Law of Moses, as it is writ- 
ten, " This Ezra went up from Babylon, and he was a ready scribe in 
the Law of Moses, which was given by Jehovah, the God of Israel** 
(Ezra vii. 6), and again [iW^. ver. 11], "Ezra, the priest, the scribe of the 
words of Jehovah*s commandments and of His statutes.** He is also 
called in Aramaic, the scribe of the Law of the Lord of heaven, 

» Raahiy '"ttri, is the aorostio of 'pny* rrchtC 'an, Rahhi Solomon laahi or Itxchdki = 
H. Solomon hen Itaac, the renowned Jewish commentator, who was bom a-d. 1040, at 
Troyee, in Chamnagne, and died 26th July, 1105. For a sketch of his life, see Kitto's 
Cyclopaedia of Bihl. Literature^ s. v. Rashi. His explanation of yii nriM, Deut.xi. 30, 
to which Levita refers, is as follows : *3Wa iTpaw DmaT '3W D7TO rrD"rQ MTipon D3>TQ1 
iTpa rm ttim Tim "pi nrw rm c»n vyi wm bwjoa Tipa "pti «n«Da -npa nrw onayo 
'Em TSxmi "n-n toiol -pen nowa mmoi nrw, the accents plainly show that they are 
two separate statements^ inasmuch as they are pointed with t\oo ^eparate accents\ nriM 
being pointed toith the distinctive accent Pashta^ and jn, with Jethiv, and having 
Dagesh, Now if they had been Joined together, nriM wovtd have been pointed with tKe 
conjunctive accent Merclia, and "fy^ with Fashtay and would have been without Dagesh 
in the Daleth. According to this interpretation, therefore, the verse ought to be 
translated "these [monntaans] are situate on the other side Jordan, far beyond it, 
towards the way where the snn goeth down." 

M The word V3, all, is omitted in the Snlzbach edition. 

P 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



104 

the context, this verse does not at Kipon ^p a» Kin pn ^k-itj^d istd 
all speak of Ezra, but refers to the 'mi n^DlfiJO *3D1 yiB^I ,i3D»n nSpo^r 
statement in the preceding, verse : ,minb DJ^n nK D^i^no D^l^ni w -^j^ 
"Also Joshua, andBoni, and Shore- o»rAH mm tdos wnpn tdw mn orrVpi 
biah,'' and the Levites caused the : ^^^^ ^ ^fy^ /^^^ 

people to understand the Law," and ^^^ ~^ „,„ ^^.,0^1 ar^^ r» IK 
it is of them them that he says, „. „„l^ ^^,j, ^^. ^^„^ „_^ ,,^^^ 
"And they read m the book of the „_^ ^_„ _„^_ „i ''^ '1 ,. ^^ 
Law," &c:, and not of Ezra. ^^"^ '"^P ° "^•^'^ J " '"^i^ 

This Midrashicexplamition. how. "' .«niDD a"nm ,nap pi^f^a mi^K-ia 

ever, can be consistent with the P^°^" ^"^ °*^^™ ^^'^ '^^ '=^^^7" 
natural meaning of the text, in the °'^=»» ^*" P»^ ^"^«» *»' .'O'^ P^^a 
foUowing manner: "And they read ^*"«' ^""^ P'poon 1^ Sav Din ,^an 
in the book, in the .Law of God" n^ap nri'n» iDa,piDD^ pioD |»a o'p'ODD 
means <A« original text, that is to naoaa S"n nw^ loa ,n"pi>DD oTa 
say, these men first read the text in nro wh n^poB kW proe Sa ,^"ti nhm 
Hebrew; then "explained it" in mip Vp pioen pviaom ,n»S p»pB nS 
«A« Chaldee paraphrase; that is ipT k^i 1^ ]^vh mn DIBn o o^arin 
to say, they translated the verse ^,353 )^%^) ,03 ^^n nm ,mpD Kin o 
to themselves into Aramaic, because ^^^^^ ^ ^3^3^^ ^^q, ,,3^1,^ ^^^^ ^^ 
everybodyunderstoodthatlanguage; p^f^ao^p^Saa thud nipDn p o ^ 

and gave the sense means the * ^J^^^^ ^^ J^ ^^ ^^^^ 
veraesj that is to say, they made ^ t l l l 

pauses between every verse, m ac- ' , ^ 

cordance with the tradition which : TT^n-? oipo i^a pui 

they possessed from our teacher P^°**» "^ ^'^P^^ »'=»*^ ^"»^^ "°^ 
Modes, of blessed memory, as our nipen "irrp ph j^Knip rn»a V'n ,d*dpd 
Babbins of blessed memory tell us 

in MegiUa [8, a], and these are the words : "A verse which was not 
divided by Moses must not be divided by us." Those who refer the 
verse in question to Ezra, regard D^^ as singular, but they do not 
know that it is ths infinitive, and is tantamount to ^D^*1 because of 
<^ the word ^^^^1 by which it is preceded, and the word ^^^?Jl by 
which it is followed ; since the infinitive is everywhere rendered in 
the singular or plural, in the second person or in the third, mascu- 
line or feminine, in agreement with tlie verbs with which it is con- 
nected, and which may either precede or follow it. But this is not 
the place to expatiate upon this subject. 

Now, as to the remark, " ' and caused them to understand the Scrip- 
ture,* denotes the division of the accents;'' this means, that when 
reading to the people, they [Ezra and his associates] made^ pauses 

however, say it denotes the paiwe«, and others heads of verses {Jerutalem MegUlu 
ir. 1, 67 &, ed. Erotoschin). It is necessary to remark, that in aU these passages, the 
expression HTIDQ, denotes the traditional pronunciation of the textj and that it is not 
to he confounded with the technical meaning " critical apparatus,'* which it was made 
to signify in after times. 

*7 The word 19, tillj is omitted in the Snlzhaeh edition. 

^ The Snlzhaeh edition erroneously repeats *n^, to themselves, after IVT, thfi/ made. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



108 

the time of Ezra and his associates, omsi ,^rvf^^ vnrp tp v*m «dd 9^ onasn^ 
and by them again to the sages of : n-cD n^ wnpi mniu -ivtt atnaa ^snh 
Tiberias, who wrote it down, and p^^^ Q,t,t,3 ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ,3^ q^^ 

called it Massorah. n«?nj mooa o'Oinon ona-ra ,nra ^iwe 

Now, smce m this book I impart »«».k»%«^ •m^m l l l 

some rules to decipher the sage , , ^ ' -^-l-JIL 

remarks, couched in the enigmatical '''"^1^ **^"^ '^^ ™*^ "' "^^ ''^^^^ 
expressions which occur in both the ^^ '™^^' "^^'"^ "''^^^ "**=** "^ 
major and minor Massorah, there- ^'^^ *o^ rD*^^ ^•^ ^'^r nnin nanir 
fore I deemed it proper to call this rO^'niKn dp wsnn «> pwem ni-npan 
book Ma89oreth Ha-Massoreth, as niiiKi ,Qonn»m QOi»«in npn ainaiti 
this name is suitable for the book, 'n n»a oarw mm p nnm ,♦» p|« ^pT 
and the book suitable for the name, '^pa la^n iwh yrm riK ,*hp nai&n 
I shall now proceed to explain the nn»n nm ^wp.TB'n nrpon nm ^won 
nature, quality, and object of the m^ to Vpi ,m:ii to ^>i ,can3ia ipp 
Massorah ; who compiled it, whether . ^3^^ n^psn 

one or many; who invented the ^^^„^„ ^ „„ ^^ l„nn^„ 
Yowel-pomts and accents, and when ' 

they were attached to the letters; r°" ^''^ onr ,inpx)i iDion nntpi.. 
and shall state the opinion of both ^ C3*»P«3ni Tip:m rnioon ivp ,n'?n3n 
the ancients and modems, as well ^'n i»nnr rrKT n^K^aoi ,«npDn b! 
as give my own, upon this subject. D^n^h^ niinn nson 1K"ip^1 o'Twa ' 
I shall then point out to you, ac- ,QUTn nt KHDD ^npo m Tn nnjro) 
cording to the good hand of the Vnpo^ I^^D^I ,D*pDDn iVk 732^ tW) 
Lord upon me, the method which mioD i^« rrS 'tdki ^nnapo piD»D m 
the Massorites adopted, and the pioDn yn Kipo ^ ioivd *d^ rani ''V'ap 
work which they have done ; what 

their chief aim was ; what Uiey wished, and what they did not wish, 
to say. 

In the first place, let me remark, that, according to the opinion of 
most men, Ezra the Scribe, and his associates, who were the men 
of the Great Synagogue, made the Massorah, the vowel-points, and the 
accents through all tibe Scriptures. In support of this, they insist that 
the explanation (in Nedarim [87 by] ) which our Babbins of blessed 
memory give of Nehem. viii. 8, viz., ''And they read in the book, in 
the Law of God," means the original text ; ** explaining it,** means the 
Chaldee paraphrase ; ''and gave the same,*' means the division of the 
verses; "and caused them to understand the Scripture,** means the 
dividing accents; or, according to others, it signifies the' Massorah. 
Thus far are their words."* Now, according to tiie natural meaning of 

*> The pannage qnoted by Leyita is from the Bn^lonian Talmud^ Nedarim 87 &, 
MtgiUa 8 a. It abo oocnn with the following TariationB in the Jerusalem Talmud, 
iVh ta«? xsxvn -mnn m wthdd -Mnpon m "n min xm \in;r\ bwan n wsi mw *an 

'M mVn '1 pO._ B. Seorah proponndedf in the name of Hananeel, " they read in the 

the original text: "explaining it/' means ike 



book, in the Liaw of Ghxlf ' means %,'*%> vi»y*ttn»%, t,^M>w , va|iuuuu^ j*, iu«mm»o %,w^lo 
Chaldee paraphrase ; " and gave the sense," means the aivition according to the sense ; 
*'and caused them to nnderstand the Scriptnre," signifies the Massoreth. Some, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



102 



INTBODUOTION m. 

I 8HALL HOW TURN KT VACB tH^fi^ ^jfi HHyi 

TO TKB THIRD nTTEODUOTIOH. J ^^8^,1 nOnplin ^K 

After those truthfdl words, let Tiain aTrw n^nn noum onain ^PW 

me disconrse more largely on our o*npi ,K3t' ^hs hh:in h^ Kchh ,vahn^ 

subject in general. But, first of all, ,«in p»S nrnoi ,miDD yyf ino -iKan ^a 

1 must explain what is meant by Mip&n ^aa mxd3 mS nrn )i9^ «a noiti 
T)1DD> and what is its elymolc^. :'^^Dob -^^^ D*opBTir mofi nriDa p 
Indeed this word does not occur ^^ ^^a nj'na 103; wnv p"TTn ia rnei 
more than twice in^e whole Scrip- ^^^^^ ^ ,^^^ .^ „,^^3 roirnn) 

and nOD^ [i^d. xxxi. 6], and Kimchi ' *^ 

explains it to mean a gift nuuU with , * 

the whole heart, and put into the "T^'f " ** "^^ ''"'^ ^^ "^ ^^^\ 
possession of another. Thus, also, P"'' '*** "I^°° ^^^^^ P"' ""~*^ P*'^ 
the Targum renders imn^l, anrf /w l^« »^^'"»'^ ^^"^« "" ^"^^'^ ^^^ '^^ 
gave him up [Deut. ii. 88], by n^TDOl ^""^ "^^^ P*'^ "^ ^^^"^ »Dn»Dni l^n 
(w« tA^ roof noiD.) »in» -ra oTit TpD» w |rw nan hv 

It is, however, necessary to re- : y^v mn iSio uixna ,iniBna »p»Tn*v 
mark th^t the word ]n^ is never m a-m toS'w minni niD^n p:j;3 ]ai 
rendered by "noD, unless it is con- nh m rnipr pip ik tid m^ nun^ n^j* 
strued with the word n^n, into the ^tj^^t im ,m^D p^S ia ^»di3 ^injri* 
Artnrf, «iF. 5rr. wn^n wn!?K mn^ mm p^^n^t, nioDi 'jw min f?ap n»D nwoa 
orp^n mK [Exod.«m 81; 2 Sam ^^^^ ,^^ „^^ ^^^^„ , .,^, 

V. 19 ; Jerem. xx. 4, 6], &c., Ac.** ' ' 

We thus obtain the rule that the word nOD denotes to give, or entrust ^ 
something into the hands of another jperson, that he might retain it in 
his possession according to his pleasure, as if it were his own. The same 
is the case with the doctrines and Hagadah ; if one teaches or pro- 
pounds to another any mysteries, or anything which he did not ^ow 
before, it is described by the word nOD. Thus it is said in the Mishna, 
Moses received the Law from Sinai (mOlDl), and delivered it to Joshua, 
dc. [Mishna, Aboth, i. 1] ; and this is the meaning of the word notD in 
question ; since it was transmitted to sages, from mouth to mouth, till 

M That ]n3, followed by Tl, is not always rendered in the Chaldee b^ *lDt3, is evident 
from Is. xxii. 21. Indeed Leyita's whole atrictore on Kimchi's explanation is inoorrectf 
inasmuch as in the passage adduced by Kimchi, namely, Deut. ii. 83, imm in not 
followed by Tl, but 1^ 13^3D^, and yet the Chaldee paraphrases translate it mDOl and 
nooi, and uieie is no other instance in the whole Hebrew Scriptures, where in3m,— Kal 
future, third person sinffular masculine, suffix third petson singular masculine, with 
Vav oonTersive, of which the subject is 13Ti!m mm, — is followed by Tl. The only 
instance which approaches the one in question, is the phrase Tl ITI^ mm in3mi, 

2 Chron. xxyiii. 6, where indeed the Targum translates it Trocs\ ; but here it is rrhnk, with 
suffix third person singular masculine, and not 13Ti!m, suffix first person plural. 
Besides, the Chaldee paraphrase of Chronidee was not known tUl the middle of the 
serenteenth century, and was published for the first time at Augsburg, 1680-3, more 
than a hundred and thirty years after the death of Elias Levita. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



101 

after day. Christians coming to me p"9i ,dv*)B1 pi:*iD imxd^ onai ,D-m h^ 
asking instruction in Hebrew, and I jir^n nanp ^pe^nT d^w ^^h pv or 'TD 
respond to everyone who wants me. iiapa no^i ,uiVitr "Wk^ *rwn« ,]i»p3* 
And why shoold I be condemned for ^k^djs »3i ^niaa^ *3ip*Tnm ,*3>D»witn nt 
it, and a reproach be fastened upon ,r,t,ap ,3^ cjj q^ p, p^ ^a^n m 'man 
me ? I speak this in defence of „,, ^j^, ,,,., ^^gj ,^1^3,^, ,^ ^ ,nnnjji 
mysetf. Again, if I also have re- ^^ ^^^^ ^ ^ ^„ 
ceived, and opened my mouth, and ^^, , ,^ ^^ ,^^^^^ 
tasted excellentmstructionand learn- '^ '^ i_ l Ll 

ing [from Christians],— a honey- ""^ ^^^nai ^d^ ini ^enn ^^an 
comb, and delightful words, which ^^^^ '"" ™ l^^"^ 

distilled from their mouths drop by oamai^ ^ani /te oiaan k3 i^ap p? 
drop, — and have eaten the inside oa^ mm o ^Knn oa»3»p o ,'^jn3 
and thrown away the shell, but have naim ,Tio«n nvirA ^h n^»^ ^t 'rrvp 
not eaten the insipid and the white nam ^'pa Ka^ KaDmi pioD a^^ nin 
of the e^, if I have tasted a little of : ^Kp ^^p-^^ 

this honey, am I to die for it ?•* 

Receive, therefore, ye sages, my apology, and let your complaint 
cease, for your eyes behold that I have done it in the integriiy of 
my heart, not intending to convert wrong into right. I had a clear 
conscience in this matter, as is known to the Mercifrd One who 
searches the heart. Behold, the matter must remain as it stands. 

M Levita refers to the instrnetion in the Greek langnage, which he reoeiyed from 
Cardinal Egidio (vide aupraj p. 71, A»;.)> *i^d ^ ^^ knowled^ of tarioae departmenta 
of secnlar literature, which he aoqnired with the aid of his Chnstian papils. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



100 

sown therein heterogeneous things. rOp^ '3100 nKT*»fi3 ,D»ojrB pm •aapjrn 
Twice has misfortune laid hold of p'siQn ^tbm ^3 hj^ ,npD vrj^ nnvi 
me. In Padua it took away my ,t'id nara n»n mi p»ai» Ta tnnai 
money [1509], and then it set its ,nDi«rDa m^ai |a-nn ,n7J3 ♦on ^j^ nwta 
evil eye upon my precious things, ,3 ^nnx rw nnvn ,nanD 'Ta mKVj nh 
which it delivered over into the hands q.,, ,.«, on^ 7h< niaai ,mpa nioa rn 
of the rebels. This happened m the „,„_^ l„ ,„ ' „,-b^„ l„ \^.„^ ' 
year 287 (= 1527), when Borne was it. l 

Ltmed to destruction and desola- ^^=»^ "^'^^ ^^^ ^^ '^^^^ '^^^^^^ 
tion like a plain. Not a single "^ ''^^ ""^^ ^ Y"'^ ''^ ™1 '^''''''' 
farthing was then left to me; and "" ^^^ "'P^ ^^^^^ ^*^' ^^ ^r 
it was a time of great distress, for V^^ ''^^^ '"^» ^^^^^ V^ ^^»*n oa^ 
there was no covering in the frost, "t^^P ^^^ ^P^ ^^^ "'^'^ 

no bread or fuel in tiie house, my ,jran nm t»h aiD ai ,j^»m« oa^ lixn 
wife was nursing her young ones i«rn ,*npnn!^ onin ^a »a ,*npar3 ♦jin »a 
and was about to be confined, while D«ai& dvsk D^a ^Dnreti ^3m ^ni&S 
my daughters had reached puberty, ^3^ t^t, ^^ r,,^^ ^j^ t,^^, ^^^^^^ 
and wOTe ripe for marriage according ^, ^^.^ ^^^ ,^,3,^^ ^ i^^^,^ 

to custom. Now what can a man t, ^^^ ^ ^^ ^,, ,^ ^^ ^^ 

do who has thus been overtaken by *^ » 1 l 

misfortune, and not to oflfend ii ^^ '^^ '^f ^P^ '= ^^ '^^ "?^" 
such a burning snare? This ye '"'T" P''^ P^'^P'^^ ""^^ ^^ ''^'^^ 
ought to consider, that the law of *^^^ "" «^ /^^" =^^ -^"^ °*^^=^ 
nature teaches me that nothing is r^ni«a« »^' ^^ r«if»a ttw pwe ,«np3 
to be allowed to stand in the way of ••*^" "'^'^ ••^n ^''''^ noi 

saving life. ">n3»3' nhrt ,»a3K irpmaK nh t» liyi 

Furthermore, I must inform you, D3'a*i^ ,dt nrm *ir« mama ,'an iH^a 
that much good has resulted there- 
from ; for I solemnly declare that all the Christians whom I know, and 
whom I or others have instructed, are all of them good and upright 
men, and with all their power have acted kindly towards Israel; so that 
the very knowledge of our language among Christians has actually been 
to our advantage. Surely this speaks greatly for me, and must remove 
the reproach fi^m me. Moreover, the import of my teaching, whether 
to Christian or Jew, is simply the grammar of the sacred language, 
as I only explain to them the rules thereof." If, with this view, they 
read to me a verse in the Scriptures, why should I not explain it ? What 
impropriety then have I committed ? 

Besides, if I were not to explain it, will they not learn it from my 
works which they possess, which everyone can . understand, and in 
which they will find help and satisfaction? Even now I have, day 

"8 That LeTxia did not exactly confine hinudf to teaching Christians Hehrew, hnt 
that he also aided them to fathom the mysteries of the Eahbalah, for which there was 
snch a rage in Enrope at that time, is evident, from the fact that he copied the Booh 
Jetxira, and two other theosopliic treatises, for Cardinal Kgidio (vide ttt^ms, p. 15). 
These three documents, which were formerly in the possession of Almann, of Padna, 
are now in the British Museum, Add. 27,199. Comp. Dr. William Wright, in the 
Journal of Sacred Literature, Jnly, 1866, p. 806, note. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



99 

into the grave with sorrow, and bis inorai imm ,|ii»a rhmw tv ,pin irnr 
spirit and sonl shall be destroyed; as na^ m^ ,nD3 m^ vk in^aiin -mMsir ^nsn 
it is written, ** a fire not blown shall /^Kj^isf* ik n3i*ma n^ /^mv^a nSm 
consume him" [Job xx. 26] ; this itttd j^tdiid p» ,pnr)3a nowr "no TIVI 
only refers to an Israelite, but not ,_, ^„,^ ^„^„ _ „,^ _ „i _,^^ 
to a Christian or Mahommedan. tr ' ^ 

Again,» when the Talmud says ''^ P' '"'^"'^^^ ^^^l^ '^^^^ '°'^^ •^^"^^^ 
that the secrets of the law are not "^^^^""^ '"?" T" ^'^ '''^^"'' ''^^■' "? 
to be disclosed except to one who ^'^^^'^ '^^ ^^'^ '^ '""'^J^ "7 '"^ 
has the five qualifications, viz., "" ",« »ia rnicD pa«r ^oncj; n^oW iniD 
advanced age, respectability, and PT" rOP'Tin^ m n»DK yn 'a ;ia id'^ '^ 
all the rest as they are found ,pirnna ipT «^ dk ^DpnaBrnS n«o '? 
in Isaiah," we have sufficient ar- nanna^i^nn^ »^ ir» dji ,|i«r^nKpn^ 
gument in this, that the sages Diop nrn ,»3b^ rn» D»»3«^i^njm3^*K 
have not enacted a decree that who- tto^i ,«3i«n nui DDva Tiat^i ,«3nDD nap 
soever teaches a Gentile commits arm^ ^|tj^ o*^ a^w oma ,*3dd nnr d*i3 
a sin. For even according to their ono ,D»3a-n o^-TOif? dto ,m na dhdw 
words it IS permitted to teach Gen- n%i»Rnn> f^**^-»», r^ms «*,i. «>»,«..« •*««• 
tiles the Seven Noahic Command- „ . _^_„ r^r^^m t«.* r^,^,-.« ^,,^ 

ment8~ Now this argues most " • o^«Bip Drr-«5«^ ^«r Dn^«rp dhid 

powerfully for me. For how can ^'^ '^^V *?ana ^a^jn ,»5« ta HDI 
they possibly know these, and nowm ,^dibd msaai D»3aa ^^Diimi ^D«r 
fully comprehend the import of non na |»ki /ler nDnnosi ,n'a j'ht 
the seven precepts, unless they ,D»«^a na ijn?^ "^mpoi nnn pn ,mijnn 
first know the Hebrew language? 

Moreover, I should have to hang on many lofty trees men who pre- 
ceded me, whose little finger is thicker than my thighs, whose name I 
am not worthy to mention, and who have taught Christians more than I. 
Of these, some are still living, some are resting in Paradise, some are 
teachers and Babbins, some are elders and men of reputation, some 
are sages and physicians, and some are rich and settled on their lees." 

Now what am I that I should be caught in the snares of my sin, 
poor and low, burdened with sons and daughters, and having nothing 
in my possession. My field has been so inundated that there is in 
it neither wheat nor barley, but terror and storm," and they have 

^ The whole passage from mawD no TOn, again what they say, to nrOM ^'Sn, behold 
am I to die J consisting of fifty-four lines in the Hebrew, is entirely omitted in the 
Snlzbach edition. 

M According to ancient tradition (oomp. 8anhedrin, 69 a), God enjoined the foUow- 
ing seven commandments on Noah, which both he and aU nis descendantsi that is all 
manldndf were to observe. To abstain, i. from idolatry ; ii. from blasphemy ; iii. from 
murder; ir, from incest; ▼. from plunder; vi. from disobedience to the powers that 
be ; and yii. f^m eating flesh cut o£F from a living beast (Tm p niM). These seven 
commandments were imposed upon every heathen who wished to settle down among the 
Jews in Palestine. The foreigners who accepted and submitted to these conditions were 
denominated Proselytes of the Oate {-rffto na). Comp. also Sanhedrin, 66 a ; Bashi on 
Aboda Sara, 61 a ; Maimonides, Jad Ha-Qhezdka, Muchoih Mdachim ix. 1. 

n For the cause of this phalanx of Jewish teachers among Christians, as well as for 
the outcry of the orthodox Jews against Levita, see above, pp. 9, d»., 88, &c. 

» The words r myw rmn, wheat and barley, and m9D> nnn, terror and storm, are 
designedly selected by Levita to form a paronomasia, and thouf^i they sonnd somewhat 
strangely in the translation, they are very beautiful in the original. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



98 

the sages only prohibit** the com- rmn na^ir pn »|nDW earn o^oan o 
munication to a Gentile of the im- ,yixihn yn inOH nh^ " ,]»toid |^ »w^ 
port of the Law," but do not forbid -]»v«r |nai ^p ,r*n3ip omai npp pri 
teaching. Their interdict only refers rwj^iDi rrrKna wpb" pa ,nTOD |na 
to subjects which contain esoteric p^i»t, ^f?it |*t»aD fw ,pn'r ifioi naano 
doctrines, as the Creation, the Vision ^^^^ h»i»^ 'jao i^n ny^T^ n^sn D^rjit 
of Ezekiel, and ije Book Jeteira,« ^d^^ i^ ^^ ^^^a p« ^,^,3 p, 
which must only be disclosed to the ^^^^ . t^ ^^^^ 

pious, to men of wisdom imdmtelh. ^^^ J ^^ ^^ ' 
gence who are of the children of ' 

Israel. Thus, also, the passage, *'Like a bag of gems in a heap of 
stones" [Prov. xivi. 8], which they interpret of an unworthy disciple, 
whom they liken to one who cast stones at the statue of Mercurius,"^ 
saying. Whoso teaches the law to an unworthy disciple shall descend 

s> The Snkbftoh edition has Bubstitated TIDMO nm, in what they say, for X0\r\lnU 
what, in oonseqnence of the omiflaion proaentLy to he noticed. 

M From -noM vhn, but they did not say, to -iciVrr Va, whoso teaches, is omitted in the 
Snlzbach edition, and the ecutor snbfltitnted, from his own cogitations, the following : 
tr>a p D7T^ pt >3 .7TD xxvos' vh m laon tan .tyatDwo dd'h nrma norm xnxvo 'Dmo vm 
-XD PTOi 'MrQDa"» DWiw BTWD rm 'KToaa onDian, it otdff refers to their time when the 
Heathen did not believe in the Creator, but in our time, this is not applicable, since 
they are not like the OentHes mentioned in the Talmud, as is evident both from the 
later leaislators, and common sense, and what — . The omission of the lengthy para- 
graph m>m the text, as weU as the insertion of the concocted passage in qnestion, 
which was dictated l^ the censorship of the press, has given rise to the alteration 
mentioned in the preceding note. 

<7 The work of the Hexahemeron is technically called, in the Jewish literature, 
rrvmi nwo, because the first book of Moses, or more especially the history of the 
cosmofj^ny, begins with the word iWMro, (comp. Mishna Taanith iv. 2 , Megilla iii. 6 ; 
Chulltn ▼. 6.) The Vision of Ezekiel, again, is denominated the Chariot ipOTQ), or 
the Work of the Chariot {poona } I WD ), in c<mformity to the former phrase, with which 
it is generally associated, and comprises Ezekiel, chapters i. and x., which treat on the 
Divine Throne, resting on wheels, and carried by sacred animals. The Jews, from time 
immemorial, have attached great mysteries to these sections of the Hebrew Serintores, 
which discourse on the cosmogony and theosopby of the Old Testament, and have 
invested them with the halo of peculiar sanctity. Special directions are given to those 
who study these biblical questions. Thus the Mishna declares that " the work of the 
Hexahemeron (ITV^HTQ n WP ) must not be expounded in the presence of two persons, 
and the Chariot (rosiD), not even in the presence of one person, unless he is a sage, and 
understands it already m>m his own cogitations " (Chagiga iii. 1). It is to this enactment 
that Levita evidently refers, since he uses almost the very words of the Mishna. 

As to the Book Jetzira {ttvt IDD), or the Book of Creation, to which reference is 
made in the text, it purports to be a monologue of the patriarch Abraham, giving the 
contemplations which led the father of the Hebrews to abandon the worship of the stars, 
and to embrace the faith of the true God. Its design is to exhibit a system, whereby the 
universe may be viewed methodically, in connection with the truths given in the Bible, 
by means of the double value of the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet, as weU 
as by the ten digits. For an analysis of this famous document, see Qinsburg, the 
Kabbalah, pp. 65-77, Longmans, 18^6. 

SB Levita aUudes to the anoient mede of worship offered to the heathen deity Hermes, 
which consisted in mere heaps of stone, called Ep/ialoi \6if>oi, 4pfuua or €piiaK€£, 
being the symbol of Phallus, and thus giving rise to the ithyphaho arrow-form of Hermes. 
These heaps of stones were more especially ooUeoted on the road-sides, and each 
traveller paid his homage to the deity oy throwing a stone to the heap as he passed by, 
or anointed the heap of stones in whidi a Hermes was frequently set up, or offered up 
the firstlings. Comp. Gen. xxviii. 10-22, xxxi. 45-48 ; Sanhedrin 61 a-64 a ; Midrash on 
Prov. 26 a, D^lpTob ]!» pnnD VtoV Toa pVimj *© Va, being the law referred to by Levita. 
Pauly, Real Encyclopdaie der classischen Alterthumsicissensehaft, s. r. Mebcvrius. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



97 

occupied with this work, therefore v^ ]^ naa p hj^ ,n3K^on n»Ta ♦» 
is no man to be found who is more ^s ncK&d ^niM^psa 'sm^r ^lut^xDn 
conversant therewith than I am ; as ,nn»i3D o^ipo ,k»d nh wt^iv ,n»^m 
a poet said, that he was never con- ^^ihn m ,rm Haute ^ao dk ^a 
quered except by a man of one idea. ,^,nTi nt»D3 /3w*an ^n»f?i ,'3iD3n 
Moreover, I have learned wisdom ^^^ ,„^j^ ^^^ ^^^^„ ^^ 

from niy disciples and they aided „^^^^ ^,, i^^^^^ ^^^^.^^ 
me m this knowledge ; as a certam _ , ..^l,^ 

Talmndist said, I ha^e learned much '"^^^ r^^' °P '"^^^ ""^^ ^^°^ 
from my teachers, more from my P^ ™*" '"^'^ ''"'** '^^''f *^P"^'^ 
fellow students, and most from my ^^^ I'""" 1^^ '^^ '^"*'* '^'^ 
learned disciples." l^'^^* ""^^^ ^==» ^«=i»B™ T^bd> ^nia^Ton 

When the prince heard my state- "^P"^ P^^ "iP l«*an -nri* p^ijy 'hVk 
ment, he came to me and kissed me *^ rrnrn ^'i&p m&p n& nriMi ,n^h y^w 
with the kisses of his mouth, saying, nni ywH te^ani ,a«^ ^^ rpr» '»i ,an^ 
Art thou, my lord, Elias, whose ^oof? ^m»i ,-]rrn -i^n^n ^mt }n»i ,-]iTa 
fame has travelled over all coun- i^d wpnon pa) ;hjf -porm te pn ,^te 
tries, and whose books are to be sryhjn vhp Tmi ,Tn» ^naa f?na ,in^ 
found m every comer?" Blessed be ^^^^^ ^.^^^ q^^^ ,^1,3. ,3^^ ,3^ ^^^ 
the God of the Universe, who brought -.^«- ^,^ ,^,_ «m%-F,♦^ V,*m.^ »^ ^-^ 
thee hither, and bade thee come to ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ i^ 

meet me. Now abide with me and - . , , '^J... 

be my teacher, and I shaU be to "" ""^^^ ''"^ '"^^^" ^^^ "^"^^ 
thee as a father, and shall support «^ ''=»"» '^^^^'^ P '^'^^ '^^ ["loa ,nte 
thee and thy house, and give thee ^^^^ "*"^ ''"'*" '"o*"' "^^^ *= r=»^«'' 
thy com, thy wine, and thy oHves, ^«^ n^"" Z^" i^'b« 'a ipi ^K ,Ti^p 
and fill thy purse, and bear all thy X'^^ ^^^^ '^' *^^ D*n^n n»i ^^aat nap 
wants. Thus we took sweet counsel ,p»d 'te 'an ■]?) ,p«rTD '^ rh^hn\ ^ttiia 
together, iron sharpening iron. I im- 
parted my spirit to him, and leamed from him excellent and valuable 
things, which are in accordance with truth. I followed the advice of 
the sage, who says, *'Leam tmth, from whomsoever it is propounded.'* 

In conclusion, I fully acknowledge it, as one confesses before a 
solemn tribunal, and shall not withdraw it, that I have been a teacher 
to Christians ;>^ yea, I have assuredly been; but nevertheless, know that 
I am a Hebrew, praise the Lord, and revere the Lord, who made hea- 
ven and earth; I have not sinned, and am innocent and guiltless. For 

» The above qnoted Baling is recorded in the Talmnd {TcMtiith 7 a), as having been 
uttered by B. Chanina, and is literaUy as foUows : nm« nanu) ^ll*n3 ^TMch Txm 
iteo inv n* P^ nP>, much have I leamed from my teachers, mare from my aseociatee, but 



*> This remark is certainly proleptioal, since, at the time when Levita had his first 
interview with Cardinal Egidio, (circa 1510), he had not as yet j^nblished any books of 
his own, and even his small maiden production, which appeared in 1508, was published 
surreptitiously, vide supra, pp. 18, 80, &o. 

24 In the Sulzbach edition, unQ% foreigners y is substituted for 0^3, Christians. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



96 

the mouth of all students, both Jews lanmn^ ttk ,Q''nn»3 i^»« pn^za^nn f?3 
and Christians,*® who delight in our .no^ ♦jodi ,nt3n 

Law and profit therefrom. nA ,n3ti3 thr n.i ♦a ,nxra j?3»3 ^3111 

Now I swear, by my Creator, that ^n'Df7n n»n -wn ,'3«'an oi^n npi *n»pn 
a certain Christian encouraged it, ,op« ,,map in^w ,nw d*3» i^pa, 
and brought me thus far. He was ,^^, ,^, ,^ „^^^ „, ^ ^^ 

my pupd ten years unmteiTuptedly,«> ,^ ^,^,^^^ ^ ^ ' ^^ ^^ 

I resided at his house and instruct- , , ' * *k' '"l^ "" " 

ed him, for which there was a great 7'"^^'' ^^ '''' ^"'"^ '''^'''l '"^'^^ 
outcry against me, and it was not '^ '"'"^" ™'"''^" °^*'° ^"^^^ "^^" 
considered right of me. And several '^**'* ••^ ^^"^ ,n*i*?^n DipT ^a didd^di 
of the Rabbins would not counte- ^^ ^"^^^ ,*mf?3f3nn mvp ^rh:ih ,*niby 
nance me, and pronounced woe to D*n«D n3»a ,tv^ ^a n»n» n»pDi ,n*inn 
my soul because I taught the law wiwi ,3;iBn noD^ op oonn ,p»m d^vwi 
to a Christian,** owing to the inter- nKna Tpa ♦an ,^nvn3 *n*i ,p»Q »^a »xn 
pretation assigned to the words, .mirji n^^»3i .ma^3 N*n ^Bf«^ /nai 
"And as for my judgments they o^^in^n jitsn ^aa ,U5»n ^3 rw o»a»wi 
[/.^. the Gentiles] are not to know ^^^ i^t^^^ ,i^ ^^^ t^^ „,„, ^^ 
them; praise the Lord for it. [Ps ^^^^^ ^,^^„ ,^ ,^^^ ,^^ ^^^ 
cxlvu. 20). Now my tardiness will l 

not prevent me from making a de- ^^ ^'^""^ '""'^^ '''' *"=»'5^^ '°''^^ «'»^-'=» 
fence. I shaU, therefore, state aU '"»^" •*«^^ P*'" '"*° '^^''^ "^ °«^^ ''^'^ 
that took place. In the year 269 [ = '"""^'^^^ ^**^*'"**P '^^ '^"^'^'^ "" 
1509], violence rose up into a rod of -^^^'^^ ^^"T^ >^^^^^ ^ro«f3^ 

wickedness, and the arrow was des- *nio«i ,'^^^v *"^tik tp ,*3kt ne^«31 
perate without any fault ; for it came ,'T3a»Kn pipTDn /si^on o3k 'a ,'3nK pt 
to pass, when I was in Padua, that ,piDp 'O* ^a ♦a ,piDDai pnpna ,m ^b *n 
the celebrated city was captured, and 

sacked, and devastated; the enemies then destroyed my dwelling, 
together with that of other Jews, and all that I had became a prey, and 
was like the leaving when the dung is cleared away. Then it fell into 
my lines to be a roamer at the head of the exiles. I left my place and 
went to Rome, where resided a very distinguished nobleman, a prince 
of great dignity, and wise as Solomon, and his name was Cardinal 
Egidio. When I heard his fame, I paid him a visit. 

When he saw me, he asked me about my affairs. I said. Know, my 
lord, that I am the German grammarian, who possess the sundry secrets 
connected with the grammar and Scripture, for I have always been 

^ The Snlzbocli edition snbstitates Dn333, strtmgen^ for 0^3, Christians. 

*> The apparent contradiction between the above statements, that he lived in Egidio's 
honse abont ten jears, and the remark in the Introduction to the TisJibi, that he had 
learned from Cardinal Egidio, with whom he was thirteen years (lo]^ ^niQ]^ utOhi ^3^Tm 
tfyki bs ^nbsp 7T3V> mw Xc/to)^ is to be accounted for tons: in the Massoreth na- 
Massoreth, Levita gives the round number, i. e., €U>out ten (iiD93l) years ; Graetz 
{Geschichte der Juden, ix. 224,) explains it, that as Cardinal Egidio was about several- 
years from Rome (comp. Reuchlin's Letters in Friedlander's Beitrdge zur Reformations 
Geschichte^ pp. 89, 99), Levita was ten years in his house at Rome, and three years 
with him away from the Eternal city. 

» The words nab rmn ♦H'to'wj ^ nM *«):b nnow), and they say. Woe to my »md, 
because I taught a Christian the Law, are omitted in the Snlzbach edition. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



95 

mistakes, and bore false testimony nnp i^n ,npn p« moiptsai ,nitna n» 
in many places. This, however, ,naH^i rwTa o ,n33 ^p mnn^ pm ppv 
is not to be wondered at, for the ♦3ki ^rwp nhrvm ^ai ,n»nn -n^n n^ 
work was new, and every beginning t^opa^ ^^^ibp oipoai ,»mf?nn»n ana 
is difficult. With great diligence, ^^^^ ,^1,^3^ ^^.^^c, ^,^ .,3 ,^j^^ 
therefore, with little sloth, and with ^^ ,_, _^„ ,_ ,^^ ^,_, ^^, r,^«*,-L 
immense toil, I laboured to separate ^^ ' ^ ^^^^ ^^^ t^^ 

that which is clear from that which '• "> 'I i I 

is obscure,-brought the Massoretic ^^"'^"^^ '"^^^ '"=»^" "^ '''^'' '^»? ••^ 
materials into order, and put a ^a-r '^ T^Ta pnn Dnajmie ,mp «^ ibtk 
proper space between each section ^^07^31 itddj ^mmnn nw ♦wjwd ^nioon 
and every article. You may believe ^^^ ,onnaT n« i^an? ,)Dan» can W7^ 
that I have laboured and found ,V'v\' ona pw ,pTnD K^a Di^na ,Dn'3T?a 
what none else has discovered, and k^i ,ir^» na*»na 'a ,ira» Hh^ ij?t «^i 
discharged my duty in such things noa ^ia«rD3 nmoi ,min^ :*d rti ^mtson 
in which nobody has preceded me, d«b2»dt ,D*iBnTDi D'Bpdi /iia^n 'Dii 
knowing that the words of the Mas- 0*3,^ ^03 p^hnn^ nnom pi p^rTioi 
sorah are completely hidden from ^on nin ",3n ^ napn h^i |ua ,D*K*nD 
our contemporaries Indeed very ^s^^^^^^ t^ ^^ ^^^ 

few understand the lai^agethe^^^^^ ;,^ ' 

which IS to them as a dream without ' ' • ' , 

an interpretation, and from which '"=«=^ "° ''''^^ ,naon nntf^i ,n^,n dho 
they have no advantage; they neither "i^*?^ W" ""=*"" "'=» 'P^*'^^ P^ 
know nor understand, for they dwell d'C'T" /ii3'«n an onaia ^nanna n^i 
in darkness. Yet the Massorah is the /^iwtsf? vm ,wia3 wo itf?i ,wa anpo 
fence of the law, and from it are oa^i ,w»a» D^S^arom ^niotsn jy^p-ia 
deduced many essential Halachoth, 'Da ,«^p3 lov rrm ,«npoa ^♦arn^ ,i3'a» 
reasons and explanations, literal and 

homiletical meanings, whilst from the defective and plene many laws 
are deduced; ex. gr,, from an [Exod. xxiii. 2] which is defective;" 
from the first ntlTO [Deut. vi. 9] ^ which wants the second Vav, and 
many other similar instances from which laws are deduced. It is for 
this reason that I purpose to explain its import, laws, and rules in this 
little volume in brevity, and without tediousness, yet in words of great 
might ; propound new things recently brought to light which did 
not exist before, and they shall be as luminaries in the firmament of 
the Massorah, so that the wise will understand and prepare their hearts 
to be wise in the Scriptures ; and the name thereof shall be known in 

17 Hence it is taken for 21, chiefs and it is deduced that no one is to speak against 
its chief, i.e., the King or High Priest, comp. Sanhedrin 18, &., and Bashi on Exod. xziii. 2. 

19 rmiD, with the Jews, denotes the piece of parchment whereon are written the 
passages in Dent. vi. 4-9, zi. 13-21, which they v^l^ as containing the injunction to 
mscrihe on the door-posts the words of the Law. llie slip of vellum thus written npon 
is enclosed in a cylindrical tnhe of lead, cane, or wood, and to the present da^ is na&ed 
to the right door-post of every door. For a detached description of tiiis institution, we 
must refer to Kitto's CycJopadia of Biblical Literature, new ed., i. v., Mtzuzdh ; and 
for the law deduced from the word rmm, heing written definitely in Deut. vi. 9, to which 
Levita alludes, we must refer to Jacob b. Chajim's Introduction to the Babbinic BibUf 
p. 9 Hebrew, and p. 21 English translation, ed. Ginsbnrg. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



94 

it is a book of small dimensions, ,mD3n pp noo Kim ,'mpi n'a vhh^^ 
there is nothing like it in the de- n^MQ ia nnaasi ,niDnn ^h jHt miDoai 
partment of the Massorah. It mioono nanon ,naina idd kxd3 Hh^ 
treats upon important matters, and d»13w noD ]»in ,D*?ipa naf? «in pn ,D*?f?ai ) 
there is no other book which so ^niar^ja onDon a^ao ,d» npt or np? 
thoroughly treats on the Massoretic Q^^j^^^n o ,m3Dn^ f?ar n^; pnon onai 1 
rules, exceptmg the scattered gloss^^ ^^ ^^,^^^ \ \ 

around the margm m the Codices, J i l 

which, however, contain nmnberless ^ ^""^^ '^=^"" "« "^°t '°"''''" 
errors. For the Scribes have per- ^^^^ "^™^ '"^^^»" "« "«^' •^^^^ ''^^7'^" 
verted them, as they did not care "^^^^=» 'V^'^ P'*" ^^^"^ '1*^"^" ^^^ 
for the Massorah, but only thought d^x'x^i ,nmBf»pai ooioaoa .onrxi 
to ornament their writing, and to P*p^ d*dpd^ ,0^11310 on p ^pi ,D*rnDai 
make even lines so as not to alter onaia pnrxn nioin ,"wa^ D^cpc^i 
the appearance, in order that all the ,D'Tn» ne om ,DnnK moipca pmoNn 
pages should be alike. Moreover, oipna poisn D^opD^i ,DfiipD |Ka p«i 
they ornamented them with illu- *3 ppy, f,t,3 cna) «f7i ,^a3 «*? n«nn 
minations of divers kinds of buds, p^Qj^a p^aent, ^a^jj^n, p,^^^ ^jt, Q^pj^^ 
flowers, &c. Hence they were uonDno mom "^raan d*?w «*?i ,ppn 
obliged sometimes te narrow and ' 

sometimes to widen the margins '^^^^'^^^ pn^rpi paT«nD mioDn p« 
round the illustrations with words .D'^ionpn nso '^aa ,mna 'n*«T k*? ,n»i 
ah-eady stated, although they were ^^^^^ '""i"=»i 'era ,D»Dpinoi omiDD 
superfluous and out of place, whilst ,d*3B? ^db' ith ,D*3ia3nD ttik dhid pTTon 
the Massoretic signs were entirely nnnx inD»3 *nn ",app» Knpa ^n»»a 
omitted in their proper place because nann ,r»i iiKoa manr c]ni ,aip3 nnxa 
the space did not suiOice ; and hence 

they had te break ofl* in the middle of a sentence,^^ thus leaving the 
whole edifice incomplete and greatly defective.^* 

As to the Massorah, in the twenty-four sacred books printed here, 
T have not seen anything like it, among all the ancient books, for 
arrangement and correctness, for beauty and excellence, and for good 
order. They were edited by one of the learned, whose name was for- 
merly Jacob (let his soul be bound up in a bag with holes). ^^ But 
although his edition is exceedingly beautiful, he committed many 

learned annotations, by FrensdorflF, Hanover, 1844. The reader will find all Levita's 
references to the Massorah^ contained in the Masaoretk Ha-Massoreth, compared with 
the statements in the Ochia Ve-Ochla. ^ 

^^ The above description of the condition of the Massorah, and of the manner in which • 
it has been treated by the copyists, is almost literally the same as that given by Jacob 
b. Chajim, the first editor of the Massorah. Comp. Jacob b. Chajim's Introduction to \ 
the Rabbinic Bible, p. 12 in the Hebrew, and 85 in the English translation, ed. ■ 
Oinsbnrg, Longmans, 1865. 

^'^ The words Dnono mom are omitted in the Snlzbach edition. 

^ For this celebrated Massorite, and the Bible here alluded to, see above, p. 38. From 
Levita's vituperation, it is evident that Jacob b. Chajim was now dead, inasmnch as the 
phrase, "let his sonl be bonnd np in a bag of holes," is a spitefnl and unworthy 
perversion of the beautifnl, charitame, and reverential prayer, which the Jews use when 
sneaking of or writing about any one of their brethren who has departed this life, in 
allusion to 1 Sam. xxv. 29, because he had embraced Christianity. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



93 

When I heard their flattering hk ^rron ,i03^3 '3 onnm *yt)W1 
words, I inclined my ear to them /njrtsiy oa^ip rw ♦htdki ,id*^k 'am 
and answered, I accede to your -^a /*»a paw ^jrii ,^1^-7 oniiia noKm 
entreaty. And indeed their wish ^,ona »nrn mpa ,*3Df? na^noa nn^p 
fully harmonised with my intention. Q.^gon q» »mani ,^tDipD n*n w i»k 
Now I swear, by the Lord, that this ,^ ^c^, „c^^^ ^^^ 

verythmg was m my mind before ,^^^ '^ ^^^^^^ ,^, ^^^ ,^ 

when I was still m Bome, where I / l 

temporarily resided, and composed '""'^^ «^^ '^^^"^^ '^ ^^ ""'"^ ''''''' '■'^*" 
the above-named works, only that I '*"^** °'"'** ^^^ ''"'^=* *"'"*^ ""5^^ '''^^"" 
had not sufficient time, as the evil '^'^^^ °^P^" "'=» r^^^* ^^^^ *"**3^ 
days came and the city was cap- '^an ,n*?n:n i»pn «»n ,n^f?inDn n"«t»3ii 
tured,^« and I, insignificant one, was it^« ,^Kn»*a ^a^ ntrpKi ,^kw oanrpa^? 
compelled by fate to relinquish the ,manDn hnt nariKi ,rK^D nao» ,VKn ^a 
contemplated Treatise. Now, after ♦^ n? 'a ,n3Dpi n^n: /motsn nan ^aa 
the lapse of years, God having per- ,-|np n^ kxd*? rpi^ 03« ,n3w one^p 
mitted me to settle in this beautiful ^^^ «,„ ^^ naisyf? iixpi ,n3op -waf? 
place, the celebrated Venice, the oinnmBon nana 

great city, I comply with their wish, ^^, ^c^, ^„,^ ^^^ ,^^^3^ 

and will perform a work m Israel » n * » a 

that whosoever sees it may tell its ' 1 r * T'^ 

wonders. I have, therefore, com- "°«";"=» ,'npaB.3 ^33n, ,^npT orr^p 
piled this Treatise on aU Massoretic ""« «^ *^ ''^^J' °^"^** '^ P "==^ ''"'^^'^^ 
matters, connected with both the ^^po^ '=^*°^* ^« =^i' V^ '^^^ '°^"» »*^^ 
Massora magna and parva, as it is r'^*'»xo d«^^ ,^npDw npiDt^n 'DDi ,'n]^r 
now twenty years that I have been ^f^ip i«f«ai ,n^^p "]ido^ ,n'i«nn moo 
in the way to find out its value, to n:DD 'npnpn ,d*^idd nh ^rwieD vh^ ,n*^K 
unfold its import and its laconic |*a n:vw^ ,Q*ma:m Q»aiDn ,n»^D 
style, which is often as obscure as rnn^icn ^niKnain an nDRai ,D»mnn 
the words of a sealed book. ^Dmeon naoD ,Dnn» nnso on ,m«xD3n 

How I laboured therein, neither ^^^ ^^^^^ on^ma^niai /naoo: cn^^i \ 
restmg nor being satisfied, and ^^ ,^ ^^^, ^^^ ,^^^ ^,^^ ,^^, ^^ « 
searched m the correct and ex- , i,1l^^^ •L^J^^^p^ 

ceUent books, giving „»y n^j^d ''™P^ "'='' """^ ""^='«' "^^^ ^^°" 
hereunto I Now I swear, by truth and justice, and may God give me 
riches, that more than once or twice I performed a day or two day's 
journey to a place, which I either knew myself or of which I had 
been informed, that there is to be found therein a reliable index of 
the Massorah. When I examined it, and found it correct, I selected 
from it the choice and correct articles, as roses from among thorns. 
Indeed, most of the coiTect Codices I found to be Spanish, and it is 
upon these that I rehed, and it is their method that I followed. Still, 
my soul was not as yet satisfied, until I found the Book Ockla 
Ve-Ochla,^ 1 got much out of it, and adopted its rules ; and, though 

u The capture and sackiug of Padua took place in lj>09, as described above, ride 
tujtra^ p. 14. 

IB This long lost and most valuable Masnoi-etic work has now been published, with 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



INTRODUCTION U. 



IHB BTTHMIGAL nrTBODUOTION, .n^Tl^nn nOlpHn Tlfc^TI 

ACOOBDINO TO GEBlfAN BHTXE. jnHJSK'fc* lITlin T^T hv 

Thus saith Elias Levita, who mjfj^ ,K'2tDm n^xion ,n!?n in^^K DW 
gathered together counsels afar off ,,^t, ^^^, „,„ ^^^r^-^t^ ^^^i, p^n^Q 
from innumerable works to compile ^^,^^^ ^ ^,^, ^^ ^,i, 

Treatises on grammar m as few ^^ npnnK ,pD on^^p ixnD ,DnDD nnna 
words as possible, and to make a V l 

path to the various voices, both ''^^"^ 'l^'^'^" "°^"^ °^^ 'P^ '^P 
small and great. These are my r^n-iNmBrN Kin ,^ian nn^jtn ,]w^in 
four small productions, all treating ^^^ inSpin .Tin n''2\S^ l^no 
on the science of our language. The 3*«^o '"linan IDD innt^i ,n3;'nD 
first volume which I composed is my n33inn nDD vttwi ",*nnK D'pnpTD 
explanation of the Journey on the HTB^ JTID rnriKi ,n3rD3 ia mi nf?D f?3 
Pa<A of Knoii'Udge; its utility is rhvt on^'m ,nTDj np D'piD tkw dj7 
known to all. The second is the D'ops noa ,nnpnf?i nnDan^? ^onpanK 
i^ooAr Bachur, which animadverts onai ,D*pnpiD oniPi p«rS^i ,D*ppn3 
on Grammarians." The third is the pt„p ^^^^ p^„.^, ,3,1^^ q,i^,j3 o,l^p 
Book on Compounds, in which all n^ Q,3,^,3 a^jj^ pg^j, pt,,p hL,j3 ^^33, 
brregular words are explained. The ^i^ ,^ ^^,,^, ^^^^^ ,^,j^ „^ ^,3, 

fourth IS a Poetical Section, together „^l ^^^^ ^^^^ r,,„L,^ ^^,^ ^^^ „,„ 
with other Sections appended there- 

unto. These four productions of °^^^^ ""^ '^''^^^^ ^^"^^^ ^"'^^ '^"^^ 
mine, owing to their wisdom and '^"^''"^ °""^ ^^5^=* f ^** "^^^ ^^^ '°'°^^^ 
knowledge, have been published "** ''^^'^^^ '"*«^^" ^'"^^"^ '"'''^^ "^' ^^'^ 
several times, translated into the P^^^^n" 'TDf?n ,d*3dd »nin nnpi p^ain 
languages of the Christians, and are ''^^ f*» m D*»paDi ,d*3B^ >pnr ^ai 
studied both by Jew and Gentile, as "f? -wan ,minn nrnp maa^i ,♦"♦ )pDf? 
their fame has travelled far and their lapctr »a ,-iDp riK? ♦a upT o ^rroon 
excellence is known all over the h^n ^-noDn nan ^aa ^nai: -^t 'a ,"|Db 
world. They send forth an odour .i:»3t»3 i3pD» hb^kdi ,wnn 'W3h 

like precious ointment, on which 

account I congratulate myself. Ijj^ow I speak the truth when I say, 
that there has been no author, whose works God has permitted him 
in his -lifetime to see so much referred to and studied, and so 
many times reprinted, as he has permitted me during my lifetime. 
My hand is still ready to give more help, and' to benefit the public. 
My worthy disciples are around me now, as well as all my old friends ; 
they earnestly entreat me, saying, for God's sake, and for the glory 
of Holy Writ, explain to us the Massorah ; for we know that it is 
in thy power, as we have heard that thy hand is strong in all 
Massoretic matters, above all our contemporaries, as well as above 
all of whom we have heard. 

n The words linM n*;rxpiQ yxoo "iimn "CD •nmn, the second is the Book Bachur, 
which animadverts on Grammarians^ withoat which Leyita's statement is unintelligible^ 
are omitted in the Sulzbac-h edition. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



91 

But for the accents, the sense conld not be discerned. 

They knew the interpretation of the Scriptures better than all the rest 

of the captivity ; 
Therefore, an interpretation contrary to the accents must be regarded 

as dross or as chaff. 
They taught how the words should be written, whether plene or 

defective ; 
Whether a word is to be connected with the preceding, or the following 

sentence. 
They made signs, to serve as rules to aid the memory. 
The signs, however, are problems; riddles taken from foreign 

languages ; 
Many could not understand them ; and did not know what they mean ; 
Till the day when it was said to me, by my estimable friends, 
** Now, what dost thou here, Elias ? Arise, and make thyself a great 

name. 
Throw light on the Massorah; and open that which is locked up 

therein : 
We know that this is within thy power ; that thou possessest the 

mastery over it." 
Then said I to myself, * Hearken, my soul ; Why art thou disquieted? 
Arise, it is time to work for the Lord, lest the law become void : 
Thy fathers have left a place wherein thou mayest fortify thyself.' 
My soul then responded, * Ah ! This I gladly choose.' 
I therefore bestirred myself, and did not rest ; yea, my eyes pre- 
vented the night watches. 
Till I brought to light the hidden things, which have hitherto been 

concealed. 
Their counsel will be sweet to eveiy man, and the eyes of the l^d 

will be opened. 
An abridgment of useful words I will propound, on two tables ; 
I will put these tables openly, and not as secret words. 
For a witness, they shall be printed on paper with an iron and leaden pen. 
The buyer shall not be accountable, if a thief is foimd breaking in. 
Therefore, to all, as with a trdmpet, I raise my voice upon the 

heights of the city. 
Let the quick hasten to the good work ; for one good work leads to 

anotlier. 
For such merchandise, quickness is becoming, lest it be all sold ; 
As its merchandise is better than all traffic. What are precious stones 

to thee? 
Behold here an explanation of the Massorah, which is the basis of 

the law. 
Therefore, I call the name of this book, Massoreth Ha-Massoreth. 
The song is finished, to the God of the universe, I give praise and 

glory. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



90 

; n-wtj^^n n!?i:i ^3o .K-pon ni«3 ijn* on o 
;mDiTOn IK ntihDn .ninnsi tk nnm nin 

;m3n3 pfij6 Dy nin^n ,niniK DniniK itxj^ ik 

;nnDiK «\n no p3D pK ,n3 iD3n* kS »nnn 

;nminDn *xn mnn ,*!?n i^dk dv Kn ^3 ny 

; mKDn DC' i? nwi Dip .in^^K hd n^ no w 

;maDDn na w nnDi .n^iih* Th«n nnooS) 

;nnni:i k^t n^Dtj^ n^na rpv nh^t *3 13 i3jn* 

;nn33nD nx nt no^ ,*k'm ^jnxs' *nnD« tk 

;mDiD min n^nn ]& r^S nv *b^ ^Dip 

;nm:inDnnnvnS ,nn« i^ iman DipD 

;mn)3 *33K nT3 .nwn ^srw ^S nnoK t« 

;nnioB'« ^3^y lonp d: .^noon k^ ^nop pai 

;nnnD3 n^n ny nn^n ,ntD)^yn ni«^«*vi«ny 

; nniy py ^3 npax ,DniD p^pdk dik Ss ^k 

•.nnmnsnKnim^^^B^a ,D^^*yiDn d^!?d iivp 

;mDiy3) !?nn oy Dy .jnvn* t>33 nyS 

;mnnM kvd3 33:1 ais^n^ «^ npiSn 

;n'ip Dn *3a ^y d^-w h)p idib^s ^3 ^k pS 

;nnni:i niVD nivo *3 .nivoS Dnp» tntn 

;n-OD3 nS3 n^nn jd ,n)«* rnr n«T nninoS 

;nnniD IK nn ^k i? no nnoD ^3d nnno 310 *3 

;n'Tpy K*n nninS o .nnoo^ nniK i^ kh 

;nniDDn miDD nt neon db^ k^pk p ^y 

jniKDn Di n3K' ]n» ,Dbiy ^k Sk D^e^^ y^n 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



89 

INTBOBUOTIOM I. 
A BONO OF PBAIBB, SIXPLEf AKD OF FOVB FEET. 

I render praise and gloiy^^ to the Lord, who made the heaven with 

His span. 
Not in vain did He create the world ; for a habitation has He made it. 
He founded the earth upon the waters ; He nnroUed it like a scroll. 
He looked and rejected the Gentiles ; He took to Himself His chosen 

people. 
He brought them out of Egypt, which was spoiled of its treasure 

and wealth. 
He stretched his mighty hand upon the sea, and the enemy sunk 

down like lead. 
To His people He gave the fiery law as a gift ; commanding them to 

observe it. 
He caused them to inherit a goodly land ; extending to the sea of 

Gennesareth. 
But they grew fat and kicked ; they became like a refractory heifer. 
They lusted after vanity, and joined themselves to Baal and Ashtoreth. 
The Lord heard it, and was angry, and sent a curse among them. 
He destroyed them by pestilence, and by sword, and by famine. 
He abandoned the city, destroyed the sheepfold, and scattered the sheep. 
He drove them beyond the sea, as at this day ; into a foreign land. 
They abode in Shmar a little while, according to the time appointed. 
Seventy years the temple laid waste ; the law was forgotten. 
The people changed their names and tongue ; they dressed like the 

Gentiles. 
The Jew married a Gentile wife, or a stranger, or a bastard; 
And the children knew nothing, except the language which their 

mother spoke. 
At the appointed time, the spirit of Cyrus, the king of Persia, was 

stirred up. 
He said to the Captains, Go forth, and build the glorious city. 
Ezra then went, who is the messenger, like a ministering angel ; 
The priest, the prince, and the father of scribes, the nursing mother 

of the Scripture and Massorah. 
By his departure, Babylon remained like a pond, wherein no fish are left. 
He applied wisdom to understand the Scripture, in its present superior 

characters. 
He cut off thorns from every word; he restored the crown to its 

pristine splendour. 
After him, thousands and myriads added fence unto fence. 
Most of these indefatigable workers sojourned then in Tiberias ; 
They were the first in this wonderful science ; 
They invented the system of punctuation, and transmitted it to us. 
They, too, added the accents, whereby the law might be explained ; 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



88 

;mT3 D)n ipn ^k^ ,mKDn Da nais^ inn 

;nnDa3nmnn3856 .San Kia San^ h«^ 

; miK3 nniK txre jcyon hv p^« id » 

;n-©iy3 iSbv Dnv .D* iy n* D^ya f|*3n 

;mi»3 nnvn^ Div ,nnD |ru m b^k id^ 

;n'T33 D* ny nam) .mon p« dSw*^ 

;nniD nnaa w ,)oyaM woe^ in* 

;ninOT^i !?yan ^k ,)nov^i non jim 

; myaon Da n^e^i nayn^i Sh^n yo v 

;mva^axnaDi annai nana oSa 

;nnTD3 iKV iKVH nmn .nnn nno n^n bod a 

;mnK p« ^K Dva .iruS nayo Dnt 

;mTMn nyn t^^D^ .lyvo noy lyjB' »tiv 

; nmyj nninn nn^n ,nDB^ px naK' D^yaB' 

;nmK D*iaa iB'a^ .D3)b6i lae^ oniiDB') 

;nnToo wcnna3)K ,n*ia hwna nsn Dih* 

;nian dd«B' 1)b6 .pn iTan h«S on^aai 

;nnniyntD tr\t i?o .cnia nn fpn nyai 

;nno)yr)n Tyn wai ,)Kvn can^Dh^S noh* 

;mB'nnjAoSfc<nDn ,o«^d xin xnty n^y 

;miDDSi fcnpD^ DM ,aK DnfiiD^i ani jna 

jniKK^a nn na i^kij^ .nb)voa ba t« nw 

;n'TBn«Dnnna^naa ;«npDa pan ^ais^ dib^ 

;nnDyn nacn^^wnnnn .nte bo nSa a^mp 

•.nntxw^KntDiwiW »niaani d^dS«^ inn« 

; nnniano Knaoa m .mryon nt ns^ax na aiS 

;nn»iDDn IT noana .naiK^hna nn*n tan* 

;nnDD3 iA «*n Dno r\)p*^n m iw^wn Da 

-.nnnw nnin Da ni^n^ .DnDC' vn D^oyon Da 

^ It will be seen that the commencing letters of the first fifteen lines, are the 
morostio of ^133«?M nVrr imSl, Elijahu Ha-Levt, the German. In Miinster's edition (1539), 
this acrostic is entirely obliterated by the pecnliar mode in which the editor arranged 
the lines. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



87 

But since I have seen that it is ikj m^n aiD «*? o ♦n*«i n»n njni 
not good for this book to be alone, rtDipna ,n:33 iTp i^ n»p» ,n3^ ntn" 



^JW^ /iipDD TfiHi ,nv»ip ]»inKi ^W 
nanai ,^*n nana p ,nTn »ma i^d» 
^iiDon ^»a naiai ,n^n:n noaa ♦«r3« 



I shall make for it a help-mate, in 
the form of an Introduetion, of 
snch things which have not hitherto 
been propounded. Therein shall I 
dispel questions, explain difficulties, 
and remove doubts which faU under "^ '^^^"^ *^ '^^'^'^^ ^^^^ °^^^ ''-^^ 
this investigation, and which are to "^^^^ ^'^'^ o*^=i "^^^^ "»' pitixop'td': 
be found in the treatises of our D*3»2pDn Q»»3Kn ^p nroan laanw ,nTn 
Rabbins of blessed memory, the i^tk niDTpm nan n^nn wip* k^ d« ,ia 
men of the Great Synagogue and of no»m ,Tra nairHin ,nvh\tf am ,^mipn 
the Massorah. And the eyes of .njfSna rvv hvm ,nTTTna 

those who wiU see shaU behold ^^^ ^^y,:i0^ ^^ .^^ ,^«, 
that which is upright, for they per- ' ^l l 

ceive the truth Moreover, ihhigs 'T """" "^"^^^ •*'" ^' '^ ^T T 
and remarks occur in this book '"^«" ^^'^F'^ «T«^ "^ ™' ""^^ 
which will be difficult of under- ,naa f?p tarrwf? wpai »mnn '3k f?*DD in 
standing to the students thereof, '^ "b^idi ,nana arvhv Kan p Dvipm 
unless they read first the intro- "nana pnann di« |ai onrm* st'h ttf? 'a 
ductions which I have prefixed, and ,v«nip^ pD3 jupripM^iK ,17 nunpa pt 
which are three in number. The nvn ,Dvnm o^ao onan oa i»md' irKa 
first is in poetry (T5r), the second ,DipDr «^ DiptDi wdi ,DipT k^ D'3D^ 
in rhyme (nmni), and the third in p^p^a qj ,3 moDn '3»3pa naf? Kf?i 
ordinary prose. .^^^ nara Kf?r ,D'3»3p Tun 'np3ai 

And if I had the power to exact t^^^ ^^ ,^^^, ,D»3nn«m D*3irKin 
an oath from an Israelite, I would '^ ^^^^ ,.^^^ ^^ t , 1 

make every one who is about to r 

study this book swear that he will "^^^^ ^'' i!!'^'^'' "^^^ ^' '"^"^^ 
not peruse it till he has read these ""'^'^ '™^ ^^ '"''^'^ '^ °'^P "T" 
introductions. However, I beseech ^"^^-^ ^ Sa »,D^3i3n d3'k» onnD^n*? 
and pray you to take my advice woi^ 'a p^mh mnm ^'avnf? D'Ton3 
about it, and those who will do it -'^^ '"^ *» >hn npr h^ 

will derive the benefit. Now, I 

am persuaded that no man^ will regret the time spent in perusing 
them, but that it will be a pleasant task to those who read them ; for 
they will find therein things, both new and old, which they did not 
know and never heard before, not only connected with the Massorah, 
but with grammar, vowel points, &c., which are not mentioned in the 
works of ancient or modem writers. I will, also, relate ordinary con- 
versations, the talk of the world, what has befallen me, and what I 
have seen, as well as my defence against many people who have risen 
against me, and abused me for teaching the law to disciples that 
are unworthy thereof.^' All these things are desirable to make us wise, 
and are pleasant to the imagination. For, verily, my words are not 
whoso is on the Lord's side let him come to me. 



B ft 9 The word VTM, many as well as the passage beginning with ^nVi!t3m3 nnt D3l, and 
also my defeiice, and ending with D*:i:rr. loorthy^ is wanting iu tlu Snlzbach edition. 



Digitized by 



Google 



86 

not been anticipated by any one, n«T nia ^1DK^ paxro n«nr) jv^w iner 
you will find the form of a hand p^^^j^n .^t, „,, ^^^ -jt^g^^r^^g^^n, ^ 
in the margin against the remark in . j^^i^^y '^ q^^ i^^nriK 

question, pointing with its finger 

1^ and saying, as it were, ' see, something new is here told you, and 
tiiis is to indicate it to you ! * Let me now begin the Preface, in the 
name of the Lord of Hosts. 



PBEFAOE. 



.nonpn 



Thus says Elias, son of Asher ,n33«r»n »iVn i»h ts in^^K lOV^ 
the Levite, the German, behold, o-n ^1H♦^'l ,i2ih hrw Die *3Jk nan 
before I begin to speak, and com- ♦3„ ^^ ^k dddk k3 pm« pan^ mioon 
pose an explanation of, the plans of ^bdh ipv phm nai^Ri ,nt ^w^ rwip 
the Massorah, I must teU you what j,,„^ ^^„,^ ,^ ^^^^^ i^^ ,^^i^ ^^ 
I am gomg to do m this book I ^ ^,^,^^^^ ^^^^^ ^ ,^^„^, 

shaU first divide the chief contents / / l 

of the bdDk into two parts, after the "^^^t^"* T' '^" ^""' '"?'" 
mamiei* of the two tables of stone, "^"^ ^^^''^^^^^ "^*"'°"" ''''^^ '°'^'5^^° 
and write upon the first tables ten °"=»^ '"V"*' °"'°*® "^^^ ^'"I '"^'^''" 
commandments [Le. chapters.] In '^» °"''P "^^'^^^ '«'« '°"'=»''" ^= i«3« 
each one of these commandments I P^ "'^'^^ miDon 'Tya 7*t ,na«7Dn rw? 
shall give useful rules respecting ,ra*»n »^ j^avoi ,p»nai |»np p» 
defectives and plenes.'' The second |»DDm |*DpTi ]»DpDi ,|*nnDi |»xDp"i 
tables will contain ten other in- ^o-'an rth»h o'cnm ,|nm«Di i^OTpioi 
junctions [i.e, chapters.] In these q^m^i ^ip© ,3 nnoK) irw jnn wpKa-nKi 
I shaU explain aU the matters where- pa um -wk mten on p ,mmh nay la 
in aU those who have laboured in ,nj3^pna.^ar,,^^^3n3opr,nmDDn*f?pa 
this department are agreed; i.e i^ ,^^^ ^^^ ,^^,„ ^,^, 

snow what the Massontes sav about l 

the Ken and the Kethiv, L Ke- I"*' •'^'' ^ ^'"^ P^"" "T "^"^ 
thivsj which are disregarded, the ' 

KametZf Patach^ Makeph, Sakephf Chateph, Transpositiom, &c., &c. 
I shall then make an ark, open the door thereof, and put therein 
the broken tables, which are the work wherewith the authors of the 
Mttssordh-porva have occupied themselves, as I shall explain in the 
Introduction thereunto : and before it is yet bom its name shall be 
called "the gate [Le, the section] of the Broken Tables." This will 
form the last part of this book, and the sign thereof is, " the broken 
tables laid down in the ark." 



* The Snbbach edition erroneonsly has niDVa, according to the name* of^ instead of 
moTD, after the manner of. 

■^ The Sulzbach edition incorrectly puts D'w'jon, ;i/€Hf, before D*TOnn, defective. 



Digitized by 



Google 



85 



INFORMATION FOB THE BEADEB. ^ 1 [^^VOh mriTK 

This is for the information of every '^vvo o ,nT nooa \*yon h^h njH? HKT 
reader of this book. The celebrat- ♦maoia hn^^n wn d^'dtdh vm*i traon 
ed printer, M. Daniel Bomberg, a didt3 npa-«i onvpn o*DTr6 •nxijn 
Christian^' having resolved to issue D'mpan D»30»t3n dj? do'dth ,pQpi SiJ 
the 24 sacred books, both in large :D^n,,3n neo Trof^j^/v^^owposiv^a 
and smaU sizes, is nonprinting them ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^, ^i^^^;, ^i^^ nrnai 
with the divisions, which are called ^,„, 8-,.«^-, ^m. nn««nn-« r,t-» ^1-1^^1 
in then: language chapters, according ^^^t^^^ t^^^ ^^ ohnh'sn 'VierDpn 
to the order of the Christian books. i_ l l 

And as there is a great advantage in '"^''»r ^'^^ '^^ '^ ^^ ^'^^^ '^V' 
it, which I have rfiown long i^o in ?^P» ^^=» ''' 1=^ ^» =»^ "»" 1^=^ "^^^ 
theintroductiontotheJBooit5ac/iur,8 ^«^D"' oidd rmoa p*f?« aina uxonr 
and as he who made the divisions of nxn ^hizdt nra ^f?jmf? n^an mn op 
chapters also divided the books of ^q ,^n» w p mm 'ar ^kid» TOif? 
Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles, re- ,^^t^ ^'an op note pi : mhm ^w 
spectively, mto two books, I too # 1 a» 

was obliged to follow this method. V^^"^ P «im '» dwd ^*n do^ ma 
You are, therefore, to observe, that "^^vj VHna d^dni nan pi :nK^ni amn 
wherever you wiU find the word ^^^ «^*-,?,«^n„ .^^t^ ^^„ ^p n"! 
Samuel with^the letter Beth above .„^^, ^qI,^ p^,, ^ ^,„, ,3^ 

it,* e.g. ^KiDCf, it means 2 Samuel, srimw oipo f?aav ir'nK nw 
which begins with, **And it come to nrn Snj ^f?ai wm nan m'Hm»TBoa 
pass after the death of Saul," &c. hv npauT n'3an ntcm chk ia «3D*Tp »h 

The word Kings, too, with Beth above it,* ^.^. 0^3^^ means 2 Kings, 
and b^iins with, << Then Moab rebelled," &c. ; and also the word 

Chronicles, or its initials n"*l» with Beth above it,* e,g. t\"^, means 
2 Chronicles, and begins with, ''And Solomon, the son of David, was 
strengthened," &c. 

I must moreover inform you, that wherever I have propounded 
something new* in this book, or any important rule in which I have 

^ The words *^^90^ nrvTM, Information for the Reader y are omitted in the Snlzhach 
edition. 

> The word nnan, a Chriilian, is omitted in the Snlzbaoh edition. 

' For a description of the Book Bachor, see above, page 16, See. 

^ The word n^^ above it, is omitted in all the three inntances in the Snlzbaoh 
edition. 

* The Snlzbach edition erroneonsly has the word ill, string^ after vmHV, / propound 
fifivy as weU as before mM, Bomething. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



84 

among GhristiaQS- at the oomxnencement of the sixteenth eentniy, and 
as one of the most distinguished promoters of Biblical literature. He. 
died, as he prayed to die, at Venice, aged eighiy-one. The following , 
simple epitaph indicated, to those who looked at the tomb-stones of 1 
the Jewish cemetery, the grave in which were deposited the remains 
of EHas Levita : — 

mnpn n«T 'hv 
nfh^ -KTK pn "hv 

• mpDa '^ n^-^« 
T«n KS^ nr Kin v6t\ 

. mnv D^^nn nnvn wb31 ibid3 

The stone cries from the wall, 

And moums before every passer by 

Over this grave — 

Over our Babbi who has departed, 

And ascended into heaven. 

Ellas is gone to the Lord in a whirlwind ! 

He who has shed light 

On the darkness of grammar, 

And tnmed it into light. 

He ascended Shebat towards the end, 

In the year 809 [=1649], 

And his soul is bound up in the bundle of life. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



88 
: HDD ht^ B^KH nBwi HDia p^D nT3 nm* o 

For he wiU find therein an advantage, and haO the man who follows it. 

Herewith I finish the work, having corrected in it all mistakes, 

As it is meet and proper, in the name of Him who alone b Sovereign. 

The other three works which Levita published in 1546 are bound 
up with the Exposition of the Journey of the Paths of Knowledge, and 
^e as follows : — i. A concise Hebrew Grammar, entitled, The Begm- 
'ning of my Words (nil nns)? fi^m an anonymous pen, ** written many 
years ago in Spain, and exceedingly adapted to learn briefly the sacred 
language," first published at Naples, 1492, then at Constantinople, 
1615, and now ''carefully revised by Elias Levita, the Grammarian.** 
ii. The well-known grammar of Ibn Ezra, entitled On the Purity of 
the Hebrew Style (ninv) ; and, iii., another grammatical treatise by Ibn 
Ezra, called The Balance of the Sacred Language (cnpH \\^ *3TWD TDD). 
The pagination of these four treatises is continuous : the first extends 
over leaf 1 — 61, the second over 52 — 182, the third over 188 — 194, 
. The fourth over 195 — 286. Levita published these treatises under the 
general title of Grammars (D^pnpl). 

Extraordinary as was his prowess to battle against the infirmities 
of old age, and determined as he was not to relinquish his literary 
labours till his arms were paralysed and his eyesight completely extin- 
guished, Levita was at last compelled, by the irresistible and over- 
powering effects of the seventy-nine years which had now passed since 
he had seen the light, to confine himself to editing valuable works 
written by others. We cannot ascertain the number of works which 
he published this year, but we have before us Balbag's Commentary on 
the Pentateuch, which Levita edited in 1647. Some idea may be 
formed of the labour required to carry it through the press, when it is 
stated that it consists of four hundred and ninety-six folio pages, closely 
printed, in square Hebrew characters. Levita appended to it a short 
poem in Hebrew. Twelve months later, he edited B. Isaac Duren's 
work on the Ceremonial Law, published at Yenice, 1648, and appended 
to it a poem, which we have already mentioned, stating that he was 
then eighty years of age {vide supra, p. 2). This, as far as we know, 
is the last effort of the great teacher of cardinals and bishops of the 
Bomish Church, and of the originators and leaders of the reformation, 
and who may justly be regarded as the reviver of Hebrew learning 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



: ^n^i«w no )a txb^pii ^nnn^ ^a new ni Sai 

: nny ^nsa t« ^ro nn^n k^ ^3 nn« xnn jyob n6 tinivtD 

: niN^vtD3 Dno -wc^a xS«r ny m«*3e>n h^ ay d^-od3i 

: ^ni3*T "TB^ nx ^nn^oni ^mnn onnK Dneo SaK 

: nnS d^b>3x *3 itvbh niyi) nae nD» "«?« nnw nnyi 

: D^Soy w^3itrS pnpnn ne^x D^bnv ontD d^Sid dho 

: wnon nK kSdki wdd Sy ino^pxB^ 

: nn V ^anv n e^ n)3nn nr «in lopne^ ^yn 

: n3iD3 DT3 nDK^Dn n^nn n3io«3 n D^-^oiyn ^di 

: na Sy pnp^in Sd ^tid^S ne^ mon n^iiDO Kin ^3 

tpeno^ woo jr^K Sd o Pdd ^ p« nrni 

:k^vv enn ^3Dd jb^ fcrvon n^n nna "TBon dm 5|ki 

All this he did without my knowledge, and left in it my errors ; 

For yon must know, that I was not so expert then as I am now. 

It was thus re-published several times, both by Jews and Christians, 

Sold with all its blunders, and nothing is left of the editions. 

I greatly regret my first blunders, which ought to have been corrected ; 

And which have not only been left, but increased by fresh blunders. 

I did not notice it, but simply regretted that I had made blunders. 

And wrote other books wherein I corrected my former mistakes. 

Now that my life is drawing near to its evening, many of my friends. 

Both Jews and Christians, who studied the grammar of our language, 

Have urged me to place it in its right position, supply its deficiencies. 

Enlighten its darkness, and make straight its path. 

For, although the book is but small, it is much wanted ; 

And those who study it properly derive advantage from it. 

Since it is so arranged that the rules may easily be learned by heart. 

I have no doubt that every student wiU benefit from it, 

And even if he has the former edition, he'll prefer the new to the old ; 

Amsterdam, 17124-7 ; he died about a.d. 1504. The Grammar was pnbliahed in Constan- 
tinople, 1606, 1519, and an improved edition, ibid. 1542. The treatise on Hebrew 
Poetry is from the pen of an anonymoos writer. It consists of seventeen chapters, of 
which cap. i. — xiv., appended to Ibn Jaehja's Grammar, treats on the grammatical points 
necessary for writing poetry, whilst cap. xy. — ^zvii., which treats on the constmction and 
metre of the Hebrew poetry, was appended to Levita's commentary on Eimchi's Journey 
on the Paths of Knowledge^ by the person who published it snrreptitionsly. It is to 
these excerpts that the words Dmp3 Dn^p9 refer. Comp. Steinschneider's Catalogus 
Hebr,, p. 864, &c., and BibUogmphischeB Handbuchy p. 9, No. 78. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



81 

ion t|«n ^nn Dpan inwa ^nn 

s ♦3Dn nay wi ^3k d) ^jtwd31 

t »^in) SpD inp^mn Kim ^ p^nynS iddh iS ^nw *d 

nrfi 110D 6 WDnnSi nra i;j^ iw la^im 

: rhp: V3^3 nnsT n!?n3n n«T nam 

: nat «^ neon hv ^ob^ 'lay ^^na n^i 

« : Kon TjnD ro^an no noipn ifiw^a di^ in 

: i3^n ntn b^tdh Kine^ nnio )nw n«nn 73b> 

: inxno D^a^^ay nvp irw w n 5|^wn d^ 

; D*in3i Dn)p3 Dnipy « d*iio7 pspte op7 d) 

I eomposed this book according to the request of my disciples. 
It came to pass, that the plagae broke out among the people, 
Whereupon every entrance was blocked up in the street where I lived, 
So that I too was closed in ; then my messenger deceived me. 
For I gave him the book to print it for me, and he took it away ; 
He took it to Pesaro, and spent money in printing it for himself. 
This shameful deed appeared a small thing in his eyes. 
Most insultingly, he did not mention my name in the book, 
But put at the beginning of the Introduction ' B. Benjamin's of Some,'"^ 
That all who use it may think he was the author of this Exposition. 
He also erroneously added some things from his own cogitations, 
And inserted from the * Language of the Learned,^ diverse fragments, 

n It b now established almost to a oertainty, that this Benjamin of Bome, the author 
of the propndentical treatise prefixed to Lerita's oommentazy on the Journey on the 
Paths of Knowledge., is Benjamin b. Jehndah, called M"in, who flonrished a.d. 1880, and 
is the well known anthor.of commentaries on the books of Chronieles, Prorerbs, and 
other portions of the Old Testament ; and that Lerita headed his commentary in 
qnestbn by this treatise, because, like his own commentary, it was designed to simplify the 
study of Hebrew Grammar. The messenger, whose name Levita does not condescend to 
give in this poetical description, by putting the name * B. Benjamin of Bome ' at the 
head of it, and withholding Lerita's name altogether, led people to beUeve that this 
Benjamin was the author of the commentazy itself, as well as of the propiDdeuiics. 
This is the cause of Lerita's complaint. Gomp. Wolf, BibUoiheca Hehraea^ iii., p. 152, 
No. cocxdii. ; Steinschneider, CataJogus Libr, Hebr. in Bibliotheca Bodleiana, pp. 790, 
1840, 2769 ; by the same author, Jewieh Literature^ pp. 146, 876, London, 1857 ; and 
Btbliographisches Handbueh, p. 21, No. 206. Leipzig, 1859. 

n " The Language of the Learned" (rmncfy \nh) is an extensiye Hebrew Grammar, 
to which is appended a treatise on Hebrew Poetry and Metre (tvtv rOH^Dl tsp "iQMO), 
entitled. The Holy Shekel (vnpTT Vpv). The author of this Hebrew Grammar is David 
Ibn Jachja, of the celebrated ancient family, Jachja, who also wrote a commentary on 
Ptorerbs, entitled, SeUet and Pure (73^ np), which was first printed at Lisbon, 1492; 
and has since been incorporated in the Babbinical Bibles published at Venice, 1616-7, and 

M 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



80 

years old (1546), he carried through the press, with the utmost care, 
no less than seven different works. The first of these was the 
stupendous Hebrew Lexicon, by Eimchi, which is commonly called 
the Book of Rootff {O'tHft^Ti 160)1 but the more proper name of which 
is the Lexicon part ({^^yn pSn)» being the second part of the general 
work, entitled, MicMol, Of this famous Lexicon, seyeli editions had 
been published before this date, namely, before 1480 ; Naples, 1490 ; 
ibid. 1491; Constantinople, 1618; Venice, 1529; Soncino, 1582-8; 
and Venice, 1546 : and Levita himself, as we have already seen {vide 
supra, p. 22), took part in the fifth edition, immediately after he was 
employed by his friend Bomberg as corrector of the press. To the 
edition, however, which now appeared, as also to that of the first part 
of this great work published in the preceding year, Levita added valu- 
able annotations (D^pID^^). His second and third publicafions, this 
year, were, new and thoroughly revised editions of his Treatise on the 
Compounds (riMin IBO), with the text pointed, and th£ Poetical 
Dissertations on various parts of Hebrew Grammar, entitled, the 
Sections of Elijahu (in*S« ^pis) ; whilst his fourth work was a greatly 
improved edition of his maiden production, which consists of the 
commentary on M. Kimchi's Journey on the Paths of Knowledge, 

The curious history of the last mentioned production deserves to be 
noticed at greater length. We have already seen that Levita's first 
literary production was published surreptitiously {vide supra, p, 18). 
As he soon after was occupied with more important literary works, 
which secured for h\vn a world-wide renown, he did not much care to 
claim the book, which was most negligentiy printed, and swarmed with 
blunders. But his Mends, who knew that he was its author, were very 
anxious that he should not depart this life without claiming and 
correcting it. With this wish he now complied ; and, as the work had 
so long passed in another person's name, Levita felt obliged to give 
the following account of it, which is written in poetry, and is appended 
to the edition revised by him : — 

When I, Elias Levita, the least in my family, 
Was, in the days of my manhood, 
In the city of Padua, a.m. 264 [ = a.d. 1504], 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



79 

as both die together; let me sleep in her bosom till the appointed 
time, when the end shall be ushered in, and we shall rise again, and 
together be destined for everlasting life.** ^ 

No sooner had he arrived at Venice, than he began publishing 
again. He re-commenced his literary work in his old sphere of labour, 
by editing a Rhythmical Exposition of the Book of Job (avx Bm^D)> 
Venice, 1644. Some indeed will have it that Levita is the author of 
this production, and appeal to Steinschneider in corroboration of this 
assertion ; but this learned bibliographer has shown that it was written 
by Sarek Barfat, who flourished in the middle of the fourteenth 
century.^ When he had, however, fairly settled down, he continued 
the translation of the Scriptures which he began at Isny ; and in 1545, 
he published a German version of the Book of Psahns, which, like the 
portion of his former selection, constitutes an essential part of the 
Jewish Ritual. This version was afterwards re-published at Zurich, 
1558, and in other places.^" In the same year, he also edited a new 
edition of the first part of Eimchi's celebrated grammar and Lexicon, 
entitled, Perfection (Si^DD). This part, which contains the grammar, 
and ought properly to be called the grammatical part (pnp*in phti), but 
which usually bears the general title of the whole work, namely, 
Michloly had indeed been published three times before, twice in 
Constantinople, 1582, 1584, and once with a Latin translation by 
Guidaceras, Paris, 1540. But as a new edition was called for, the 
publisher entrusted it to the aged Grammarian and Lexicographer, who 
enriched it with valuable annotations (D^p1D^^)> Venice, 1545. 

How powerless age was, in either quenching his zeal or diminishing 
his labour, may be seen from the fact that when he was seventy-nine 

.robM rrmt vh »»ti rnobit rrnn vh vnw 
']oiV Sy ]trM npTi Tin xx\yx^ \yx\ nTO3 ttp 

Epilogue to the ifethurgeman. 

» ThnB Dr. Holmes, in Kitto's Cyclopcedia of Biblical Literature^ new ed., «. v. 
Eliab, Bays, ** that E. Leyita was its anther, and not editor only (as Wolf, Bibl, iii., 
wonld haye it), is demonstrated by Steinschneider {Catdlj 989, 940)." Now, on 
referring to Steinschneider, at the column in question, the reader will see that this 
bibliographer heads this section, i. e.. No. 83, as follows : " ITM VTVfi, Escpositio libri 
Jobt rhythmica [anctore Sarek fiarfat], (if. 17)." If any more endenoe should be 
required, we refer to the same Cataloffue, col. 2500, where Steinschneider has a separate 
section for Sarek, and the only published work of his there specified is " Historia Jobi 
Carmine ; anon. ed. ab Ella Levita, q. y. op. 88-4." 

^ Comp. Steinschneider, Catalogue Libr. Hehr. in Bibliotkeca Bodleiana, col. 188. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



78 

of such notes as should help the tyro in Hebrew to acquire the 
language, Constance, 1648.^ Having supplied them with an elemen- 
tary book for the study of Biblical Hebrew, Fagius was also anxious 
to furnish the students with a guide to Rabbinical Hebrew, and hence 
published within twelve months Psalms i. — ^z. in Hebrew, accompanied 
by David Kimchi's Rabbinical commentary, with a Latin translation, 
Constance, 1544. 

Whilst Fagius thus manifested his anxiety to supply, with the aid 
of his Jewish friend, the Protestant Christians at Constance with 
manuals, Levita was equally anxious to benefit his Jewish brethren, 
with the help of his Christian friend. As Protestants and Romanists 
were now vying with each other to furnish their respective communities 
in Germany with translations of the Scriptures in the vernacular of 
the people, Levita saw the importance of supplying the German 
speaking Jews with a Judaio-German version of that portion of the 
Bible which is hebdomadally read, both publicly and privately. He 
accordingly translated the Pentateuch, the Five Megilloth, and the 
Haphtaroth, or lessons from the Prophets, into that dialect. This 
translation he got Fagius to publish, and it appeared at Constance, 
1544.87 

It was not till the autumn of 1644, when Fagius's two years* term 
at Constance had expired, and he went to Strasburg to enter upon his 
duties there, that Levita arrived at Venice, after an absence of nearly 
four years. Though he was now seventy-six years of age, his intellect 
was still very active, and the tenderness of his heart was intense. 
His delight in meeting again those who were dear and near to him, and 
from whom a literary mission had temporarily separated him, may be 
surmised from the following touching prayer in poetry, which he 
offered up for his wife, at the conclusion of his Chaldee Lexicon: 
** Lord, I beseech thee, grant to me and my wife this mercy, that 
she should not be a widow, and that I should not be a widower ! Let 

w Comp. Wolf, Bibliotheca ffebraea, ii., 896, 4d6; !▼., 186. 

^ Some bibliographers qnestion whether Levit* is the anthor of this Jndaio-Grennan 
version. Steinschneider {Oatalogus Ltbr. Hebr. in Bibliotheca Bodleiana, ool. 942), 
pats it among the opera supposititia, whilst Graets [Qetchichte der Jitden, ix., 229, 
Leipzig, 1866), the latest historian of the highest authority, podtively states that Levita 
made this translation at Constance, when on his way from Isny to Venice. A specimen 
of this cnrioQs version, comprising the first chapter of Genesis, is given by Wolf, 
Bibliotheca Hebraea, iv., 194—198. Comp. also Baber, Life of Elias Lerita, in 
Hebrew, p. 31, note 49, Leipzig, 1856. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



77 

Onkelos' paraphrases of the same chapters, Isny, 1542; and iv. An 
Ethical Treatise in Judaio-German, Isnj, 1542. This book, which was 
afterwards translated into Hebrew, and published under the title, The 
Paths of the Bighteous (D^pnv nimiK), Prague, 1581, no less an 
authority than Jost asserts was written by Levita.^ Steinschneider 
and Cassel, however, who are authorities of equal weight, will have it 
that Levita simply edited it.^* 

Levita's departure from Isny was at last accelerated by the impend- 
ing change in the position of his friend Fagius. Capito, who, as we 
have seen, was Fagius's first Hebrew teacher, and who occupied both 
the office of evangelical pastor and the professorial chair at Strasburg, 
died of the plague in December, 1541. The choice of a successor 
was soon made. The name of Fagius at once suggested itself to the 
managers of the Protestant interests at Strasburg, and accordingly 
this pious, amiable, and learned clergyman was asked to succeed 
Capito in the pastorate and professorship. Fagius, in accepting this 
invitation, stipulated that he should be allowed to go first to 
Constance, for two years, to organise and consolidate the Protestant 
interests, in the place where the celebrated council condepmed Huss 
and Jerome of Prague. But, in going to Constance for this short 
period, he was determined to infuse into the minds and hearts of the 
Protestants there, a conviction of the importance, and a love for the 
study, of the Hebrew language, knowing that the most effectual way 
to strengthen the cause of Protestantism was to advance the cause of 
Biblical literature. 

In going therefore to Constance in 1542, Fagius felt that he could' 
not as yet dispense with the help of Levita. Levita was too sincerely 
attached to his Mend, and had too great a love for Hebrew, not to 
comply with the appeal of Fagius in behalf of the cause of Oriental 
learning in his self-imposed sphere of labour; and accordingly the 
aged Jew accompanied the Christian pastor to Constance. As Fagius's 
stay here was very limited, and as Levita was very anxious to get back 
to his wife and children at Venice, they at once set to work. Their 
efforts were directed to supply students with appropriate elementary 
books. The first book, therefore, which Fagius published consisted of 
Gen. i. — ^iv. in Hebrew, with a German translation, and an appendix 

4 Comp. the article Judtnteutschy in Ench and Gbnber's Eneyhlopddie, sect, ii., 
vol. xxvii., p. 828, note i. 

* Comp. Ersch and Gruber's Kncyklopddie^ article JUAische Ttfpogmphie, p. 38. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



76 

Levita's remark, however, that he was forty years of age, does not 
refer to the puhlication of the first edition of the Baehur, bat to his 
leaving Venice and arriving at Rome in 1509, as is evident from the 
following facts : i. The second edition of the Bachur was not pub- 
lished in 807 [= 1547], as stated by Gans and those who follow him, 
bat in 1542.^ ii. This revised edition, according to his own explicit 
statement {vide supra, p. 78), he finished in 1540. iii. He tells us 
himself that he was not then seventy years old, but about seventy 
years of age (mfir D^PSI^ ]^ ^3K "nn)), that is a little more than seventy, 
or seventy-two. iv. As this second edition was published two years 
after its completion, e. «., in 1542, when he was seventy-four years of 
age, he most unquestionably was bom in 1468 ; and v. This date of 
his birth is confirmed by Levita himself, for he tells us distinctly {vide 
supra, p. 8), that he was eighty years old in 1548. 

In addition to his own two productions, which he published in 
1542, the aged Levita carried through the press, in the same year, no 
fewer than four works published by his Mend Fagius. They are as 
follows : i. The Book of Tobit, in Hebrew, with a Latin translation by 
Fagius on the opposite page, Isny, 1542, which has been incorporated 
in the London Polyglott by Walton, ii. The so-called Alphabet of 
Ben Sirah, in Chaldee, with a Commentary, and a Latin translation by 
Fagius, Isny, 1542. iii. Gen. cap. i. — iv., with a Latin translation, as 
well as with an explanation of every word, and a Latin translation of 

Ha-Maaaortih he torote in 298 [ = 1688], and at the second edition he toas seventy 
years old, which was in 307 [= 1547]. Comp. vol. i., p. 95, a, ed. Lembeig. It will 
be seen 'that the words, " and at the second edition he was soTenty yean of age, which 
was in S07," have been inoorreotly put after the Massorsth Ha-Massoreth, 

^ The second edition is now before ns, and the complete title and date are thns given 
by Levita himself: 

^)Sn \r\'hv( pnpn 

iT3i«in npnoKTO ym rp3« iDin "wn tdd 

rcyirffn nan la dxd m Tfcnn xs*ym ona-n 

• mo mn iVa rxrfs vc^zt^ "a rxrm n«»ra 

nawa m*an mstmi Dim 

B'^b a"« dVip mruo 

•VD vini ptDp 

nvh nbnn 

3 & 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



76 

that follow, learning blnnders, and thereby peradventure profiming the 
divine name. For this reason, I correct in this edition that which is 
erroneons, rectify the mistakes, and remove the stumbling block from 
the way of my people. To this end may the Lord be with me.*' 

It was David Gkuis,"^ the eminent historian, who first took Levita's 
remark — ** I was about forty years of age when fate sent me from 
Venice, and I came to Home," &c. — also to refer to Levita's period of 
life when he published the Cbrammar in question. Accordingly, as the 
first edition of the Bachur was published, Rome, 1618, Gans con- 
cluded that Levita was bom in 1477, and that the second edition 
appeared in 1647, since Levita himself states that he compiled it forty 
years later, when he was seventy years of age. This statement of Gans 
/ was adopted by Jechiel," in his historical work, by Sender, and others. 



^ DftTid Gans was bom in 1541, at lippctadi, in Westphalia, and died 25th August, 
1613, at Prague. He was the first German Jew of his age who was distinguished as a 
historian, geographer, and astronomer ; he was acquainted with John Mailer, Kepler, 
and Tjcho de Brahe, with whom he carried on a literary oonespondenoe ; for the latter 
he translated into German, extracts from a Hebrew translation of the Tables of Alphonso, 
composed in 1260. The works which haye immortalised his name are as fdlows : L A 
Compendium of History, from the Creation to a.d. 1592, in the form of annals, entitled 
The Sprout of David (Til HDS), first published at Prague, 1592, then with a continuation 
to A-D. 1692, by Beindorf , Frankfort on the Maine and Amsterdam, 1692, Fnrth 1 785, and 
part ill. improred by Mohr, Lembeig, 1847. This chronicle was translated into Latin 
by Yorst, Leyden, 1644, the second part being abbreviated; and into Judaio-German, by 
Hena, Frankfort on the Maine, 1698; and ii. An Introduction to Astronomy, the 
Calendar, and Mathematical Geography, entitled, A Pleasant and Agreeable Work 
{tsr^^ nsrn *iE3D), in twelve parts, subdivided into three hundred and five sections. It was 
finished by the author in 1618, and continued by Joel b. Jekuthiel, Jesnetz, 1743. The 
passage in question, which has been the source ol the perpetual error respecting the date 
of Levita's birth, is as follows in the original : -nrnn tX> lan ptpiDPI in^7K t TJH 

mm tmxo p rm i'xo rowa vrrnnoai mm rm-w ]y\ i'vy man *orQ Anno 277 [= 1518] ; 
Eliast the Oerman, composed the Book Bachur j at Borne, in the year 277 [= 1518], 
wTien he was forty years old ; and when he published the second edition, in the year 
B07 [= 1547], he tocu seventy years of age, Comp. part L, p. 43, 6, ed. Frankfort, 
1692. In Yorst's Latin translation of this work, the whole passage is thus erroneously 
rendered, "Elias Grammaticus oomposuit librum Bachur Bomae anno 277; et ista 
aetate sua anno 807, erat filius 70 annorum." Comp. p. 151. 

A Jeohiel Heilprin, the author of the chronicle of Jewish histoiy and literati, entitled, 
The Order of Generations (nmin IID), was Babbi at Minsk, where he died about 
1731. His Chronicle was first published at CarUriihe, 1769 A new and improved 
edition, edited by H. Sperling and B. Lorje, appeared in Lemberg, 1858. The passage 
relating to Levita, which the author transferred into this work from the chronicle of 
Gans, is erroneously copied. It is here as follows : i*^ >ora ntnn "D [read nnn] T/n 
\m n:« ^ p "T! irrmoa^ n s^ lan m^noDn nnioo'i row •» p, He composed the 
Booh Bachur^ at Borne, in 277 [ — 1518]. when forty years of age, and the Massoreth 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



74 

from Fagias, and in which he started for Isny. It was very natural 
that he should print the three new works (namely, the two Lexicons 
and the Nomenclature) first, and then the second edition of an old 
work. 

Now, in the Introduction to the Bachur in question, which he 
completed in 1540, but which was not printed till 1542, he gives the 
foUowing piece of autobiography, which caused the errors already 
alluded to. ** Thus sayeth Elias Levita, the German,^ I was about 
forty years of age when fate sent me from Venice, and I came to Rome. 
Here I was requested to compile this book, and I put down its import 
according to my knowledge. Now the Lord has spared me thirty 
years longer, and I am now about seventy years old, and am as able 
now as I was then to engage in the discussion on matters of Granmiar, 
the Bible, and the Massorah. Yea since then I have acquired different 
ideas, and formed opinions which I did not know before. Moreover, I 
have since found that I have omitted some things which ought to have 
been put down, and that I have stated things which ought not to have 
been written. I regret that I have done it. Still it is not to be 
wondered at, since we find that even our Rabbins of blessed memory 
said things in their youth, which they recalled in their old age. 
Thus we find, <Baba changed from this;' <B. Ashi changed from 
what he said in the former statement, and the law is according to his 
second statement,' (comp. Baba Bathra 157, b.) Now as were their 
thoughts so are mine, and I am not to be better than my fathers. For 
this reason I have resolved to publish a second edition of this work, 
with such additions and diminutions as shall make the last edition 
better than the first. I shall thus prevent students studying erroneous 
introductions, inconclusive argum^ts, and incorrect rules, and those 

»niH'"»rrnnn3m mV c» two "qt ia a*«« rrrn •tjDrrTona^iSiwTWM^'mnrnDtnRDTT^ 
nan^V icV) n>«^ nro ToaiTH Toa pin orn 'a-ron m» omxo pa >3w nm wo t rv fr o m wo 
rrnrp vh crart "tdh rrwrm rvracn rmmt rrm n winna ird »3 rniotsn piDom jnipn 
Da trroriD hVi aron^ cmtn rrw tann nsp ^nrorro Tiwro Twfrm am inwo 'a rvh r^rto 
oaroi ^yTf^rh witaa p^a naaby mort pn rmtn 'a 'mam o^nana vhn ^loVn tanai 'nana 
noD-nn'«MaipHmnD»onn'a yyn >3'«a« ina onojna na mm onnVanaTTitaMwrma*? 
'mawiDDmawTOamm'VTDW'opnD rpDaitn^jroMriraKminDa na^ KopMrtnrim'naHW 
ma^ >30D ynabi t^ ^puiiiVt mm rm ibdpi uvr,f} *aa^ t» 'noaon pb *nianD 'aan vna vh) 
mjmsTiVa rmm mana moTpn uiM onvran nnH na^ rfnb jwtrei p ^Tvwnnon ano'H 
nprvna p7i ditw on ihnno wtyo tw Msoai nrw D'Man DTo^nrr ^nrr nxrcfr') trvw vh n*pm 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



78 

aged Levita to remaio a little longer at Isny. With impaired eyesi^t 
and failing health, but with an enthosiasm for Biblical literatnre, and 
an indnstry which defied and vanquished bodily infinnities, he not 
only most vigoronsly continaed his own works, bnt largely aided 
Fagins in writing and carrying through the press his productions. 
Some idea may be formed of the amoont of mental and physical 
labour which Levita was still able to perform, though now seventy- 
four years of age, from the hct that, within twelve months of the 
appearance of the stupendous Lexicon on the Chaldee paraphrases, he 
wrote and carried through the press an Alphabetical lAst of the 
Technical Hebrew Words or Nomenclature (Dni"T niDB^), in four 
columns. Column i. gives these words in Judaio-German, with 
Hebrew characters. Column ii., in Hebrew. Column iii., in Latin, 
by Fagius; and column iv. gives them in German, with German 
characters, Isny, 1542. It was afterwards republished, with an 
additional column, by Drusius the son, containing the corresponding 
Greek words, and enriched with explanations by Drusius the &ther, 
Francker, 1662, and ibid., 1581. 

Besides the Nomenclature, Levita also carried through the press 
this year (1642), a new and thoroughly revised edition of his 
Grammar, entitled Bachur, which as we have seen he published 
twenty-four years before (1618), at the suggestion and for the use of 
his pupil Cardinal Egidio. Mimster had already republished it, with 
a Latin translation (1625), seven years after the appearance of the 
original work, but Levita had nothing to do with it, and made no 
alterations in it. As it is the new pre&ce added by Levita to this 
edition which gave rise to the great divergency of opinion about the 
date of his birth, we shall give it entire. By so doing, the origin of 
the errors will best be understood. But before doing this, it is neces- 
sary to remark that Levita completed the second edition in 1540, when 
still at Yenice, and that it was one of the three MSS. which he took 
with him to Isny, the other two being the Tishbi and the Methur- 
geman. This is evident, from his remark in the Epilogue to the second 
edition of the Bachur, where he distinctly says, ** "Whoso wishes to 
know its date, let him take 22 (vn^s) from 822 (D^^sny),'*^ thus 
leaving 800=1540, the very year in which he received the invitation 

Bachury p. 108, 2]id edition, laay, 1542. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



72 

But though Levita spent such extraordinary labour over this 
Lexicon, and though the Methurgeman is still the only work in 
which the whole language of the Chaldee paraphrases is treated 
separately, it has never been republished. The introduction, was 
translated into Latin by his Mend Paul Fagius, Isny, 1642. The 
single article comprising the root rvs^ which discusses the question of 
the Messiah in the Chaldee paraphrases, has also been translated into 
Latin by Gilb. Genebrard, Paris, 1572.'» Buxtorf has incorporated 
most of it in his Rabbinical and Talmudical Lexicon, which, however, 
is not as convenient for the use of students as Levita's work, inasmuch 
as it mixes up the dialects of the Talmud and Midrashim with the 
language of the Chaldee paraphrases. The only Lexicon which will 
supersede it is the one now in course of publication by Dr. Levy. 

With the completion of the Chaldee Lexicon, Levita thought he 
had finished his active life, having now reached his seventy-fourth 
year. Li most affecting language, therefore, he says in the Epilogue to 
the work in question, that the time has now arrived when he must 
relinquish his literary labours, since his advanced age and failing 
health compel him to retire from the battle field. ** Seeing that age 
has overtaken me, that I am very old, that my eyesight grows dimmer 
every day, and that my strength is fast leaving me, I must retire from 
the ranks and serve no more. I shall now return to my country 
which I left, namely, Venice, and die in my town with my aged wife, 
and no more move my foot firom her. She shall close my eyes, and 
death alone shall henceforth separate me from her. I shall abide 
there the remaining days of my life, finish the books which I have 
begun, and then say to the God who created me, Take now my hfe, for 
it is better that I should die." 

But, notwithstanding this resolution to return to Yenice, his 
unquenchable love for the work, coupled with the fact that he had still 
some treatises ready for press, and that his friend Fagius too was 
actually printing sundry books which required his help, induced the 

wi vnam ♦nroy n*w «V© nata r^ vho* vh urryvz oa prwion tbd fom ^nrrmw V^in 
'rttorro p* p«^ b» vmn* oa ia pp»«? Th mv \pvsr\ noaa'i noa onaavirT ta ba^ 'may 
vca Tmsff n«M WnKprr pw xsr vh ^ vrffxn ]i«Vn t3o ^yvm orra motpo nanna 
• ]V pwte T«0 'pa rm Min »a p6m ta *nbap naw mw xcfw Introduction iii. to the Tishbi. 

1^ Dr. Kaliscb {Hebrew Grammar^ ii., p. 84, note d.) is sarely mistaken in his remark 
that Fagias likewise translated this Talnable Chaldee Dictionary in 1542. Fagius 
translated the Introduction only. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



71 

Isny, in the month of Angast, 1541. At the end of the volmne is 
Fagios's Colophon, which consists of a book with a tree on it, as 
Fagios properly denotes hook ; on the right of it is the letter fi, initial 
of Paul ; 'on the left of it is the letter n, the initial of hook = Fagius ; 
whilst ondemeath it is the Hebrew inscription 3)0^*iQ Ke^3 31D {^Sm S3» 
Every good tree hringetk forth good fruit. The Colophon of the Tislthif 
which as we have seen contains the Latin translation of Fagins, is 
different. Instead of the letters fi and 2 there are on the right and 
left hand the Latin and the Hebrew of tho inscription, and underneath 
are the Hebrew words D^noi D^^n p^ TTO KSne^ n^^H nn^Dl *nipn, 
My hope is in the Messiah who has conWy and who will judge the quick 
and the dead. This difference is undoubtedly owing to the fact that 
Fagius, as the joint editor, claimed to have the expression of his fisuih 
on the Tishbi; whilst the Methurgeman, which is the sole work of 
Levita, has simply the Hebrew date, and no reference to Christ. 

In the Epilogue to the Methurgeman, Levita tells us that he 
laboured over it nearly four years ; which is fidly confirmed by the 
fact that he already alludes to his being engaged on it in the third 
Introduction to the Massoreth Ha-Massoreth (1538), whilst in the 
third Introduction to the Tishhi, which was written after he had only 
been three years at work over it, he says, *^1 know that many will 
be astonished at the multitude of words from the Targum which I 
quote, saying, in different places, this expression does not occur 
again in the Targum, or this expression only occurs once or twice, 
or it is thus rendered throughout the Chaldee version, except in Job, 
Psalms, and Proverbs, &c., &c.y and will scarcely be inchned to believe 
all the remarks which I made therein. But if they only knew the 
great labour which I spent over the MethurgemaUy they would not be 
surprised at it. Forsooth, I have been three years writing it, and 
during this time I have read through all the Chaldee paraphrases over 
and over again, as the references will show to anyone who consults it. 
Others, again, may be astonished at my quoting Greek in many places, 
knowing that I was not learned in this language. But the fact is, that 
these people do not know that I have learned it from Cardinal Egidio, 
with whom I resided thirteen years, and who was exceedingly expert 
in Gh-eek." " 

H2tta3 «b p«^ m niQipD navo noMi 'nkarro "tavirr mbo an ^ 'inon D*n ri Tcm rt 
ai>« p fin MnpTDH Vaa oa-nno win -p w d»:« ■>« imt nipoa p m3»3 vh w oiavQ ns 
TTwan ypT DM D30« -Da'^i ^n'«» irw ninwn Van »b la^ow* «^i u\yy nh* lODi a'^rn ^b«D 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



70 

in the Jerusalem Targuiu, and even many of these he quotes without 
explaining them, about which I have already had occasion to complain 
in the Massoreth Ha-Massoreth. After him, however, there has been 
no one who had .the courage to handle either the grammar or the 
lexicography of the Targumim. Now I have been inclined to think 
that the reason of it is, because that, in years bygone, i.e. before 
the invention of printing, not one copy of the Targum on the Prophets 
and Hagic^rapha was to be found in a town, or two in a province. 
Hence nobody could be found to study them. The Targum Onkelos, 
which was always to be found plentifully, because we are obliged to 
read every week the hebdomadal lesson from the law, twice in Hebrew 
and once in Chaldee, there have indeed been some who studied it ; 
they have also written something on it, but I have not found it of 
much use ; they have likewise made a Massorafi to it, which, however, 
I have not yet succeeded in seeing. But with regard to the Targum 
on the Prophets and Hagiographa, they have not opened their mouth, ' 
nor uttered a syllable about it ; being neither studied nor asked for, 
they say, Let it tarry till Elisha cometh." ^ 

It was this neglect of the Chaldee paraphrases, and his deter- 
mination to supply the desideratum, which induced Levita, in spite of 
all the difficulties to be encountered, to undertake the compilation 
of a Chaldee Lexicon. He called it Methurgettian ({OIllinD), or the 
Interpreter^ << because it interprets the Hebrew in Aramaic, and the 
Aramaic in Hebrew.'* It was published by his friend, Paul Fagius, at 

rygaoti 'a Tcn ^b ttidm 'Vh^n croimn ^ pnp nroyb "wdm dkh ^ai^wo u^in nam w 
rm '"WD niiAnno dpi niipaa oVa ^ nrniHin n>^a niHntyian ntamn '3Do rm •vnn jrtm 
TDD noTppQ iTDn 'nTOinw iod ' niMsraa m vh ^3 -npa »ba Doiann laro DnDnnon pcD "^2x0 ^b 
' miDon '^a Dnpa vh '3 • rtpz "rfn rfn ihd rram^n rnHncnan *3 to? rrNrm 'miDon rrrtDo 

1312rO THM b3 DW »^1 ZPXOW U*ll W TTT T VJ? TTp3 3^ pTp TTW «^ - DnCDH T"3 ^3 ITpaMJ 1Q3 

^njyaxD Di'ow 2iwnnn p 'ViVi ' pTpi djt^ nws^ Tvvry |?to wanb p*i "^pwo |tddoo ms* p ^ 

• • • • pnpTTT DTT^ TXYfOSh VIV TVTTCD Vm1©*2 piai DDH WM PTTT vh D^IJWT 

yin iaj*w rm vh ntbon "srvf) "mn mwb iV*dh ^ pyypn 7wst3 w*m rm vfw n m^ *3 tqwi 
D'DijnnnQ nibo ntp wan vera a3«i Tiobnn mVo Vj? xffw yron maoi ^nn w*h pz >ai i-vro 
nn*n rwn m»Q«yi »iti ono naai >oV«nT o^anra irh nvsQzn ^on w p> V© nibn d^'iti 
mbon -tiwaa «Vi pnpia «V 12 pnnn^ Tnynnw w*h Dp k^ -nmn mnoon rrvoo tddi v^ ^roibn 
D'Mjroa vn m^ d^dti rowf^ nHSoao D"np iQ'tb nsn tvuw n^aioaw ^ ma nauiu) *rQwn 
tDiann taw ona rra«nw na rm m^ pb dV**^ d'3^ nanoa imi dm »3 D^ainai o'lraa D^m 
D^m imn inpo d'3w n«riDn naw Vaa vr0 i3n3M o^aTro *3DQ nn yrh >«q3 Ttan DiVp3iM 
miDD r^ nwy3 oa an nb»in ona 'nwna «Vi no "vn v^ lanai ia irratjn® d*©3m nsp D'M3tD3 
ino» M^M «paD pn tn-n pn -prcsoi nt nsiD mn m^ D»ainai Dva3 Vj? ^an nsn ly Dn*»n mV« 
irrVH Ha^ ts wxo ^rp Introduetion to the Methurgeman. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



colties which he had to encoimter to reduce the langnage of the 
Chaldee paraphrases to grammatical and lexical form were enormons. 
The only Aramaic Lexicon extant was the Anichj hy B. Nathan b. 
Jechiel {circa 1030—1106), which was completed a.d. 1101, and of 
which three different editions appeared before the publication of the 
Lexicon on the Targumim. One of these three editions, ue. the editio 
princepsy was published before 1480 ; the second appeared at Pesaro, 
1517 ; and the third was edited by Levita himself, and published by 
his friend Bomberg, Venice, 1581. But, marvellous as is the Aruch^ 
and though it is still the only clue to the ancient Jewish writings, it 
is not designed for students of the Chaldee paraphrases. It does not 
separate the dialects of the Mishna, Gemara, Midrashim, and Tar- 
gumim, but mixes them up all in one treatise. In addition to the 
want of forerunners in the lexicography of the Targumim, there was 
the great difficulty arising firom the confused condition of the texts of 
these paraphrases. But here we cannot do better than give Levita*s 
own words upon the subject, which are as follows : 

**1 have been asked whether it is possible to make a grammar 
on the Targum, to which I replied that, in my opinion, the possibility 
is yery remote, owing to the great yariations in the Codices with regard 
to the words and letters, and more especially the yowel-points, which 
^ differ exceedingly. This arises from the fact that the Targumists most 
unquestionably wrote their paraphrases without points, which had not 
then been invented, as I have previously shown in the Introduction to 
the Massoreth Ha-Massoreth. In confirmation of this, it is also to be 
adduced that the most ancient Codices are all without the points; 
for the Massorites, who pointed the Hebrew Scriptures, did not point 
the Chaldee paraphrases. These were pointed much later, by one or 
more individuals, men without a name, who exercised an arbitrary 
independence of each other. Hence it is that their rules are contra- 
dictory, and that no examples can be adduced from them to found 
thereupon a grammar. Hence, too, the fact that, since the Targum 
was made, there has not been a wise and intelligent man in Israel who 
could make a grammar to it. 

** Not only, however, has no grammar been written, but no one has 

compiled a lexicon to explain the words, except, indeed, B. Nathan 

of Bome, in his Aruch, which he made in explanation of the Talmud, 

I and in which he adduces some words from the Targumim. But these 

< are chiefly Greek and Latin expressions, occuring for the most part 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



68 

has arisen like Paul.* " ^ This cordiality Fagius fully reciprocated, as 
may be seen from bis Latin Address to the Header prefixed to the 
TishbL Entertaining the same ardent love for Hebrew, agreed upon 
making united efforts to diffuse the knowledge of it, and thoroughly 
appreciating each other's character, Levita and Fagius soon became 
ardent friends, and conjointly produced works which, at that time, 
were an honour to their authors, and formed important contributions 
to Biblical literature. 

The first work issued from this newly established Hebrew press 
was Levita' s Lexicon, comprising seven hundred and twelve words 
used in the ancient Jewish literature. He called it Tishhi, for three ; 
reasons: i. In allusion to the gentile name of his namesake the 
prophet (i. Kings xvii. 1), whose appellation Levita assumed in 
accordance with an ancient conceit; ii. Because the last word in 
this Lexicon is Tishhi; and iii. Because the numerical value of the 
word Tishbi (viz. * 10 + 3 2 + B^ 800 + n 400 = 712) represents 
the total number of sections in this Lexicon. . To perfect himself in 
Babbinical Hebrew, under the guidance of so excellent a master, as 
well as to enable Christian students at large to use it as a guide, 
Fagius, assisted by Levita, translated the whole TiskU into Latin, 
with the exception of the poetical and rhythmical introductions, which 
were translated by James Yelocian. The third Litroduction, which is 
in prose, is not translated at all ; most probably because, as it contains 
so flattering an account of Fagius, his sincere humility would not 
tolerate its being translated into a language conmionly understood 
among Christian scholars. Thus, the Hebrew of Levita on the right 
page and the Latin of Fagius on the left, the Jew and the Christian 
published their conjoint work, under the same cover, at Isny, 1541. 
The Tishbi was reprinted with the Latin translation by Fagius at 
Basel, 1557, and without the Latin, ibid. 1601; Grodno, 1805, and 
Chemowitz, 1866. 

In the same year in which the Tishbi appeared, Levita also carried 
through the press another Lexicon, comprising all the words which 
occur in the Chaldee paraphrases of the Old Testament. The diffi- 

78 Compare ino3no' 'snn 'h lain m^ •]«♦ wte it»«q"j viapapa Tmn nan >Qa> 
Kin nMD noiai 'Vidd rwai xcrm n«a 'yash ym xarm »irmn >o D'anw o^a-n vtrn 
■p .n«aD Dp vb rroa ly rrooo po'na p rroa lann ^ ]>mp "J3«w loa i*^ vnjr -toy 'aaw 
'VnViMDS Dp H^ ViViMD 19 ViyiMDD 1^ T(Q» Introduction iii., to the TiMn, or the 
Introduction in prose, as it is called, towards the end. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



67 

as those which had ahready been published. Levita regarded this 
inTitation as providential, and though he tells us he had refdsed before 
« sundry calls from princes, cardinals, and bishops, as well as from 
the king of France,'' to professorial chairs, the septuagenarian felt that 
it was the voice of God, and that he must not disobey it. 

In the year 1540, therefore, the aged Levita left his wife, children, 
and numerous Mends in Yenioe, and departed for Isny, carrying with 
him the MSS. of his two Lexicons, and of the second edition of 
the Grammar called the Backur, which were then nearly finished, 
and which Fagius had promised to publish. When the extreme diffi- 
culty and discomfort connected with travelling three centuries ago is 
borne in mind, we shall be able to appreciate the unquenchable zeal 
of this veteran, who, at the age of seventy, when men generally cling 
to their homes most tenaciously, left everything near and dear to 
him, and willingly braved all fatigue and difficulties, to promote the 
knowledge of the sacred language. Indeed, in the Epilogue to the 
Tishbi^ which was the first book printed by Fagius, Levita tells us that 
he had to finish it on the road. ** When I was on my journey,'* he 
says, ** travelling over a land of mountains and valleys, exposed to the 
rain of heaven and to the snow which covered the ground, I often 
stood still, thought over in my mind sundry of the articles, wrote 
them down upon the tablet of my heart, and when I reached the inn 
I opened my bag, took out the MS., and put down the things which 
God put into my heart." '^^ 

Such was the journey which Levita made to come to Fagius. Let 
us now hear from the learned Jew what impression he received of the 
Christian scholar, when the two met together. ''When I arrived 
here,*' says Levita, ''I tasted his pitcher, and found it full of old 
wine. Indeed, I had not been told half of his wisdom and know- 
ledge. Many draw from the fountain of his learning ; he is a great 
oracle for his people, a beautiful preacher, and an excellent expositor. 
He is truly worthy that his people should describe him as we describe 
our Rabbin Moses Maimonides. For just as we say, ' From Moses 
the law-giver to Moses [Maimonides] none has arisen like Moses ; ' so 
they should say, * From Paul [the Apostle] to Paul [Fagius] none 

S* 'waai . *a^ rvh Vj? o^ronDi • "^«a d^t >n3*T? ttwd vnoy pn mn "mjm aV«^ onatjpi noo^ 
• *aba D*n^ ^na •wm d^th rw n Tnyacm *Dp3D ^rwjnm TinoM ^ ^nnr© pbon Tishbi, p. 271 , 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



66 

his plan for sending the Lexicon to Bologna was defeated by the infor- 
mation that the Hebrew press had stopped there, Levita received a 
letter from Paul Fagins, inviting him to go to Germany, to undertake 
the supervision of the Hebrew press and the editorship of snndry 
Biblical works. To ns, in whose conntry the remains of Fagins 
were ignominiously ezhnmed and bnmed, by the command of Mary, 
in 1656, and the ashes collected again, and honourably interred, by 
the order of Elizabeth, Joly 80, 1560, the connection of this learned 
Hebraist and eminent Reformer with Levita is of special interest. 
Fagins, who was bom at Bheinzabem, in 1504, received his first 
instmction in 'Hebrew from Wol^ang Fabricins Capito (1478-1541), 
who acquired his Hebrew knowledge from two converted Jews, one 
unnamed, and the other named Matthew Adrian, the well-known 
author, or compiler, of the Ldbelltts Hora, in Hebrew and Latin 
(1518), now one of the rarest books in existence.^ Though Capito 
himself was no profound Hebrew scholar, as may be seen from 
his writings,^ yet he imbued Fagius with an intense love for the, 
language. ' 

When Fagius was appointed Protestant pastor of Isny, in Allgau, 
in 1587, where he had formerly been rector of the Grammar School, 
he more than ever devoted himself to his Hebrew studies. He was 
also exceedingly anxious to di£[use the knowledge of the sacred 
language by means of good elementary books, which were much 
wanted at that time. To effect this he not only compiled the re- 
quired manuals himself, but, with the aid of his friend and patron, 
counsellor Peter Buffler, he established a Hebrew press in the town 
of his pastoral labours. Feeling, however, his own inefficiency to 
conduct the printing of books in a language which, with all his 
love for it, he had not as yet properly mastered, he at once invited 
Levita to accept the office of supervisor, and offered also to print at 
Isny his own books, which were then ready for the press, as well 

7> For a description of this literary cariosity, see Steinsclmeider, BibUograpMaches 
ffandbuch, p. 2, «. v. Adbiaktjs. Leipzig, 1859. 

^ Capito's works on Hebrew literature are, i. InttUuHunetUa in Hebr. ling, together 
with the Psalms in Hebrew, and an introduction by Pellican, Basel, 1516; Luther's 
own copy of this work, with his marginal annotations in MS., from the library of 
De Rossi, is to be foond at Panna. This is exceedingly interesting to the student of the 
history of the early translations of the Bible, inasmuch as it shows the Manual which 
the great Reformer used to acquire his Hebrew knowledge, ii. Itutitutionea HebrtnoEf 
libr. ii., Basel, 1518, 15:26 ; and iii. EnarratUmes in Hahacuc et Hoseamy 1687. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



65 

departments of Biblical literatnre and exegesis have been reprinted 
several times, and elaborated and superseded by succeeding researches, 
the treatise on the accents has never been published again since 1539, 
and the system of accentuation in the Old Testament is less under- 
stood by the generality of Hebrew students in the present day than it 
was in the days when Elias Levita's treatise first appeared." 

Levita's consummate mastery of Hebrew literature in all its 
different branches was only equalled by his inde&tigable zeal and 
untiring labours to simplify and promote its study. Though he 
was now seventy years of age, his energies had not abated. No 
sooner had he finished the Treatise on the Accents, than he commenced 
a Lexicon, explaining those words in the Talmud, Midrashim, and 
other works in the Rabbinical literature, which were either entirely 
omitted in the standard Lexicons of B. Nathan b. Jechiel and 
B. David Eimchi, or had not been treated in all their sundry 
meanings. He was all the more induced to undertake this work 
by the rapid progress of his pupils in Biblical Hebrew, and through 
the great demand, especially on the part of Christians, for keys to 
the Eabbalistic and Babbinical writings. Li his entire absorption in 
this Lexicon, and another which we shall soon mention, he forgot 
the altered circumstances in which he was then placed, and it was 
not till he had nearly completed the work, after labouring three 
years over it, that he began to think of the difficulties of finding a 
publisher, as his friend and patron, ''the great printer, D. Bomberg," 
he tells us, ''had given up his printing-office some time since.'* 

But at the very time when he was in this perplexity, and when 

71 The above remark does not imply that no superior Treatise has appeared since 
the publication of Levita's Dissertation on the Accents. The learned Heidenheim 
published an Essay, entitled The Laws of the Accents, (Dn33^n noDva IBD) Bodelheim, 
1808; chiefly compiled from the ancients, the Massorites, Ben-Asher, Ibn Balaam, 
Chajug, Ac, which is of superior excellence, and in which he corrects some of Levita's 
mistakes. But Heidenheim's Essay is very rare; being written in Hebrew, it has 
therefore little adyanced the general knowledge of the accents. Separate Treatises have 
;alBO been published by J. D. Michaelis, An/angs-GrUnde der ffebrdischen AccenttuUioUy 
with an Introduction by C. B. Michaelis, 2nd edition, Halle, 1758 ; Stem, vn^ |^ 
Leseaugej illustrated with 000 examples, Frankfort on the Maine, 1840 ; and recenUy by 
A. B. Davidson, Outlines of Hebrew Accentutttion, Prose and Poetical^ London, 
1861 ; in which the part treating on the prose accents is exceedingly defectiye, as Mr. 
Dayidson could not avail himself of so able a guide in this department as he had in 
Baer*s masterly Treatise on the Poetical Accents, entitied Torath Emeth. Mr. Davidson, 
moreover, whilst he mentions men who have not written separate Treatises on this 
subject, does not even allude to Levita's excellent Dissertation on the Accents. 

K 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



64 

consists of eight sections, and discusses the following points. Section 
i. discusses the number and names of the accents, and their proper 
division into three classes, viz., 14 Kings, so called, because, like 
monarchs who restrain their subjects, these accents respectively stand 
between sentences, keeping them within proper bounds, ii. Seirants, 
BO called, because they act as servants of the monarch, bringing the 
sentence without pause to the resting place of the kings ; and 5 who 
are neither kings nor servants, thus making 80 in all. Section ii. 
explains the names of the accents, their laws, the position of the 
serviles, &c. Section iii. explains how it is that half the number of 
royal accents follow each other, and the other half does not follow ; 
that most of the regal accents are placed above the letters, whilst most 
of the servile accents are placed under the letters ; as well as the 
reason why some serviles are above the letters. Section iv. explains 
the distentives, shewing the smaller kings, which cause a longer pause 
than the greater kings ; that kings have servants, and how many, and 
which have no servants, and which servants only serve one or two or 
more kings. Section v. describes the form and names of all the thirty 
accents. Section vi. treats on the laws of those words which have the 
accents on the ultima and penultima. Section vii. discusses the laws 
of the Metheg and Gaja ; and Section viii. the Makkeph, 

This Treatise, which is a very valuable contribution to Biblical 
exegesis, was first published by his friend Bomberg, Venice, 1588. 
Levita appended to this edition a list of printers' mistakes which 
have crept into the Massoreth Ha-Massoreth, as well as into this 
book. Within twelve months of its appearance, Miinster re-pubKshed 
it, with a Latin summary of its contents (Basle, 1589). It is 
generally bound up with the Massoreth Ha-Massoreth, as these two 
works were re-published in the same year. Miinster's edition is not 
as correct as the editio princeps. Although it is acknowledged, by 
grammarians and expositors of the highest authority, that the accents 
are not only marks to indicate the tone- syllable, but to show the 
logical relation of each word to the whole sentence, thus serving as 
signs of interpretation, yet this branch of ancient exegesis has been 
greatly neglected. The grammars, while devoting ample space to 
the discussion of the vowel-points, rarely ever give more than a 
paragraph or two to the explanation of the laws of the accents, 
which are of equal importance to the interpretation of the Old 
Testament. Hence it is, that, whilst Lcvita's works on the other 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



63 

\ which was previously in vogue, and which has only survived in the 

jmost ancient MSS. This discovery of modem research, therefore, 

[fully confbrms Levita's ai^uments against the antiquity of the 
present vocalisation, and must for ever settle the long and vehement 
controversy. 

Within twelve months of the appearance of the Massoreth Ha- 
Massoreth, which caused this protracted and vehement controversy, 
Levita published (1588) a treatise on the laws of the accents. The 
rapid succession of these two works is easily accounted for. The 
vowel-points and accents are most intimately connected with each 
other, and proceeded from the same authors. Both B. Acha, and 
B. Mocha, the compilers of the Babylonian and Tiberian systems of 
vocalisation, included the accents in their respective systems. Indeed 
the accents determine the sense of a passage quite as much as the 
vowel-points. If the points fix the pronunciation and meaning of 
words, the accents indicate the logical relation of each word to the 
whole sentence and the close of sentences. Hence those who con- 
trived the vowel- signs, to denote the traditional pronunciation of the 
words, were also obliged to invent the accents, to represent the 
traditional construction of the sentences. This accounts for the 
frequent remark of the celebrated commentator Bashi, in his exposi- 
tion of the Scriptures — "but for the accents on this verse, I could 
not have made out its meaning ; " and the warning of the fsunous Ibn 
Ezra — *^ an interpretation which is not according to the accents is 

: neither to be received nor listened to, for the author of the accents 

I knew the import much better." 

It is this importance of the accents which has invested them with 
a divine halo, and which has made the defenders of the antiquity and 
divinity of the vowel-points also maintain their antiquity and divinity. 
Consistently with his arguments against the points, Levita rejects the 
divine origin of the accents, maintaining that they proceed from the 

. same Tiberian Massorites who contrived the system of vocalisation. 
As his arguments against the points are also directed against the 
accents, he reframs from repeating them, and simply refers the reader 
to the Massoreth Ha-Mcussoreth. 

In harmony with its import, he denominated this treatise The 
Book of Good Sense (oycD 31D IDD), since the accent on each word is 

.called in Hebrew Dyo reason, principle^ because it fiu'nishes piinciples 
j\nd rules to dedvuo tlie impoi-t of each verse. The whole treatise 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Persia, ii. An equally ancient MS. of the Haphtaroth, consisting of 
twelve fragments, and containing the Haphtaroth to Exod., Levit., and 
Numb., which are wanting in the preceding MS., as well as the 
Haphtaroth of New Year, the Day of Atonement, and the feasts of 
Tabernacles and Pentecost, the Targum, and the Massorah. iii. A 
MS. of the major and minor Prophets, consisting of two hundred and 
twenty-five parchment leaves, and written about a.d. 916.^° 

The later, or second system, is the one which has been for centuries 
commonly adopted both by Jews and Christians in the pointed editions 
of the Hebrew Bibles. It was contrived by Mocha, of Tiberias, about 
A.D. 570, to denote the traditional pronunciation of the text in the 
West. Hence it is called the Tiberian system (^3130 lip^), and the 
Palestinian or Western system (^ktk« px 'Tp^)- I* is ^^ more 
complete and extensive, and exhibits more sharply the niceties of the 
traditional pronunciation and intonation of the text, than the Babylo- 
nian system, with which it competed. 

As the Babylonian system, with all its imperfections, was the first 
promulgated, and moreover as it obtained prior to the separation of 
the Karaites from the Rabbinic Jews, it was staunchly followed by 
the Jews in Babylon, and more especially by the Karaites. The 
Rabbinic Jews, however, soon discarded the Babylonian system, when 
they found that the Tiberian or present system of vocahsation was 
more perfect, and represented more adequately the traditional pronun- 
ciation, whilst the E^araite Jews clung to the first or Babylonian 
system. It was not till the year 957, when the Jews of Palestine sent | 
Missionaries to the Crimea to reclaim the E^araites to Rabbinism, and 
when these Missionaries succeeded in converting many of the distin-i 
guished families, that the said Missionaries, Ephraim, Elisha, and' 
Chanuka, punctuated the Bible MSS. according to the Tiberian or 
present system, and induced the Karaites to substitute it for the one , 

70 For a farther account of this system, and of the MSS. which exhibit it, we mast 
refer to Pinner, Prospectus der der Odes8€ter Gesellscha/t filr Oeschichte und Alter - 
thUmer gehorenden Sitesten hebriUschen und rahbinischen Manuscripten, Odessa, 
1845; Lozzatto's treatise in Pollak's Dissertations, entitled,, Halichoth Kedem, 
p. 23—281. Amsterdam, 1846 ; Ewald, Jdhrhikher der biblichen Wissenschaft^ vol. i., 
p. 160 — 172, Gottingen, 1849; Geiger, Urschri/t und Ueberzetzungen der Bibel, 
p. 167 — 170. Breslan, 1807 ; Fiirst, Gesehischte des Karaerthums^ toI. i., pp. 19, &c., 
134, &c. Leipzig, 1862; Kallisch, Hebrew Orammarj vol. ii., p. 63« &c. London, 
1863; Pinsker, Eiideitung in das Bahylonisch-Hebrijasche Punktationssystem, Yieuna, 
1863 ; Furst, in the Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlUndiaehen Oesellschaft, toI. xviii., 
p. 814— 323. Leipzig, 1864. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



61 

emendations, in order to deduce from the Scriptures the peculiar and 
preconceived fancies of the different schools, which converted the 
controversy about the vowel-points into an article of faith in the 
Reformed Churches of Switzerland. In Switzerland, where the two 
Buxtorfs successively occupied the professorial chair of Oriental 
literature, and where their opinions, in matters of Hebrew and Tal- 
mudic lore, was r^arded as paramount, the theologians enacted a law 
in 1678, that no person should be licensed to preach the gospel in 
! their churches unless he publicly declared that he believes in the 
! integrity of the Hebrew text and in the divinity of the vowel-points 
and accents. <^ 

After a controversy raging vehemently for more than three cen- 
turies, and notwithstanding that the antiquity of the points had been 
raised to the sanctity of a dogma, modem research and criticism 
have confirmed the arguments urged by Levita against the antiquity 
of the present vowel-signs. It is now established beyond the shadow 
of a doubt, from the discovery of ancient MSS., that there were two 
I systems of vocalisation contrived almost simultaneously, and that the 
system hitherto regarded by the vowelists as of divine origin is simply 
one of the two. Indeed the present system, around which the whole 
controversy clusters, and which has been canonised, is actually the 
later of the two in point of age. 

The earlier, or first system, was developed by Acha or Achai of 
Irak (Babylon), about 550, from the few simple signs which repre- 
sented the traditional pronunciation of the text in the East. The 
peculiarity of this system consists in having signs of a different shape 
to represent the vowels, and that these are almost uniformly placed 
above the letters. It is therefore designated the Stiperlineary syslem 
(nSyo^ npi:D). From the fact that its contriver lived in Babylon, it is 
also called tlie Babylon, or the Assynan system, {^22T\ 11p3, niB'Kllpi) 
and the EaMeni system. It has been preserved in the following MSS., 
i. A MS. of the Pentateuch, embracing only fifteen fragments of 
Deuteronomy, with Targum Onkelos after each verse, the Massorah 
marginalis, and the Haphtaroth with the Massorah ; the whole 
consists of seventy-seven leaves, and was most probably written in 

^ '* Codicem Hebr. V. T. tnin quoad consonas tarn quoad rocalia sive pnncta ipsa 
sive panctorom Baltem potestatem dtOTTvevarov esse." FomtuUi Consensus, art. iv., 
comp. Keil's edition of Havemick's AUyetmine Einleitiing in das Alte Testament, 
vol. i., p. 316. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



60 

considerably injored, and stands in need of frequent emendation." 

Hence the disciples of this school resorted to amend the text by the 

aid of the ancient versions, and had recourse to the most unwarrantable M 

conjectures, thus unsettling the original text and impugning its ^> 

integrity. The principal disciples of this school are Archbishop Seeker, ^ /^:i*> 

Drs. Durell, Judd, LowUi, Blayney, Newcome, Wintle, Horsley, 1^'^ 

Good, Boothroyd, and others. / ' 

The second school, which is less accomplished, but more lament- 
able, is the one known by the name Hutchinsonian, after its founder, 
John Hutchinson (1674-1787). Believing that ** Holy Scripture has 
a language of its own, which does not consist of words, but of signs 
or figures taken from visible things ; so that the world which we now 
see is a sort of commentary on the mind of Qod, and explains the 
world in which we live;" this peculiar philosopher, like his Eab- 
balistic prototypes, was obliged to discard the vowel-points, and every- 
thing else which determined the pronunciation of the words and fixed 
their meaning. Hutchinson endorsed and reproduced all the base 
calumnies brought together by Baymond Lully, Wagenseil, &c., 
against the Jews, whom he always styles the apostates , and maintains 
that the sacred text was designedly corrupted by these apostates 
through the insertion of the points and letters, which was ** their last 
shift to change their evasions of the truth ; " that thereby ** they make 
the words different from what they were, or of another root, or of 
another signification, than the words would have been without 
pointing in that context.*' <" To this wild school belonged the emi- 
nently orthodox and pious Bomaine, Bishop Home, the lexicographer 
Parkhurst, and others. 

It was this unwarrantable liberty taken with the text, first started 
by Oappellus' Critica Sacra, and the resort to all sorts of conjectural 

w The system and the plan of the work may be gathered from its lengthy title ; 
" The Covenant in the Chembimf so the Hebrew writings perfect. Alterations by Babbies 
forged. Shewing the evidence for the Scriptures ; that Christianity was exhibited to Adam, 
inyisibles by visibles ; past and to come by ^rpes ; by Chembim, Urim, Thnmim, Sacrifice, 
Cloud, &c. ; that the Jews and Gentiles understood them ; that tradition was of the 
things typified. That though they understood the tradition even of the covenant before 
the world, they had perverted the intent of it. That the alterations and stories of the 
Jews, after they had lost their types and Hebrew, are not traditions, but studied evasions 
to expositions of inspired Christians, &c., and to support their apofltacy. That the 
grammatical formation of the Hebrew, which is descriptive, so gives proper names, 
cannot admit vowel-pointing, nor Mr. Masdefs method. By J. H." Collected Works, 
vol. vi., p. IdS. London, 1749. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



69 

ance of the attack, Walton published a reply, which, though greatly 
defaced by bitter invective and inexcusable abuse, contains additional 
and valuable contributions to the literature of this controversy .<" 

Although the antiquity of the vowel-points stiU found advocates in 
Joseph Cooper,® Samuel Clark," Whitfield,'* and Dr. Gill," who pub- 
lished learned dissertations in defence of Dr. Owen and against Bishop 
Walton ; yet it must be admitted that the Prolegomena and '' The 
Considerator Considered " decided the battle in England in favour of 
the anti-vowelists. Henceforth all Biblical critics, with very few 
exceptions, regarded the points as modem, useless, and of no 
authority, though Walton himself, as we have seen, maintained 
that they, as a rule, represented the ancient and genuine reading. 
The utter rejection of the points, and the espousal of Cappellus' 
notions propounded in his Critica SoAyra, produced lamentable effects 
in England as far as the criticism of the Old Testament was con- 
cerned, from which we are only now recovering. Two different 
schools of interpreters were erected here upon the ruins of the anti- 
quity of the vowel-points. 

The characteristic dogmas of the first school are, that ** the Mas- 
soretic punctuation is an interpretation of the text made by the Jews, 
probably no\; earlier than the eighth century, and that, accordingly, 
our public translations in modem tongues, for the use of the Church 
among Protestants, and so likewise the modem Latin translations, are, 
for the most part, close copies of the Hebrew pointed text, and are in 
reality only versions at second hand, translations of the Jews' inter- 
pretation of the Old Testament;"^ that the Hebrew text **is 

tt The Considerator Considered, &c. London, 1659. Todd has reprinted this rare 
hook in the second volune of his Memoirs of the life and writings of Bishop Walton. 
London, 1821. 

n His Dissertation is entitled Domns Mosaics ClaTis, bItc Legia Septimentnm ; 
in quo pnnctomm Hehraioonim adstmitar antiqnitas; eaqne omnia, cnm aocentaalia 
tom vocalia ipsis, Uteris fnisse conra, argnmentis, ondiquie petitis demonstrator. Qnn 
yaro in contraram ah Ella Levita primipilo, Lndovico Cappello, D. Doct<lre Waltono, &c,, 
addncnntor, mnlta cum fidelitate examini suhjicinntnr et dilnntnr, &o. London, 1673. 

M An Exercitation concerning the original of the chapters and YOrses in the Bible ; 
wherein the divine authority of the points in the Hebrew text is dearly proved by new 
and intrinsic arguments. London, 1698. 

tt A Dissertation on the Hebrew vowel-points, showing that they are an original and 
essential part of the Language. Liverpool, 1748. 

^ A Dissertation concerning the antiquity of the Hebrew language, letters, vowel- 
points, and accents. London, 1767. 

07 Preliminary Dissertation to his translation of Isaiah, new ed., p. xxxviii. 
Tiondon, 1836. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



68 

in Walton's Prolegomena: "There are some who believe the Holy 
Bible was pointed by wise men of Tiberias. I do not wonder at the 
impudence of the Jews who invented the story, but I wonder at the 
credulity of Christians who applaud it. Becollect, I beseech you, the 
names of the BAbbins of Tiberias, from the first situation of the 
University there to the time that it expired ; and what at length do 
you find, but a kind of men mad with Pharisaism, bewitching with 
traditions and bewitched, blind, guileful, doting, they must pardon me 
if I say, magical and monstrous ! Men, how unfit, how unable, how 
foolish, for the undertaking so divine a work ! Bead over the Jeru- 
salem Talmud, and see there how B. Judah, B. Chaninafa, B. Judan, 
B. Hoshaia, B. Ch\ja Babba, B. Ghija bar Ba, B. Jochanan, B. 
Jonathan, and the rest of the grand doctors among the Babbins of 
Tiberias, behave themselves, how earnestly they do nothing, how 
childishly they handle serious disputes ! And if you can believe the 
Bible was pointed in such a school, beUeve also all that the Talmudists 
wrote. The pointing of the Bible savours of the work of the Holy 
Spirit, not the work of lost, blinded, besotted men."oo 

It was this dogmatic and abusive assertion, of one who was 
deemed the highest authority in matters of Hebrew learning in 
England, as well as the conviction that those who defend the novelty 
of the points '^ not only make doubtful the authority of the Scrip- 
tures, but wholly pluck it up by the roots," which stimulated the 
celebrated Dr. Owen to issue his attack on Walton's Polyglott and the 
anti-vowelists.<'^ With the exception of the endorsement and elabora- 
tion of Lightfoot's diatribe, Dr. Owen's work in defence of the vowel- 
points is simply made up of the De Bossi-Buxtorf arguments greatly 
diluted. The high esteem, however, in which Dr. Owen was held 
made it necessary that his book, — in which he declared that he ''had 
rather that this work of the BibVia Polyglott a, and aU works of the 
kind, were out of the world, than that this one opinion should be 
received with the consequences that unavoidably attend it," — should 
not be left unnoticed. Within twelve months therefore of the appear- 

^ A C'horographical Gentaiy, searching out some more memorable places of the 
Holy Land of Israel, chiefly by the light of the Talmad. Chap. Ixxxi., works, vol. ii., 
p. 73, &e., ed. 1684. 

^^ Of the Integrity and Parity of the Hebrew and Greek Text of the Scriptores; 
with considerations on the Prolegomena and Appendix to the late Biblia Polyglotta. 
London, 1659, vol. iv., p. 447, &c., of his collected works, Tioudon, 18*28, to which 
the references are made. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



67 

grity of the Massoretic text he published at Paris, 1650, under the 
title of Critica Sacra. To this work Buxtorf junior replied within 
three years of its publication, in a volume containing no less than 
1040 quarto pages.<» But though both these works repeatedly touch 
the question about the origin of the vowel-points, and though the 
controversy about the integrity of the text has arisen from, and is in 
some measure connected with, the dispute about the points, yet the 
two controversies are totally distinct, and ought not to have been 
confounded with each other. 

The *^ Mystery of the Points Unveiled'* created quite as great a 
revolution among scholars in the seventeenth century as the Massoreth 
Ha-Massoretht of which it was an exposition. Its author's fame as a 
critic soon spread over Europe, and his work, as well as the rejoinder 
to it by Buxtorf junior, divided Protestant Christendom everywhere 
into two hostile camps — vowelists and anti-vowelists. The contro- 
versy was soon transplanted into England, where Gappellus was 
known, having studied two years at Oxford, and where Biblical and 
Talmudical studies were at that time zealously prosecuted, under 
the guidance of Brian Walton, and Lightfoot. In the Prolegomena 
to the London Polyglott, Levita's original opinion is more strictly fol- 
lowed than that of Gappellus. It is there maintained that the vowel- 
points were invented by the Massorites about a.d. 500; that these 
'points were not arbitrary inventions of the Massorites, but express 
'the traditional and true reading of the text and the sense of the 
'Holy Ghost ; that it is not lawful for any one to reject the Massoretic 
reading at pleasure ; that all Christians are tied to it, unless some 
error or better reading can be clearly proved; and that the contro- 
versy, therefore, **is only about the present points, in regard of their 
forms, not of their force and signification.'** 

Whilst Levita and Gappellus were represented in England by 
, Walton, De Rossi and Buxtorf had their chief representative hero 
' in Lightfoot. This learned Hebraist thought that his dicta would 
be quite sufficient to silence his opponents, and therefore deigned no 
more than to deliver himself as follows, after the masterly recapitula- 
tion of the arguments against the antiquity of the vowel-points given 

^ Anticritica, sen yindicue yeritatU Hebraics ; adversoB Lndovici Cappelli Criticam 
qoam yocat saoram. I'aftle, 1653. 

*• Ck>mp. Prolegom. iii., sect. 38—56, with Walton's Considerator Considerttl, ed. 
Todd, p. 210, &c. London, 1821. 

I 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



56 

have fixed is as much of divine authority as the letters, the difference 
between them being, that the letters were written, whilst the points 
were transmitted by oral tradition. At first Cappellns seems also to 
have endorsed this view of Levita in a somewhat modified form. 
Thus he distinctly declares that, ** when I say that the points were 
invented and added to the consonants by the Massorites of Tiberias, 
I do not mean, as I have stated before, that the reading of the sacred 
text was invented by them out of their own brain, and that they 
fixed, according to their own will and fancy, what these points denote 
and express ; but what I mean is, that they express by these marks 
of their own invention the reading of the sacred text which obtained 
everywhere among the Jews, which they themselves had been taught 
by their masters in the scholastic institutions, which they had received 
by oral tradition firom the Fathers, and which reading the Jews 
believed to be the same ancient and authentic reading of Moses and 
the prophets. Since, therefore, these Tiberian masters did nothing 
more than express, with all possible accuracy, the reading which 
they had been taught, which they had received firom their ancestors, 
by tradition from the Fathers, and which all the Jews believed to be 
the very ancient and authentic reading of Moses and the prophets, 
by signs of vowels and accents of their own invention, there is no 
reason why this reading should not be accepted by all the Jews."^ 

Later on, however, Cappellus changed his mind, or, perhaps,, 
more boldly avowed, what he had hitherto kept back, that, with 
the changing of the ancient letters in which the Hebrew was originalljf 
written, and in adding the points, the matres lectiones were eliminate4 
and the Hebrew text was greatly corrupted. His assault on the intet 

^ " Cum dieo a Maaorethis TiberiensibaB axcogiiata 68m ptmcta et conaonis addita, 
non hoc toIo, nti jam monni, ab iia excogitatam, atqne de proprio cerebro pro eomm 
libita et arbitrio oonfictam eese leotiooem sacri textns, qnam pnnctis Ulis aignanmt, atque 
expreesenmt; Bed hoe dnntazat toIo, expreseam esse ab ub^ notnlis a se exoogitatiB, 
leotionem saeri textaSf qnae tnm nbiqae inter JndnoB obtmebat, qaamqne ipsi edocti 
faerant a sniB magUtrifl acholastica inBtitatione, atqae onJi, et frarpoTrapad&ra traditione 
ab iis aooeperant, qoam lectiouem ciedebant Jndni antique Mosaics et Propheiicn 
anthenticn conformem esse. Com itaqne magistri iUi TiberienseB nihil aliad praestiterint, 
qoam at lectiouem qnam edocti erant, et a majoribna snis traditione irarpoirapah&r^ 
acceperant, qaamqne omnes Jadsi propterea eandem esse com antiqna Mosaica et 
anthentica Prophetica existimabant, yocalinm et aocentnam figoris a se excogitatiB 
exprimerent qnam poteraut accnratiBsime, nihil est qaod qois pntet, non potnisse iUam 
lectionem omnibnjB Jadnis probari." Arcanum punctationis revtlcUum^ lib. ii., cap. 
xvii. 6 & 6, 0pp. p. 775, ed. Amsterdam, 1689. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



55 

the vowel-points were centuries later than the Christian era ; and Pro- 
testants, instead of combating the Roman Catholics on this point, 
were now fairly divided into two hostile camps, nnder the respective 
leadership of Cappellns and Bnztorf. The foUowers of Boxtorf were 
for a considerable time doomed to ahnost fatal inaction. For though 
Cappellus* work, as we have seen, appeared in 1624, and though 
Buxtorf had carefully perused it in MS. before this date, yet he made 
no reply to it for several years, and died (Sept. 13, 1629) without 
answering it. It was during this time of anxious suspense that 
Father Morinus published his merciless attack on the vowel-points, 
already alluded to {vide supra, p. 50), in which he compared the 
Scriptures to a mere nose of wax, to be turned any way, to prove 
thereby the necessity of one iofallible interpretation. 

At last, however, after a silence of four and twenty years, Buxtorf, 
the son, who succeeded his father in the Hebrew chair at Basle, 
published, in 1648, a reply to Cappellus' work, entitled, '' A Treatise 
on the Origin f Antiquity, and Authority of the Vowel Points mid 
Accents in the Hebreic Scriptures of th^ Old Testament, against Levci* 
Cappellns' Mystery of the Points Unveiled;'' thus assuming the 
leadership of the vowelist party, whom death had deprived of their 
great champion. But, though the work occupies upwards of 450 
smaU quarto pages, it contains very little more than an expansion of 
the arguments used by Buxtorf senior, in his Tiberius, with an in- 
creased number of quotations from Jewish writings. It was not to 
be expected that Cappellus would be silenced by this reply, and he 
at once wrote a rejoinder to it, entitled, **-4 Vindication of the 
Mystery of the Vowels Unveiled;" but he died (June 18, 1658) 
before the publication of it, and his son, Jacques Cappellus, to 
whom the MS. was left, did not publish it till 1689, five and 
twenty years after the death of Buxtorf junior. 

An important point is to be noticed in this controversy, in which 
Cappellus entirely deviates from the opinion of his master, Elias 
Levita. Levita, though maintaining the novelty of the vowel-points, 
firmly believed that the very same pronunciation and sounds, which 
are now denoted by the vowels and accents, were perfectly known 
and used by the Jews from the remotest antiquity, long before 
these arbitrary signs were invented, and that they represent the true 
and genuine reading as it came from the inspired writers of the 
respective books; and, consequently, the reading which these points 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



54 

Buxtorf, made his first appearanee on the field in 1620. As the 
Christian opponents of the vowel-points, whether Catholics or their 
allies the Protestants, used no arguments, but contented themselves 
with mere assertions, and as, moreover, Levita was the first who 
defended his position with appeals to ancient docmnents, Baxtorf*s 
attack was entirely directed against the renowned teacher of Hebrew, 
who was the leader of the opinions on this point of the allied 
Catholic and Protestant armies. 

The arguments which were to discomfit Levita, Buxtorf published 
in his Commentary on the Massorak.'^ The ninth chapter of this work, 
which contains the defence of the antiquity and divine authority of 
the points against Levita, is chiefly made up of De Bossi's arguments 
and quotations from Jewish writings, whilst the rest of the book, 
which is an explanation of the Massorah, is, to a great extent, an 
elaboration of Levita's Massoreth Ha-Massoreth, the very treatise; 
which had caused this controversy. Feeble as the arguments are,' 
they appeared, nevertheless, very plausible and very learned ; so that 
those who earnestly wished the points to be of divine origin at once 
ranged themselves under the leadership of the justly-renowned Buxtorf. 

But Buxtorf was not destined to carry every thing before him in 
this first battle against Levita. His alliance with the learned De Rossi 
only produced a counter alliance and a masterly defence, under the 
leadership of Lewis Cappellus, who elaborated, expanded, and sup- 
plemented Levita's arguments against the points with far greater skill ! 
than that displayed by Buxtorf in his elaboration of De Rossi's argu- 
ments for the points. The treatise thus produced Cappellus sent in 
MS. to be examined by his opponent Buxtorf, who returned it with the ' 
request that it might not be printed. He then sent it to Erpenius, 
Professor of Oriental languages at Leyden, who was so convinced by 
its arguments and learning that, with the sanction of the author, 
he printed it at Leyden, under the title, ** The Mystery of the 
Points Unveiled.''^ 

Its immense erudition, conclusive reasoning, and overpowering 
arguments soon convinced the most learned Biblical scholars that 

'^ Tiberias sive Commentarins Masorethicaa. Baale, 1620. 

^ The Areanutn punctationis revelalum was first published anonymonsly at Leyden, 
1624, 4to. It was afterwards repablisbed, with the Vindiciw Arcani punctationii and 
Cappellus' other worlis, by his son ; Amsterdam, 1089, fol. It is to this edition of the 
collected works that our references are made. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



53 

statement in his epistle to Evagrios, where, in speaking of Enon near 
Salim, lie remarks "it matters not whether it he called S(Uem or 
Salim, since the Hebrews very seldom use the vowel letters in the 
middle : and the same words are pronoonced with different sounds and 
accents, according to the pleasure of readers and the variety of 
country ; "^ whence De Rossi deduces that perraro implies their exist- 
ence and occasional use. 

As to the origin and development of the vowels, he submits that 
their force and virtue were invented by, or communicated to, Adam, in 
Paradise ; transmitted to and by Moses ; that they had been partiaUy 
forgotten, and their pronunciation vitiated during the Babylonian cap- 
tivity ; that they had been restored by Ezra, but that they had been 
forgotten again in the wars and struggles during, and after, the 
destruction of the Second Temple ; and that the Massorites, after the 
close of the Talmud, revised the system, and permanently fixed the 
pronunciation by the contrivance of the present signs. This accounts 
for the fact that the present vowel-points are not mentioned in the 
Talmud. The reason why Moses did not punctuate the copy of the 
Law, which he wrote, is that its import should not be understood 
without oral tradition. Besides, as the Law has seventy different 
meanings, the writing of it, without points, greatly aids to obtain these 
various interpretations ; whereas the afixing of the vowel-signs would 
preclude all permutations and transpositions, and greatly restrict the 
sense, by fixing the pronunciation* This is an epitome of the argu- 
ments used by De Rossi against Levita. 

Being thus supplied with weapons from the Sohar and the Talmud, 
the hard-pressed Protestants, who were smarting from the onslaughts 
of the Catholics, and had beaten a retreat, now opened a new cam- 
paign. Under the leadership of Buxtorf, the father, they began 
defending, with a display of Rabbinical bayonets, the antiquity and 
divinity of the vowel-signs which they had formerly abandoned. 
Undaunted by the fact that the Catholics had been the undisputed 
masters of the field for three centuries, and that they had been 
strengthened in their position by the leaders of the Reformation, yet, 
to oust their common enemy, the Jews, the Protestant champion, 

^ The pftBsage in question is as follows in the original, " Nee refert, ntnun 8aUm 
[O^], an Salim [o^^] nominetor; onm rocalihaa in medio Utteris perraro atantnr 
Hehrsi ; et pro yolontate lectonun, atqne varietate regionnm, eadem rerha diTereiB sonis 
atqne aooentibns proferantor." AdEvagrium EpUl. cxxyi., 0pp. vol. i., p. 1062, ed. Flariff. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



52 

snfflcient Talmndical learning and oritical tact, either in the Church 
of Rome or among Protestants. Their Oriental studies were chiefly 
intended to fathom the mysteries of the Kabbalah and to convert the 
Jews. The first attempt to meet Levita's book with arguments^ 
derived from ancient Jewish documents, as £eix as we know, was 
made by the learned Azzariah de Bossi,^ in 1574-5, nearly forty years 
after the appearance of the Massoreth Ha-Mcusoreth, In his cele- 
brated work entitled The Light of the Eyes (D^D^y IlKD), De Rossi 
devotes the fifty-ninth chapter of Part iii. to an examination of the 
arguments advanced by Levita against the antiquity of the points, 
and maintains therein that — i. The existence of the vowel-points > 
seems to be indicated in the Talmud (Nedarim, 87, 6 ; the cor- • 
responding passage in the Jerusalem Gemara and the Midrash Bereshith : 
Rabbaf cap. xxxvi.) ii. The Bahir and Sohar, which according to 
De Rossi were respectively compiled by R. Nechunja b. Cahana 
and R. Simon b. Jochai, before ever the Mishna was edited, specify ; 
the vowel-points by name, and describe them as having a divine origin. ! 
iii. The analogy of other languages, and especially the Eastern and 
cognate tongues, such as the Syriac, Ghaldee, Arabic, and Persian, 
all of which have vowel-signs, shows beyond doubt that the Hebrew 
too had points from the remotest antiquity, iv. The nature and 
genius of the Hebrew language absolutely pre-supposes the permanent 
existence of points, since, in the case of certain expressions, it cannot 
be told, without these signs, whether they are nouns, verbs, or 
particles. Thus, for example ; without points it is impossible to say 
what the word noh^ is ; whether it is nb^B^ Solomon^ no^ retri- 
butioriy nOT^^ wholey or np?K? wherefore, v. The command (Deut. 
xxvii. 8) to write very plain and intelligibly {t\^T\ 1H2) unquestion- 
ably premises that, under certain circumstances, though not generally, 
the Law was written with vowel-signs, else it would not have been 
*'very plain and intelligible;" and, vi. He appeals to St. Jerome's . 

^ De Rossi, also caUed among the Jews Asgariah Min Ha-Adomtm, was bom at 
Mantna in 1513, and died in 1577. He was the first and most distinguished Biblical 
critic among the Jews of the sixteenth century ; and his celebrated work, entitled the 
Light of the Eyes {p*T^ *iihd), which consists of three parts, may almost be designated 
a Cydopsdia of Biblical Literature. It was first printed at Mantua 1574-5, in square 
characters; a second edition of it was published at Vienna, 1829, in Babbinical 
characters. The chapter treating on the vowel-points is p. 178 h — 181 a, ed. Mantua, 
and, p. 286 6 — 292 a, ed. Vienna. For a sketch of De Rossi's life, and an analysis of 
his works, see Kitto^s Cyvloptedia of Biblical Literature^ new ed., ». v. Bossi. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



51 

Alarmed at the use made by Catholic controverBialists of th^ 
avowal that the points are a late human mvention, and bitterly 
smarting under the arguments deduced therefrom, the defenders of 
Protestantism commenced beating a retreat. Forgetting that the very 
originators and leaders of the Reformation, partly from a desire to 
throw off every thing traditional, and partly from undisguised hatred oi 
the Jews, had decried the vowel-points as lustily as the Catholics, Pro- 
testant champions changed their tactics, and began to declare that the 
points were put to the text by the Prophets themselves, and that to 
say otherwise is nothing more nor less than heatheniwi and popeiy. 
Thus, the charge of Gregory Martin {circa 15B4-1582), in his 
work, entitled ** A Discovery of the Manifold Corruptions of the 
Holy Scriptures by the Heretics'' (1582), that Protestants in their 
versions follow the Hebrew vowels, which are not only a late invention 
of, but have been wilfully corrupted by, the Jews, was rebutted by the 
celebrated Fulke, the great champion of Protestantism, with the declar- 
ation, that, <* seeing our Saviour hath promised that never a prick 
[=: a vowel-point] of the law shall perish, we may understand the same 
also of the Prophets, who have not received the vowels of the later 
Jews ; but even of the Prophets themselves, however, that heathenish 
opinion pleaseth you and other papists.*''^ Among those who beat a 
retreat, are also to be found the very eccentric but very distinguished 
Hebraist, Hugh Broughton (1649-1626), who likewise deduced the 
antiquity and authority of the points from Matt. v. 18;® and the 
celebrated John Piscator (1646-1626), who remarks, in his Commen- 
taty on the passage in question, that ** it appears from this that the 
Holy Bible in the time of Christ had the points, and that the punctua- 
tion was approved by our Saviour." 

Both Catholics and Protestants, however, chiefly relied upon 
abusing each other, and upon their common hatred of the Jews, to 
make good their assertions. To examine Levita's arguments, to 
test his appeal to the Talmud and other Jewish writings of antiquity, 
and to corroborate or refute his statements — for this there was not 

SI A defence of the Biscere and true translationB of the Holy Scriptures into the 
EngliBh tongue, against the manifold cavils, friTolons quarrels, and impudent slanders of 
Gregory Martin, one of the readers of Popish divinity, in the traitorous seminary of 
Bheims, by William Fulke, D.D. (1588). Parker Society edition* p. 578, with p. 55. 

n Bronghton's opinion on the vowel-points is to be fotind in his Commentary on 
Daniel, chap. ix. 26, published under the title Daniel : his Chaldee visions and his 
Hebrew ; both translated after the original and expounded, &c, London, 1597. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



50 

i. That the Bible could only be read in ancient dajs by the few 
anthorised spiritnal teachers, and, ii.. That the Scriptwes without 
these points cannot possibly be understood, apart from the traditional 
interpretation transmitted by the Church of Rome. This opinion soon 
found its way into England, and when the controversy between 
the Roman Catholics and Protestants had fairly began, we find 
Dr. Thomas Harding (1612-1572), who was Professor of Hebrew at 
Oxford, in the reign of Henry YHI., a staunch Protestant in the reign 
of Edward YI., who became a zealous papist at the accession of 
Queen Mary to the throne, and the celebrated antagonist of Bishop 
Jewel, arguing as follows : — *< Among the people of Israel, the 
seventy elders only could read and understand the mysteries of tike 
holy books, that we call the Bible. For, whereas the letters of the 
Hebrew tongue have no vocals, they only had the skill to read the 
Scripture by the consonants; and thereby the vulgar people were 
kept from reading of it, by special providence of God, as it iB thought, 
that precious stones should not be cast before swine, that is to say, 
such as be not called thereto, as being, for their unreverend curiosity 
and impure life, unworthy.*'^* 

Similar was the language which the Romanists used on the Conti- 
nent against the Protestants, who appealed to the Scriptures in matters 
affecting their fidth and practice. John Morinus (1591-1659), the 
distinguished Orientalist, who renounced Protestantism, and entered the 
congregation of the Oratory in 1618, solemnly declares, in his learned 
** Biblical Exercitations on the Hebrew and Greek Texts,** that " the 
reason why God ordained the Scriptures to be written in this ambi- 
guous manner (t. e. without points), is because it was His will that 
every man should be subject to the Judgment of the Church, and not 
interpret the Bible in his own way. For seeing that the reading of 
the Bible is so difficult, and so liable to various ambiguities, from the 
very nature of the thing, it is plain that it is not the will of God that 
every one should rashly and irreverently take upon himself to explain 
it ; nor to suffer the common people to expound it at their pleasure ; 
but that in those things, as in other matters respecting religion, it is 
His will that the people should depend upon the priests. '*'° 

^ The works of John Jewel, Bishop of Salishory, vol. ii. p. 678. The Parker Society 
edition. 

w Comp. Morinns, Ezeroitationee Bihlica de Hehraioi Grscique textiu Sinceritate. 
Exeroitat. iv. cap. ii., 8. 8, p. 198. ^e. Parii, 1688. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



49 

Mercer,^ &c., boldly disclaimed the antiquity, divine origin, and 
authority of the points. Their conviction undoubtedly was, that by 
liberating themselves from the traditional vowel-point of the Synagogue, 
after having discarded the traditions of the Church of Rome, they 
could more easily and independently prosecute their Biblical studies* 
without any trammels whatsoever. Besides having rejected the tra- 
ditions of the Fathers, the Reformers could not, without exposing them- 
selves to the charge of inconsistency from their antagonists, adhere to 
the traditions of the Rabbins. 

To the Church of Rome, again, which was embittered by the cry of 
the newly risen protestant leaders, that the Bible, and the Bible 
alone, without gloss and without tradition, is the rule of feiith and 
practice, Levita*s work was like a God-send from another point of 
view. She eagerly laid hold of the admission made by this great 
teacher of the age, that the vowel- signs are an uninspired invention of 
the Jews, made centuries after Christ, in order to confute thereby the 
claims of her opponents. From the novelty of the points she deduced, 

^ Dr. Ealisch {Hebrew Grammar^ PArt li., p. 65, note d, Longman, 1863,) is surely 
inooxrect in his statement, that " the Befonners, as Lnther and Calvin, were of opinion 
that the Towel-points were at least fixed by Ezra, or the Great Synagogne." Nothing 
can he more explicit than Lather's remark on Gen. xlvii. 81 : " At the time of St. 
Jerome, the points did not as yet exist, and the whole Bible was read without them. I 
submit that it is the modem Hebrews who affixed them, in order to gire a proper sense 
and meaning to the Hebrew language. However, since they are not friends bnt enemies 
of Holy Writ, I often utter words which strongly oppose these points." Li his Comment, 
on Is. ix. 6, he says *' that most dangerous people, the Jews, falsify the words of the 
prophets with the points and distinctions; and their points, which are nothing but a 
modem inyention, most assuredly are not to be preferred to the simple, oorrect, and 
grammatical sense." And again, in his Treatise entitled <S(^em ^^am^l^otod (154S), 
he says, vtit biefor Seife fonntt man bet Sfiben S^erftanb in ber 6iBeI fein f(^tt>ft(!^cn, 
unb ift ba0 SBort^eit ba, ba$ SKofe unb bie $ro^^eUn nid^ ^aBen mit $unctcn 
gef(^rieBeu ; tt)e((^ed tin neu SKenfc^nifunbletn, na(^ i^m 3eit aufbrac^t ; banxm 
ni(^t S^ot^ ift biefctbtn fo fteif }u l^alten, at« bie Sflben geme tootten, fonberlic^ too 
fie bem neuen Ttftament jutoibrr gebrau(^t werben. @ben fo fofC man onc^ mit ber 
oquiTocatio unb distinctb t^un, tt)o fte mibet bod neue Xeftament bienen. ^ie 3uben 
^aben bo(^ Suft, afCe i^r ^ing ^toeifell^aftig unb ni(^t0 getoiffed }u mac^en. • 

Equally explicit is the remark of Calvin, in his commentary on Zechariah xi. 7. 
" Sdo, quanta industria reteres scriba puncta excogitarint, cum jam lingua non esset 
tam communis et familiaris usus : qui ergo puncta negligunt, rel prorsus rejiciunt, oerte 
carent omni judido et ratione: sed tamen habendns est aliquis delectus. Si ftnim 
legamuB hie, proditores, nullus est sensus : si legamus, funiculos, nulla Uttera mutator; 
interea mutantnr duo puncta. Cum ergo id necessario postulet res ipsa, miror cur 
interpretes ita serviliter passi fuerint se regi, ut non spectarent Prophetn sensum." 

H 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



48 

orthodox, since the famons Sohar*^ the sacred code of the Kabbalists, 
which was believed to be a revelation from God, communicated through 
B. Simon b. Jochai {circa a.d. 70-110), declared that ''the letters 
are the body and the vowel-points the soul, they move with the motion 
and stand still with the resting of the vowel-points, just as an army 
moves after its sovereign"*^ {Sohar i., 16, b.); that ** the vowel-points 
proceeded from the same Holy Spirit which indited the sacred Scrip- 
tares, and that far be the thought to say that the scribes made the 
points, since even if all the prophets had been as great as Moses, who 
received the law direct from Sinai, they could not have had the 
authority to alter the smallest point in a single letter, though it be the 
most insignificant in the whole Bible"^^ {Sohar on the Song of Solomon, 
67 6, ed. Amsterdam, 1701). As the Kabbalah was believed to be a 
genuine revelation from God, its opinion about the antiquity and 
divinity of the vowel-points was adopted as final. Great therefore 
was the consternation which the appearance of the Massoreth Ha- 
Mmsoreth created. For the chief teacher of the age to deny the divine 
origin and the antiquity of the vowel-points, and more especially to 
defend his heterodoxy by unassailable arguments, was a most un- 
pardonable sin. 

As Levita's arguments became known to the Christian world, 
through Miinster's Latin translation of the Introductions, as well as 
through Pellican's unpublished version of the entire Book, within twelve 
months after the publication of the original work, divided Christendom, 
though differing on almost aU other points, at once agreed to welcome, 
the great grammarian's results, from diametrically opposite motives. 
The unwary Protestant leaders who were already prepossessed with the 
notion of the late origin of the vowel-points, from the assertions of 
Baymond Martin, Nicolas de Lyra, Jacob Perez de Valencia, John 
Pico della Mirandola, and Beuchlin, rejoiced that their predilections 
were now confirmed by arguments. Hence Luther, Calvin, Zwingle, 

^ For an aualysis of the iS'oAar, see Ginsbnrg, The Kabbaiahy &c., p. 78, &c. 
Longmans, 1865. 

^Tip3i pnM irmrQ« fjw prfr? «3i33ai .^aaaoi (yrsmi y"3^ inarn «3ia3 imr o^VatJom « 
insn "VM ]i3V!DD3 1^3 171^3 mp3 TTTYt pin« MDia 'pjTsfe VQ fTTO irmnaM ]y3y3noi 
p3^ p*DD "irp« 13 nrmroM 'Tip3i pirw ^3 V»B3 ^^tst «3ia3 T3 irmDrpa »D*»pi '^otd »"3i) 

nawi m^n *3nw« vnn rmpsai in«3vr» ^ prw tKi^ vmrsi mho ppD3 p3>i piips *'^ 
vhr\ «jiQ3 nmoa vni vmki «im »*m Tj'manip iO^V13 : Nnn« «3i33 MO'^'po na*n mto^ 
pinM rrn^ p^a rom^ «im pi3 wno vfn ms^ rr30 p'^nOMi «mo wrtm rraab mtdo «jt23 
vKhyi waa te ^^raa oiVttn on win unaxo ppn mpa noKn dmi yrpznn rnrwi Mmo lao 
iVt5M "tn rtt« vrvTt >mp3 hth 'iVw Mrnnb Tdcn p^ rn "z'vi wtitlo wmw Vapi rrowa prr 

'a 1 3 t\i D'vasn t«j nmi : wn^n^MT vrw\ rw 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



47 

To invest it with an air of originalitj, Jacob Perez de Valencia 
gives the following amusing account of the origin of the vowel-points — 
** After the conversion of Constantine the Great, the Babbins perceived 
that great multitudeB of Gentiles embraced Christiajiity with the 
greatest devotion all over the globe ; that the Church prospered very 
favourably ; and that also of the Jews an immense number became con- 
vinced of the truth by experience and miracles, whereby their gains 
and revenues were lessened. Roused by this wickedness, they as- 
sembled in great multitudes at the Babylon of Egypt, which is called 
Cairo, where they, with as much secresy as possible, facdsified and 
corrupted the Scriptures, and concocted about five or seven points to 
serve as vowels, these points ha^'ing been invented by Bavina and 
Kavashe, two of their doctors. The st^e Babbins also concocted the 
Talmud.^ Hence De Valencia maintains *'that no fedth is to be 
placed in the Holy Scriptures, as the Jews now interpret and 
. punctuate them."** 

Jewish commentators and grammarians, however, as a rule, when 
they had not to dispute with the Karaites for rejecting the traditions 
of the Fathers, maintained that the vowel-points were either given to 
Adam in Paradise, or communicated to Moses on Sinai, or were fixed 
by Ezra and the Great Synagogue. This view was deemed aU the more 

non sunt de substantia littere, nee a principio scriptarere faemnt, nnde et rotnli qui 
in synogogis eomm legentnr sunt sine pnnctis, sed permagnam tempas postea inrenta 
snnt hnjas modi pnnctn ad facilins legnndnm." Comment, on Hot. ix. 12. For a 
sketch of his life and writings, see Eitto, Cyclop, of Bib. Llt.^ new ed., «. v. Ltra. 

^ Jacob Perez de Valencia, commonly called Bishop of Christopolitanos, was bom 
about 1420, at Valencia, whence he derived his name. He became a hermit of the order 
of Angostin, and died in 1491. He was a volominoas writer, and the abore extmct 
which is from his commentary on the Psalms, is as follows in the original. "Post 
conyersiouem Constantini M. ridentes Babbinos omnes gentiles cam tanta derotione ad 
fidem Christi conrerti per totnm orbem, et Ecdesiam tanto farore prosperari et etiam 
quod infinita mnltitndo Jndaormn ridentes manifestam yeritatem per experientiam et 
miracnla, pariter convertebantor, et sic deficiebant qnaestns, et reditns, et tribata 
Rabbinonun, hac iniqnitate comm tos magna moltltadine congregates foisse apnd 
Babyloniam ^gypti, quae didtar Cayre : ibiqne qnanto magis eante potnenmt, eonatos 
foisse falsifiJUsre et pervertere Scriptnras a vero sensn e significatione. Inde confinxisse 
supra 6, rel. 7, pnncta loco vocalium. Quorum punctorum inrentores fuisse Bavina 
Bavasse, duos Doctores eomm. Addit, istos Rabbinos confinxisse Ixbros Talmud." 
Prolog, in Psalmos Trad, vi., Comp. Hody De Bibliorum Ttxiibua Originalibwy lib. iii., 
p.ii..p. 442. Oxford, 1705. 

** ''Ideo nulla fides adhibenda est seriptura s.; sicut hodie habent (Judiei) sic 
iuterpretatam et punctuatam." Ibid. Tract, ii.. fol. xxiii. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



46 

the incarnation of the Deity .^ As Raymond Martin was the great 
Rabbinical oracle of the Christians in the middle ages, and moreover 
as his opinion was con&med by no less an authority than the celebrated 
Nicolas de Lyra,^ it was regarded as paramoont by all succeeding 
Catholic writers. 

^ This remarkable SpaniHh Dominican was bom about 1220, and died about 12H7. 
He was greatly aided in his Hebrew and Chaldee studies by Pablo Christiam, a celebrated 
converted Jew, who was also a Dominican, and who held at Barcelona the famous discus- 
sion with the learned Nachmanides, about the questions at issue between Judaism and 
Christianity (July 20, 24, 1263), an account of which is ^yen in Eitto's Cyclopadia 
o/ Biblical Literature, new ed. «. v. Nachvanidbb. Raymond Martin, himself, sat with 
Pablo Christiani, Arnold de Singarra, and Peter de Janua, in the commission appointed 
by the Bull of Clement ir. (1264), to examine the charges which Pablo Christiani 
brought against the Talmud, that it blasphemes Christ and the Virgin Mary. The work 
which has immortalised Raymond Martin's name is entitled the Dagger of Faith (Puoio 
FiDSi). He completed it in 1278. He quotes in it extracts from the Talmud, Rashi, Ibn 
Ezra, Maimonides, Kimchi, and the writings of other Jews, with the greatest ease ; show- 
ing from them that Jesus is not only foretold in the Hebrew Scriptures a^ the Messiah, 
but also in the Rabbinical writings. From its immense erudition, this work became the 
grand storehouse from which Christians in the middle ages and in modem days derived 
their Jewish learning, and weapons against the Jews. It was first edited with very 
elaborate annotations by Jos. de Yoisin, Paris, 1651, and then again, with an introduction 
and the treatise by Hermann, a converted Jew, by Job. B. Carpzow, Leipzig, 1687. 
It is to the second edition that our references are made. The passage in question bearing, 
on the vowel-points contains properly his criticism on Hos. ix. 12, and is as follows : — 
"Cnterum sciendum, quod nee Moyses punctavit legem, unde Judni non habent eam 
cum punctis, i. e. cum vocalibus scriptam in rotulis suis ; nee aliquis ex prophetis 
punctavit librum suum; sed duo Judei, quorum unus diotus est Nepthali, alter vero 
Ben AschcTy totum vetus Testameutum punctasse leguntur ; qun quidem puncta cum 
quibusdam virgulis sunt loco vocalium apud eos : cumqute venissent ad locum istum, et 
secundum orthographiam debuissent punctare nfltDS incamatione mea, punctaverunt 
ntDl *'* recewu meo, ut opus incamationis removerent a Deo." [Pars iii., Dist. iii. 
cap. xxi., p. 895.) 

^ Nicolas de Lyra was bom of Jewish parents about 1270, at Lyre, a small town in 
the diocese of Eurecca, whence he obtained bis name Lyra. Having embraced Christianity 
when young, he entered the Church in 1291, and became such an accomplished scholar 
and lecturer on the Bible that he was styled the most dietinguished doctor. He 
died at Paris, October 23, 1340. The work which has immortalised his name is a 
commentary on the Bible, entitled " Pastille perpelua in univerea Biblia" in which he 
advanced the most enlightened views to such an extent that he is justly regarded as the 
forerunner of the Reformation. The extent to which Luther is indebted to him for his 
sentiments may be gathered from the couplet of the Reformer's enemies. 
Si Lyra non lyrasset, 
LutheruB non saltasset. 
If Lyra had not harped profanation, 
Luther would never have danced the B^ormatimi. 
As to the passage bearing on the origin of the vowel-points, after quoting with 
approval Raymond Martin on Hos. ix. 12 (see the preceding note), he remarks, "Puncta 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



45 

centuries later, no less a scholar than the celebrated Ibn Ezra, in 
speaking of the two dots over the letter (r, the one on the right indi- 
cating that it is Shin and the one to the left shewing that it is Sitiy 
remarked that '^ it was the castom of the sages of Tiberias to pat down 
these points to mark the donble pronunciation, and that they were the 
chief authorities, since from them proceeded the Massorites, from 
whom we obtained the whole system of punctuation. "«» 

From Ibn Ezra this opinion w^ also espoused by some Christian 
scholars in the middle ages, who, hating the Jews, wished to base 
upon the late origin of the points the charge against them of having 
introduced innovations and corruptions into the text of the Bible. 
Thus, the celebrated Dominican, Raymond Martin, who studied 
Hebrew, Chaldee, and Arabic, to convert the Jews and the Mahomme- 
dans to Christianity, and who had acquired such a knowledge of 
Rabbinical Literature that he even excelled St. Jerome, boldly, but 
most incorrectly, asserted that the vowel-points in the text of the Old 
Testament were put there by Ben Naphtali and Ben Asher, circa 
900-960, and that the Emendation* of the Scribes (onsiD ppn) are 
simply a few of the many wilful corruptions and perversions introduced 
by the Jews into the sacred text, to obliterate the prophecies about 



called Kerem Chemtd (toI. lii., p. 200, Prague, 1838). The VUry Machsory or Kitaal of 
the Synagogne, of Vitry, in France, iiras compiled, circa 1100, by B. Simcha of Vitry, a 
disciple of Rashi, and olitained its name from the place in which the compiler lived. It 
not only comprises the whole Cycle of the Daily and Festival Services^ bnt varions legal 
and ritual laws from ancient documents. The passage in question is as follows in the 
original » T«p*a 11 lawDW vh 'a'Di rroab ]rv3W rmn idd 'mvi tdd "npab niow dm Dr6HtJ«n 
'r|Tnn baa n^jya p larono r]Tnnb rb nnoMi 'p^ ima^Tr D*o3rm o '^roi -np *n*3 vh 
min nCD pp3 p< Ip^- It is also to be remarked that the MS. of this Afachaor^ which 
is one of the only two copies which have surrived the ravages of time, and a description 
of which was published by Luzzatto in 1838, in the above-named Essays, was formerly 
the property of the celebrated antiquarian Guiseppe Almanzi, of Padua, and is now in 
the British Museum (Add. 27200-201). Dr. William Wright has given an account of 
it in the Journal qf Sacred Literature, July, 1866, p. 356, &e. See also Fiirst, Oeschichte 
des Kardterthumst vol. i., pp. 114 and 179» Leipzig, 1862. 

«o Abraham b. Meier Ibn Ezra, was bom in Toledo, 1088-9, and died 1176. He 
was a most distinguished mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, poet, physician, 
theol(^ian, grammarian, and commentator. A sketch of his life, with a description of 
his works, will be found in Kitto's Cyclopcedia of Biblical Literature, new ed. a, v. Ibn 
EzBA. The above quotation is from his Hebrew Grammar, entitled On t?ie Purity of 
the Hebrew style, (nins) which he wrote at ICantua in 1145. It is as follows in the 
original Tipsn bD labap DTTO lansMi miDon 'tom m ono >a .npm om M^nac *oan aroo p 
Comp. p. 7, a, editio Lippmann, Fiirth, 1827. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



hope that the qaestion as to the authorship of the German version 
will in future he regarded as settled. 

As to the merit of it, considering that it was made hy a young 
man, and the great difficulties he had to encounter, the translation 
must he pronounced pretty fair. For critical purposes, however, 
the utility of it is greatly impaired, for the following reasons. 
Passages are frequently altogether omitted. The elaborate and most 
difficult second Introduction has not been translated into German at 
all. And, lastly, young Meyer, remarkable as was his knowledge of 
Hebrew considering his age, was not familiar with the Massoretic 
language, which requires special study. Hence it is that many of 
the passages, though literally translated, are less intelligible in the 
German than they are in the Hebrew. Hence, too, the many serious 
blunders and mistranslations which are dispersed throughout the work. 

The storm which the original publication of this work raised 
(1588) was truly marvellous, and, after raging for more than three 
centuries, cannot be said to have as yet fully subsided. The cause of 
this storm was the array of most powerful arguments which Levita 
made in the third introduction, to prove that the vowel-points now to 
be found in the Hebrew Bibles are not of the same antiquity with the 
text, but that they were invented and put there by the Massorites 
about five hundred years after Christ. The authority of the vowel- 
points had indeed been questioned by some Jewish authorities long 
before Levita's time. As early as the ninth century, Natronai ii. b. 
Hilai, who was Gaon or spiritual head of the College in Sora (869- 
869), in reply to the question whether it is lawful to put the points to 
the Synagogal Scrolls of the Pentateuch, distinctly declared that 
'* since the Law, as given to Moses on Sinai, had no points, and the 
points are not Sinaitic [L e. sacred], having been invented by the sages, 
and put down as signs for the reader ; and moreover since it is prohi- 
bited to us to make any additions from our own cogitations, lest we 
transgress the command *Ye shall not add,' &o. (Deut. iv. 2); hence 
we must not put the points to the Scrolls of the Law.*'"^ Three 

ein gef(^ic!ter Candidatus Medicinee auf ^ieftger Umt>eTfltdt, ^tma^t l^at. 3c^ 
f)cAt l)\t unb ba einige Slnmerfungen baju gefejt, totld^t t^eild bod 9la(!^ben!en Befotbent, 
tf^tiU auf einigt anbm $Bu(^er toeifen; ^abe abtr freiii(^ nic^t t)icl 3eit barauf torn? 
ben fonnen.— Seitt 12—15. 

^ This fact, which ia cited in the VUry MaehaoTy from the Theological decisions, 
(D^Dimn raiiDn) is commanicated hy Lnzzatto in the Hdreio Essays <md BevieioSy 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



48 

not seen the book. In this preface Semler gives the following history 
of the translation. A respectable young man, named Christian 
Gottlob Meyer, who had an excellent opportunity, at Berlin, to 
acquire, under the guidance of an expert teacher, a greater knowledge 
of Jewish learning than ordinary Jewish youths, became convinced of 
the truth of Christianity. He therefore left Judaism, and was pub- 
licly admitted into the church at Halle. Here, whilst prosecuting 
his study, Semler became acquainted with him. Convinced of the 
sincerity of the young man, and being anxious that he should not 
neglect his Hebrew learning, Semler asked him to translate the 
Massoreth Ha-Massoreth after his college hours, omitting, however, 
the poetical Introductions, which are somewhat more difficult. The 
translation thus made by Meyer, Semler sometimes read with the 
translator, and endeavoured to arrange the German in such a manner 
as to make it more intelligible. He also did the same with the German 
translation of the poetical Introductions, which was made by another 
Jew, named Aaronssohn, a clever Candidatus AledicituE at the 
University. Semler, moreover, made sundry notes to this Grerman 
translation.*^ With this plain statement of Semler before us, we 

"^ iDte ©elegen^eit gu biefer beutfc^en Uebetfe^ung ifl biefe. (Sin artiger junger 
SRenfc^, (Stjriftian ©otlob SWeper, ber in ©erlin e^ebm bit gute ©eteften^tit, in jubi-' 
f(^fr ©elerfamfeit unter Slnfuning eine0gef(^icften2c^r€r« toeiteraltf anbm 3ubenfnabm 
gu fommen, fe^r gut genujt ^atte, ijt nad^ unb na(^, gumd bur(^ btn ®ebrau(^ beutf<^er 
moralifc^er @c^riften, in gebunbener unb ungebunbener (Rebe, |u t\%mm 9lac^benfai 
gefomuten, unb ^at uber ben ®runb unb bie 9lrt feiner biel^erigen iubifc^en (Religion fo 
lange emft(i(^e $Betra(^tungen fortgefe)^t, baf er enbli(^ fi(^ entc^offen, ^exi ben ©runb.- 
fijen brt c^riflUd^en (Religion eine na^ete @rfentni« ju fu(^en. dt fam enblic^ nad* 
^lit, mo et unter ber Slnteitung bed S^agifier unb Dberbiaconud an ber Xiixid^Hxdyc, 
^m. ®(^u((^, fe^r ba(b in ber Qinfid^t fo toeit gefontmen, baf er fi^ t^on felbfi ent; 
f(^(offen, offentUc^ ju ber (^rifl(i(^en (Religion uberjutreten.— 

^a i(^ nun gerne au(^ bagu ^elfen toolte, bag er feinen guten ^nfang ^ebrdif(^er 
ober rabbinif(^er l^ecture nic^t ittoa n^ieber verna^I&gigen foUe ; fo IfaU idfif^m biefed 99ii; 
6^id)tn gegeben, nad) unb nad^, e^ne feinen (Sd^ulbflubien Qintrag ju t^un, eine 
Ueberfe^ung bai^on t>orjunemen; bod^ ntit Sludtaffung ber pcetifd^en ^orreben, toelcbe 
tttoca f(^»erer feien. — 

^iefe Ueberfe^ung ^abe idf jun^eilen ntit bent Ueberfe^^er toieber burc^gegangen, unb 
l^abe bie beutfc^e ^c^reibart etiood t)erflanbli(^er einjurid^ten gefui^t, obgteid^ ber 
^^ataftcr eined jiibifc^en Sluffaf ed ni(^t gang gu )>erdnbem ttsir. ^ie unb ba bemerfe 
^ abcc bo(^ einige ®teUen, bie nod^ beutlic^er fatten au^ebrucf t toerben f onnen ; fo 
and^ ^ie unb ba 9on ber Ueberfe^ungber )>oetif(!^en IBorreben gilt, to>el(^^e ^. 9lrcn«fc^n, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



42 

lished separately, in Babbinical characters, at Venice (VO^ = 826 
= ) 1666, some copies being dated (VB^ = 806 = ) 1546, under the 
title, A Cmnmentary on the Massorah, called the Gate of the Broken 
Tables {vmb n38r 1W IDB' Kipi miDDH C'n^D). This part of the book 
was also re-pnblished with additions by Samuel b. Chajim, Prague, 
1610. The three introductions were also translated into Latin by 
Jo. Lud. Mich. Nagel (Altdorf, 1758-71). The third and last edition 
of the entire Hebrew text was published at Sulzbach, 1771, in 
Babbinical characters. This edition is exceedingly defective, whole 
passages being omitted, as wiU be seen in the notes to our edition. 
The editor, Ealmen Dishbek, misled by Miinster's silence about the 
Venice edition, describes the Basle edition (1689) as the editio princeps, 
and hence, necessarily, also omitted Saadia*s poem and Leyita's 
explanation of it. Fiirst, indeed {Bibliotheca Judaica, ii. 240), and 
others, say that there was also an edition of it at Sulzbach, 1769, two 
years before the one we have specified. But this must be a mistake, 
since the editor of the 1771 edition distinctly describes it as the 
second, and the Basle as the first.^ 

The only translation extant of this book is the German, which was 
published at Halle, 1772,"^' and which is generally, but incorrectly, 
ascribed to the celebrated Joh. Salomo Semler. That Sender himself 
was not the translator, but that he simply superintended the trans- 
lation, and made notes to it, is stated on the very title-page of the 
book.'^ The preface, however, which was written by this scholar, puts 
the whole question beyond the shadow of a doubt ; and the erroneous 
opinion of bibliographers on this subject can only be accounted for 
on the supposition that they have either not perused the preface or 

» Thus the editor distinctly says on the title-page *rwi "m M31 noipD DD13 
p^awn pVp "VTiPiDD r^vi '"y didtt n*a^ mxo nno? «am: ptf> Ta"2n ro«a 

M From a passage quoted by Semleri in his Prefece to Meyer's German Translation 
(p. 9), it indeed appears that the celebrated Befoimer, Conrad PeUican (1487-1666), 
translated the whole book into Latin shortly after the publication of the Hebrew. The 
passage in question, which is quoted from tJte Life of PeUican^ prefixed to the first 
volume of his Commentaries^ is as foUows : " Adh«o tota biblia trarululi e ohaldaioo in 
latinum . . . . et utrumque Targum libxi £sther, de quo sibi Judni mire plaoent. 
Quin et Targum Hierosolymitannm in quinque libros Mosis. Pneter base tramtuli 
qundam Talmudica opuscula : librum Mtusoreth^ quem Hebraicum edidit Elias gram- 
maticus." But this Latin yerrion has nerer been published. 

«7 llcbftfetutifl bt« Su(!^« 3Raffcretb ^amm^fforetli. Uittfr 9uffi^t uitb mit 
xHnmerfuniim T. 3oft. (Salerno @emtcr^. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



41 

the origm of the Massorah, the vowel points, the accents, &c., &c. 
Then follow the three parts which, according to the Jewish custom of 
naming things after national events, are respectively denominated the 
First Tables, the Second Tables, and the Broken Tables, after the 
events recorded in Exodus xxiv. 12, xxxi. 18, xxxii. 19, zxxiv. 1-4. 
In harmony with its appellation, the First Tables, or the first part, 
he divided it into ten sections, denominated commandments (niB^ 
Dnnin), answering to the Decalogue on the tables; whilst each of 
these sections actually begins with the very words which conmience 
the respective commandments of the Decalogue. These ten sections 
are occupied with the discussion of plene and defective. The Second 
Tables, or part, also consists of ten commandments, or sections, which 
discuss respectively the important Massoretic points of — i. The Keri 
and Kethiv ; ii. Kametz and Pattach; iii. Dagesh, Raphe, Mappick, 
and Sheva ; iv. The accents on the tone-syllable, and Psick ; 
V. Registers, groups, parallels, and analogous forms; vi. Peculiar 
conjunctions, disjunctions, and resemblances; vii. Words with pre- 
fixes, serviles, and solitary; viii. Conjectural readings, errors, and 
variations ; ix. The terms for letters, written and oral words, small 
letters, accents, certainties, and transpositions; and, x. The Mas- 
soretic expressions for Scriptures, a single Book of the Scriptures, 
form, dividing spaces, &c. The Broken Tables, or the third part, 
discusses the abbreviations, or broken words, used by the Massorites, 
whence the part obtained its name. It also describes some of the 
principal men who have written on the Massorah, as well as some 
ancient Codices. 

This remarkable book was first printed by his friend, M. Bomberg, 
at Venice, 1588, the text not being pointed. Levita appended to this 
edition the poem of Saadia, giving the number of times which each 
letter of the alphabet occurs throughout the Hebrew Scriptures, as 
well as an explanation of this poem. In less than twelve months it 
was re-published at Basle, 1589, the text pointed. In this edition 
Munster translated into Latin the three Introductions, the first and 
second being in an abridged form, and gives a brief summary of the 
contents of the three parts. He, however, omitted Saadia's poem, 
with Levita's explanations. It is very strange that Munster does not 
mention on the title-page that the book had already appeared at 
Venice, and that his editio^ was a reprint. 

The third part, or the Broken Tables as it is called, was repub- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



. 40 

By the extraordinary amount of labour, research, and study which 
he bestowed, for more than twenty years, on collating and elaborating 
the materials for the Massoretic Concordance, Levita became one of the 
most accomplished scholars in this singular department of recondite 
Biblical learning. His pupils, to whom he had often explained the 
import of the enigmatical phrases and peculiar signs whereby the 
Massorites indicate the correct readings, orthography, and exegesis 
of the Hebrew text, and who were delighted to see the meaning of the 
Massoretic signs surrounding the margins of Hebrew bibles, at last 
urged him to write them a Commentary on the Massorah, which 
they might use as a manual. To this earnest and flattering request of 
his disciples he could all the more cheerfdlly accede, since he him- 
self had been contemplating writing such a treatise for twenty years, 
and was only prevented from carrying out his design by untoward 
circumstances. Now that he had finished the Massoretic Concor- 
dance, and had the leisure, he at once betook himself to the work of 
supplying his disciples with the desired text-book, and two years after 
the completion of the gigantic Concordance he published at Venice 
(1588), by the aid of his friend Bomberg, the celebrated Massoreth 
Ha-Massoreth (miDDH miDD). 

Before entering into the history of this book and the extraordinary 
controversy it called forth, it will be necessary to give a succinct 
analysis of its contents. The Massoreth Ha-Massoreth consists of 
three parts, preceded by a Notice to the Header, a Preface, and three 
Introductions. The Notice to the Header explains the references in 
this book to the then newly introduced division of the Hebrew 
Scriptures into chapters, and the books of Samuel, Kings, and 
Chronicles, respectively, into two books, and shews how any original 
ideas propounded by the author are indicated. The Preface sets 
forth the plan and contents of the book. The first Introduction 
consists of a Song of Praise to the Creator, who guided his people in 
former days, and who vouchsafed wisdom to the Massorites in their 
work, as well as to the author, in order to explain the Massorah. 
The second Introduction begins with a piece of autobiography ; then 
states how the author came to compile this book; describes his 
researches in the Massorah, the state of the Massoretic MSS., the 
importance of the Massorah, his connection with Cardinal Egidio, and 
his defence for teaching him Hebrew. Th^ third Introduction explains 
ihe meaning of the word Massorah ; discusses different opinions about 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



89 . 

Impatient Christians, again, though now ranged in battle array 
against each other as Catholics and Protestants, and consigning one 
another to eternal damnation as heretics, were extremely angry with 
the Jews for not at once relinquishing their religion and embracing 
Christianity, which was then torn in pieces and weltering in blood. 
So wroth were the Christians of that day with the Jews for not filling 
up with converts from Judaism the ranks in the Church, which the 
professed followers of the Prince of Peace had decimated in the reli- 
gious wars, that even Luther, forgetful of his former kindly feelings, 
and with strange inconsistency, admonished his protestant followers 
to ''bum their synagogues, force them to work, and treat them 
with all unmercifulness ! *'•* Such love and hatred alternately dis- 
played, for the express purpose of gaining converts, had its effect 
upon the Jews. The orthodox portion of the Hebrew community 
began to realise that in teaching Christians Hebrew, and in initiating 
them into the mysteries of the Kabbalah, they were famishing them 
with weapons against the Jews. They, therefore, became exceedingly 
displeased with those members of the synagogue who were engaged 
in tuition among Christians; and as Levita was the most dis- 
tinguished teacher of the Christians, the cry of the Jews was loudest 
against him. His manly, straightforward, and noble defence of 
himself is contained in the second Introduction of his Massoreth 
Ha-Mas8oreth, and may be seen below, for which reason we do 
not reproduce it here. 

been a Christian, is not only evident from Levita's yitnperationB in question, bnt also Crom 
the statement of the editor of the Mithna^ with Maimonides' commentary, published at 
Venice, 1546. At the end of Tractate Taharoth, the editor remarks TVyan nil DH nbm 

• Vt ptDOt7 iri'i tuTvD D3? rrnmo "itd jrarro xy*n li 3ipy* bMrw*3 xy^th yoxo tttto Tvovm 

• no inn tTDinb i3>n iiom» *dd rrawn ^ap oann 'vamo ^Vi " these are the words of the 
first editor, whose name was formerly among the Jews, Jncob b. Chajim, and who 
revised the Tractate Taharoth^ with the commentary of R. Shimshon of blessed 
memory. Now since the sage said, * Receive the tmth by whomsoever it is propounded,' 
we deemed it proper to print his remarks here." This apology from the second editor 
for printing, in a work intended for the Jews, opinions propounded by one who had ceased 
to be a member of the community, puts the question beyond the shadow of a doubt. 
The learned Frensdorff was so much struck with the remark of Jievita upon this subject, 
and was so unwilling to believe it, that he wrote to Professor Luzzatto for more 
information about it ; and Luzzatto again, who communicates the above extract from the 
editor of the Mishna, was so afflicted by finding it to be true, that he delayed replying to 
Frensdorff 's letter, because he was unwilling to make it known that so leamed a man had 
embraced Christianity. Comp. Ihe Hebrew Essayt and Revietott^ entitled Ozar Nechmadf 
vol. iii., p. 112, &c.y Vienna, 1860. 

^ Hengstenberg, Commentary on Ecclesiastes, with other treatises. Clark's Trans- 
lation, p. 418, Edinburgh, 1860. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



88 

Egidio befriended them at Borne, whilst De Selve, bishop of Lavoor, 
effected such a change in France in favour of the Jews, that Levita, 
as we have seen, was invited by the king to the professorial chair at 
the University. Luther too, as long as ReuchUn was living, enter- 
tained the highest opinion of the Jews. In his treatise, entitled, 
** That Jesus Christ is born a Jew " (1523), which he published two 
years after Reuchlin's death, he still exclaimed, "Our fools, the 
popes, bishops, sophists, and monks, those coarse asses' -heads, have 
hitherto proceeded with the Jews in such a fashion, that he who w^as a 
good Christian might well have desired to become a Jew. And if I 
had been a Jew, and had seen the Christian faith governed and taught 
by such blockheads and dolts, I should sooner have become a hog 
than a Chiistian ; for they have treated the Jews as though they were 
dogs and not men."» 

There ivere, however, circumstances aggravating both to the Jews 
and Christians. The Jews were exceedingly vexed by the avowal that 
the object of the Christians in studying Hebrew was to proselytise them ; 
that many eminent Jews had been gained over to the Church; and 
that at this very period of Levita's life, no less a man than the pious 
and learned Jacob b. Chajim, to whom the world is indebted for the 
celebrated Rabbinic Bible, and for editing the Critical Apparatus of 
the Old Testament, had now also embraced Christianity (1586).^ 

milian^ Cologne, 1510; vi. Eiii Brief an Geistlicke uitd Weltliclie in Betreffden kaiserlicJien 
Mandats die judischen Schriften zu vertiligeriy giTen by Graetz, note 2, p. xiii. ; tu. Der 
Handspiegel, Mayenoe, 1611 ; viii. Der Brandttpieyd, 1613 ; ix. Die Sturmgloch^ Cologne, 
1414; X. Streitbilchlein aider BeuchUn utid sei/ie Jilnger, Cologne, 1616; xi. Eine 
mitleidige Clog' gegen den unglaUbigen BeucMin^ 1621; comp. Graetz, Geschichte der 
Jucleny Yol. ix. Snpplementaiy Notes, p. x. &c., Leipzig,* 1866. 

^ Hengstenberg, Commentary on Ecclesiastes, with other treatises. Clark's Trans- 
lation, p. 416, Edinburgh, 1860. 

w This celebrated Hebraist and Massorite was bom about 1470, at Tunis, whence he 
is also sometimes called Tunvii, Ifesides editing the stupendous Rabbinic £ible 
(1624-6), and publishing the editio princept of the Jerusalem Talmud (1523), Biblical 
literature is indebted to him for a Dissertation on the Targuniy which is prefixed to the 
edition of the Pentateuch with the Targum and the Five Megilloth (Bomberg, 1627, 
1643-4). His elaborate Introduction to the Babbinic Bible has recently been 
re-published, with an English Translation and Notes by Ginsburg (Longmans, 1866). 
Furst's assertion, {Bibli theca Judaica, iii., 462) that this Litroduction had been translated 
into English by Kennicott, in his work entitled The stale of the printed Hebrew text qf the 
Old Testament^ Oxford, 1768, is incorrect. Kennicott simply published an abridged and 
incorrect Latin version, from a MS. which he found in the Bodleian Library. From the 
remark of Levita in the second Litroduction to the Massoreth JIa-MasMorelh (comp. 
infra), it would seem that Jacob b. Chajim was already dead in 15B8. That he had then 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



87 

assistance of the Dominicans, publicly committed^ to the flames, as a 
most heretical and pernicious production. 

Great as was the change which had now taken place in France 
with regard to Hebrew literature (1620), it had not as yet reached its 
culminating point. It was only on the arrival of Levita's MS. of The 
Massoretic Concordance at Paris, whither De Selve had sent it to be 
printed at his own expense, that we actually see how love for 
Hebrew overcame hatred of the Hebrews. Attracted by his fEune, 
and highly reconmiended by his pupil, the bishop of Lavour, Levita 
received an invitation from Francis I. to come to France, and accept 
the chair of Hebrew at the University ; the very country which, for 
a hundred and thirty years, had been shut against the Jews, and 
where, at the time when he received this invitation, not a single Jew 
was to be found ! But Levita declined the honourable position. 
Much as he loved to be the first Hebraist in Europe, he did not like 
to be a unique Hebrew in France, lie therefore preferred to remain 
at Venice, in the midst of his friends and disciples. 

He also declined invitations from several cardinals, bishops, 
and prindes, to become Hebrew professor in Christian Colleges." 
Though he cheerfully gave Hebrew instruction to single Christian 
pupils, such as cardinal Egidio, Beuchlin, De Selve, and other 
eminent men, yet his motives for declining to separate himself from 
his Jewish disciples altogether, and to become entirely a teacher of the 
Gtntiles, may easily be understood. Notwithstanding the express 
avowal of these eminent Christians, that they learned Hebrew in 
order to study the Kabbalah, and to convince the Jews from this 
esoteric doctrine of the truth of Christianity, they imbibed an interest 
in and love for the Jews with their attachment to the Hebrew 
language. Reuchlin most nobly pleaded the cause of the Israelites in 
Germany against the calumnies of Pfeflferkom'^ and the Dominicans. 

» Comp. Da traioano oa »^»-nj7^ oa oniDa'^ n^an unwo vnnpa unpa Dn33?B tvoq »3 
]W ^n'ttjn hVi n "V "j^n nwsa nonsa "WH V>tD yvm in the second Introduction to his 
explanation of the 712 worda in Hebrew literature, entitled Tiahbi. 

n The fanatical and misguided Joseph Pfefferkom was bom at Moravia, 1469, 
only twelve months after the birth of Elias Levita ; he embraced Christianity, and was 
publicly baptised at Cologne, 1505, when thirty-six years old. His works against his 
former co-religionists and Reuchlin, which obtained such unenviable notoriety, and 
which were the means of calling forth the Beformation, are^i. Der JudenspUgd^ 
Nurmberg, 1607 ; ii. Die Judenbeichte, Cologne, 1508 ; iii. Deu Ostembueh, Cologne and 
Augsburg, 1509; iv. Der Judenfeind, Undy 1509; v. In Lob und Ekren dem Kaiser If axi- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



86 

effect which his MS., accompanied by the warm and laudatory recom 
mendations of his friend the Bishop of Lavonre, produced at Paris 
Paris, for more than a century, had not a single Jewish inhabitant. 
Ever since the expulsion of the Jews from France, in 1895, in con 
sequence of the decree passed by Charles VI., September 17, 1894 ; 
** commanding it, as an unalterable law, that, in future, no Jew is to 
Hve, or even temporarily to abide, in any part of France, whether in 
Languedoil or in Languedoc : " the sovereigns of that country — 
Charles VIE., Louis XI., Charles Vm., Louis XII., and even 
Francis I. in the earlier part of his reign — would not tolerate any 
Jews in their dominions. The Eabbalistic epidemic, however, from 
which the Pope himself was suffering, the rage for studying Hebrew 
amongst the highest of the land, and the great demand for Jewish 
teachers, had now changed the aspect of affairs. So marvellous was 
the change, that Guillaume Haquinet Petit, father-confessor of Louis 
Xn., the very man who, in 1514, effected the condemnation, by the 
Paris University, of Beuchlin*s work, as heretical, because it defended 
the Jews and the Jewish writings against the infatuated assaults of 
Pfefferkom, now appeared as the promoter of Hebrew literature. It 
was upon his advice that Francis I. invited Augustin Justiniani, bishop 
of Corsica, to Paris, to become professor of Hebrew in the University. 
Justiniani, who learned his Hebrew from the celebrated Jewish 
physician, Jacob Mantin, also conducted the Hebrew studies at the 
University of Bheims. As a text-book for teaching the Gnunmar, he 
reprinted the vitiated edition of Moses Eimchi's Outlines of Hebrew 
Grammar, with Levita's annotations (Paris, 1520).* To shew the 
French Christians at large the value of Hebrew literature, and to 
point out the great advantage to be derived from studying it, this 
Dominican, Justiniani, also published in the same year (1520) a 
Latin translation, from the Hebrew, of Maimonides' clebrated religio- 
philosophical work, entitled The Guide of the Perplexed,^ the very 
book which, three centuries ago, the hyper-orthodox Jews, with the 

^ A description of this Oiammar has already been given, vide tupra^ p. 18. 

» Maimonides was bom at Cordova, March SO, 1185, and died December 18, 1204. 
A biographical sketch of this most distingnished Jewish philosopher, as well as an 
analysis of his remarkable works, will be found in Kitto's Cydopadia of Biblical 
Litarature. We have only here to add that Jnstiniani, who was aided by his teacher, 
Jacob Mantin, in the translation of The Ouide of the I*erplexed, entirely omitted to 
acknowledge the important help he obtained fjrom this Jewisli physician. Comp. 
Wolf, BiUiotheca Hebrcta, iii. 780, &c. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



85 

yet to come; about the duration of otir dispersion, about our re- 
storation, about Paradise and Hell. Now, be who wants to enquire 
into these matters, let him look into the roots HK^, to anoint; vh^, 
to take captive; ^fed to redeem, &c., and he will find all the passages 
treating thereon. Also, as to their opinion about the word ^iMts^, 
explaining, *I will go down into Sheol unto my son* (Gen. xxxvii. 
85) to mean helly if you look under the root ^Kfi5^ you will there find 
proof that, in most cases, it denotes the grave , and not lieU, The 
Holy One, blessed be He, save us from its power. Blessed be His 
glorious name ! '* 

It is greatly to be regretted that this stupendous work has not been 
published. Levita himself often refers to it as his chef-d'ceuvre : he 
laboured over it more than twenty years (1514-1586). Through the 
intervention of his pupil, patron, and friend, De Selve, he sent the 
MS. to Paris, to be printed, and in 1588, when Levita wrote the 
third Introduction to his Massoreth Ha-Massor-eth, he fiilly believed 
that it was actually in the press. *^ 1 hope to God, blessed be His 
name," says he, in this Introduction, '' that it will soon see the light, 
having given it to be printed in the great city of Paris, in the king- 
dom of France;** and even three years later, he still says, in the 
Introduction to his Explanation of the 712 words, ** TJte Book of 
Remembrance 1 am now printing." From some unknown cause, 
however, the work was not printed, and the MS., consisting of two 
immense folios, is in the Imperial Library at Paris. The copy is the 
identical one which Levita sent there to be printed. It has his auto- 
graph subscription, and the only defect in it is supposed to be in the 
absence of an Introduction, to which Levita refers. This Introduction, 
however, could not have been lost, since the present binding of the 
MS. is that in which it was put under Henry 11., as has been 
pointed out to Frensdorff by the learned librarian, M. Breal.*^ 

Whatever might have been the cause of the non -publication of 
Tlie Massoretic Concordance , and however great his disappointment, 
Levita, in other respects, had to congratulate himself on the good 

n^iN» ^aN *3a ^n in». d*»-iddi hwif n^D op om o^pMnn one^ no d:i ,nTo onmow 
^p vh\ -i2pn h^ D^TDw Dan» rwvn db^ «xd» 7^<{?' »n»3 j^pnn n3Pn u-yrvi 

: maa dv ina ,itd i3^*r na'pn — mrvin 

>7 Comp. Fnuikers Monalgehrift fur GeschielUe und Wis emchaft deg Judentfutnuy 
vol. xii., p. 101. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



84 

nD3 under niD3, or into the root yhn under niV^PIID. viii. To those 
who want to write poetry, they will find under every root the words 
which rhyme. Thus, for instance, if one wants to write a poem, 
each line of which is to terminnte in D^*?^, and he requires D^^^, 

Dnni onm. onnn. onni onny. D^nae^,* he is only to look under 

the roots of these words, and he will find verses containing all these, 
and will he able to select the most appropriate ones. iz. The book 
will be of use to those who study the Kabbalah, for they will find in it 
all the sacred names.' Thus, for instance, the Eabbalistic student who 
wants to know the virtue of the divine names representing judgment 
or mercy, or what other powers or attributes they have, he will find 
the divine names divided into classes, as the name ^Slti occurs 184 
times, exclusive of those passages in which it is joined to nins &c., 
&c. X. It will be useful as a defence of our faith against those who 
attack our religion ; and in two respects. In the first place, those 
who dispute with us are in the habit of adducing passages according to 
the signs which the Christians made in the Bible, and which they call 
chapters, saying. Is it not written in such and such a book, and in 
such and such a chapter ? Now he who uses this book will also be 
able to do the same thing. Secondly, it is well known that most of 
the controversies which take place between us and them are about 
the Messiah — whether he has already come, or whether he is 

mnnn ni^on v^v ^aa k»d» «^n h^pof t» ik ttti mippf? n»nn 'nn n^inn 
"|nxi Dna ininn h^ c)id '*n»w nai»D TBf rwvph nxnn Worn na^rn cjioa Koaaa 
nif?Dn *»iwa y^^ «f?n D^B^ Dn^y Dnn:i Dnnn Dnan onna onnx ni»pf? 

.pm ,i»piaD^ D*nw3n ditzd -nan n^ ^ao o^piDc «xiDn nhnn 
,D'vnpn mown ^a ia wxo* o n^apn ]*3j;^ aio ntn iDon '»rr» Kin Ian rhj^m 
ninan ^N» ik o^Dnin mo hv ik ym nno hv mntyn na npn^ nxnn ^aipon ^»Dni 
ana:n mj-w hv uvn jiw nrc^inh oyhm n\nvn n «3fD» nhn onh w nnan w 
na loa 'n 'i 'n '» uvh doidd onv onm n^i? T-^p on »n»e«inwn"r yMnh"-] vf?''H 
^7^0 Dn» *n^Ki ,*nK n*n^« ,D»n^« ^hh ]ai ^tkd hkd d»31 nnBf nin* »n« ibk 
'^pa^ mp^^3n nnnrn mnai nntD o^a^ n»K wte Kinr D*m^KT n^Ton nn» m^Ki 
.inntaai iwiefa »*» nson nia o^a kxd* «Sn nSapn 
DP nannn^ tkd ^♦pn yn^i lauh aio nm noon '^nvtt Rin n^^rpn n^pinn 
D*H»am uDp nannn^ D»^»3n ontr ^nKn , d*3Bw »3»3 nii ,i;n3iDKa ^yhn nnaannn 
*^iD»DKp naiBr^a on^ ^Hlp^ pai«i Dn»pn ^aa i»pw D»30'Dn »d ^p D^piDon jd '^i 
PT nin noaa ^D3fjr n« ^♦3i»» •di ,»^id*bnp -]ai -]aa »31^d isoa aina w^n n»TDwi 
p3pa «in D3»ai i33»3 ivh mamn an *a Hin pn* *3rn ]Bi«m ,Rin d3 ja m»p^ j*an 
,D3n*:m inp pn f?pi n^«3n ^i m'jin ma^mt ^pi ,Hia^ Tnjr w «a laa d« n*»Dn 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



88 

and Eethiy, Tikknn Sopherim, the large and small letters, and as I 
have stated above in the Introduction, iv. It explains the great and 
small Massorah, and I am persuaded that whoso consults this book 
will understand most of the Massoretic remarks and signs which were 
unknown to him before, v. It serves as a concordance for those who 
read the Bible, the Mishna, the Talmud,, the Kabbalah, Grammar, or 
Oonmientaries, and who meet in these works passages of Scripture ad- 
duced as evidence which they cannot find in the Bible. Now this book 
will enable them easily to find the place, and show them the book and 
chapter in which these passages occur, as I have mentioned in the 
Introduction above, vi. It will be of use to preachers who, in com- 
posing sermons, want to find passages illustrative of their text. Thus, 
for instance, if one has to preach about righteousness, he needs only 
look into the root pnV} section np^V, and he will not require to search 
through all the sections of this root, comprising either verbs or nouns, 
but simply section npnv and section npnvS, npnVPl. npivn. So also 
if he has to preach about peace or joy, he only needs to look into the 
roots D^^ and ntx^. vii. To those who wish to write Hebrew letters, 
adopting the style of the Bible, they will easily find the passages, as I 
have illustrated it, with respect to preachers. Thus, for instance, if 
anyone wishes to write a letter to his friend to buy or to make him 
some garments, he need only look into the root ^^h, and if he does 
not find under it what he wants, he is to look into the root 1^3 or 

'nana nrns mabpi m^na nrmio outbid jip^na ]a»n3i j»npa pi^nai jnom ♦itea 

.nmpna ^♦p^ 
^3 ♦3K rroaoi ,n3Dpi n^n."» moth nwa moTa nin neon 'ttw mn 'in n^inn 

.DpT nh D»3D^ "«rK Dn»at3'Di monn '^pa nan an j'an ^'a«r» nm nsoa ]»»yan 
DnDDHD Tmta Hip^v »D ^a^ oipo hk-id moTa ntn iddh 'n^v Kin 'rm n^j^inn 
nhn vit lOipD pT k^i piDD n^RT d» «»an 'nrn^Di pnp"n n^ap nim n3»D «npo 
h"! ntriD nTn*a> nso nT»«a in»»Dn impo r» jtti larr ]»a» mno hp lenn ma 

.h^h nonpna -]*n»Nin "wwa »ein i^"«D»Bnp 
rwTi nvn nvn nirp^ «an ^a^ aioi inao ntn neon '»rrr Kin 'in n^nn 
tr-wa ]»»p» K^n npnitn *r3pa irnn^ nxnn hvnw ,Kinn rm^ D»poDno ni"Kn K^anf? 
pi niDira k^i D»f?pDa k^ »i»n nino ^aa »pa^ -]TBr Kf?i npi» nanoa pT» 
papa IK n)h» papa wnT dk jai ,npT3ff? npn»n npijfa ninnai npnx nanoa 

.notn n^iBT ritpa »pa» nnoir 

♦Da D'piDsn K»D» K^n pioo 'D ^p nap p»'7a o^ana aina^ nxT» 'D 'in n^pinn 

ana ama^ nm dk htfnm ,Mnnn papa n^po^ 'nnaef ^vDn 'd^ ,|»iDn» ivh pmn 

irpiaD la kid* k^ dki waS »ira ]»»p» ^h nrp* ik i^ nap^w D*»ia^D i^i^fo n^an^ 

.mi^no pspa v^n wa ik nioa papa noa Bf-»a ik nia Bfiva p^p* 

F 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



82 

have not omitted a single one. But the words of which the Massorites 
have not given the number, I have not had the heart to enumerate, for 
fear I should give the wrong number. As a rule, whatever I could 
put into a separate section I did put. Now I called this book the 
* Book of Retnembrance,' because therein are mentioned all the subjects 
which are advantageous to the study of the Scriptures, and therein all 
the words are examined. The use of this work is tenfold. 

'<i. It is like a Lexicon, explaining all the words which occur 
in the Hebrew Scriptures, as I give under each root an explanation of 
all the words in succession which occur in this root. For it some- 
times happens that one root has two, three, four, and as many as ten 
different significations. I moreover give with the explanation of every 
word its meaning in Grerman, which is the language of my countrymen, 
ii. It is as a Grammar, because therein is explained the grammatical 
structure of all the words under their respective roots, so that the 
things explain themselves. Thus, if one has any difficulty about the 
grammar of a word, he need only look at the section, and under the 
part of speech into which I have put it, ex, gr. K?n>?J you will know 
that its root is KSn, and you will see that I put it under the Niphaly 
future, first per». The same is the case if it is a noun, you will 
recognise whether it is a noun-adjective or substantive, or to what 
form it belongs, from the sections into which it Is placed, iii. It is a 
model for the Codices of the Law, for thereby may be corrected all 
the Hebrew Scriptures with regard to plene and defective, Milra, Keri 

nh )W»D R"x IDKn ,3"» *n^Kni j3i ]in'Dm 3"d \\mc\n *n \\^tr\ ,Y^ WOO ,Y'3 

•TWTD D1DDD 31113^ ♦a^ *»^D» W^Cli^aD DH 1303 vhv Tvhcin f?3« pflD inK C]« n»» 

.n»pK c)iDDD«n DiTO nurp^ ^3wr no ^3 ^^3m ,d-idoo3 t^:» jd 
i3in3 mpD^ D»^»j?iDn D»»j?Dn f?3 13? ^3 nwilDTiTlDD nTmeon rm ^nKipnam 

: mtrg on iddh nto mp»:Dn nr^pinn nam .0^3 mten *3»3jr n« trnn Kim «3 
T"33 D^KXDjn niten ^3 nK3D D»»-irn tdo niiDi3 nm nBon ''n»r Hin '»n n^jnnn 
rn* D*DjrD^ o it ma ii mnn »iBf3 niKxoan mten ^3 nw'3 ri» f?33 3in3«i pneo 
niinns n^Di rhn nw^a ^3 ^xk 3in3» n: D*3*3p '♦ ip 'i3i 'i w *y w '3 nm* ww3 

.IDjr *33 \\9h «TIW n3BfH ]irf?3 

m^Dn ^3 h^ P'^'^p'^ 13 nHis* o nn ,py\p^ idd niiD*73 nn nDon xvrr^v '3n n^rn 
nf?o ^Bf pnpn mn^ n»p» -i»k3 '3 dd»p nxD itnis* *3 nn Kinn an»3 niKxoin 
»33« onp '3 ^»oni ,'nani n^ipo) ]*2d ht^ks i3 n*nD» ncfH mnnn n«T k^pi nrw 
|3i npa nsTon nanos Tnp3 ^pea j'333 nTio» »3 n«im w^an i»nBf» npT KSHNI 
.Dw narr "i»» mnon ♦d^ Kin ^p»D nT»K w -i3t n» w iitfi »in dk T3» d» mn d« 
onDo T's ^3 DT« \Ty u »3 min neo ppn mDT3 nn iDon n»n*Bf mn ':n n^pinn 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



29 

&c., &c., whereas the Christians divided Genesis into fifty chapters, 
Exodns into forty chapters, and so all the hooks of the Bihle, 
as Joshna into twenty-fonr chapters, Judges into twenty-one chapters, 
&c., &c., making many chapters in the large hooks, and few chapters 
in the smaller ones. You are, moreover, to ohserve, that the Chris- 
tians also divided Samuel and Kings into two books respectively ; the 
second book of Samuel beginning with ' And it came to pass after the 
death of Saul,' and the second part of Kings with 'Then Moab 
rebelled.' Hence, wherever you find Samuel or Kings with two over 
it, it denotes 2 Sam. or 2 Kings. They also divided Chronicles into 
two books, the first book extending to the words * And Soloman was 
strengthened,* whilst from these words onward is the second book. 
Hence, whenever you find Chronicles with two over it it denotes 
2 Chronicles. 

** And now for the illustration of what I have written above. 
The words D^fi5^n iSd^I and the heavens were finished (Gen. ii. 1), I 
give under the root n!?3 to finish; D^!D55^n la^KH Give ear, O ye 
heavens! (Deut. zxxii. 1,) I give under the root JTN to be acute. 
The same is the case with D^DE^n ni^DID the foundations of the 
heavens (2 Sam. xxii. 8) ; fi^DC^ myOi hy a whirlwind to the heavens 
(2 Kings ii. 1); DnDfi^n innD3 the heavens were opened (Ezek. i. 1) ; 
D^D^S'n IPIDK^, let the Jieavens rejoice (Ps. xcvi. 2) ; D^DK^H IpJTT^I and 
tJiey cried to the heavens (2 Chron. xxxii. 20), &c., &c. ; which I give 
under the roots of the respective verbs ; and when I come to the root 
Dl^, section D^DC^n the heavens, I put down all the above phrases 

»^io*DKp T'a p»in* jiaa K-ipon nDo -mv h^ pi '^iD'wtp 'nh mo» 'D^ *^iD*DKp 
'D ipf^n on *3 lip pnnr "inxi . "Jiop 'Df? ppm ^h'^i 'sf? hyiin d'73 pi H^a nnDBw 
niD ♦-n« *n»i ^*nnD ^kid»d »3»n phm ,n^phn 'af? do^d 'di u^phn '^h hntaat 

n"*a Dp f?KiDw nxDnc^ oipo ^aa p^i aHiD j;»d*i h^rtrro u^^hnn ^ivr, neoni ,^i«w 

jO h'l nh^jnh n**a op o^ate HxanefD ]3i riK^ni ^iNCf mo nnw 'nn p ^'rn^po^ 
nDf?» pinn^i np p»Hnn noon onoo 'a^ d^D'Pi nan ip^n pi ,nN^n^i aHia perDM 

nan ^"t nf?poS n"»a op n*n Kjfanra Dip ^aa pf?i ^jw ibd »np3 n^m d»di 
Bfi»a ('a n»rKn) DtDB^n i^a»i amaw Vp^ ^nanaiy no ^p f?WDn nam .♦aw n^D'n 

D'DBfn mpaa ,(a''a f?KiD») n'orn ruTDio ,|m Bfi»a (a*^ onan) o^Dvn la^wn ,n^a 

D»DBrn ippn ,(i*x D^^n) onvn inoe^' ('« f?«pm*a) o^orn inne: ,('a D*afe) 

'^a in* D^a nw ainaw D^DK^n nanna DK' »nBf^ po«»a n:ni ,Dn»oni (a*^ n-n) 
innDJ ,Dn3wn mpoa ,n»o»n nnoio p^Djyn i:»mn ,D*own i^a»i jua oipo rwTO 
KipKi Dn*3D^ar m^on *an»3 nn ^a Dn^om n»Dwn ipp»»i ,D*OB^n iruDW' ,D^D»n 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



nominal suffixes in the order of third person, second person, and first 
person, as well as the plnral and feminine. 

" Not to increase, however, the size of the book beyond what is 
necessary, I have taken care to give each noun and verb in one place 
only, and not to repeat it in two or three different places, as the 
author of the Concordance^ has uselessly done. Hence, where two 
verbs occur in several places, joined together, as TYiTWsh) Sidn!?, to eat 
and to drink, I cite all the instances under the root ^3K, to eat, in the 
section comprising the Infinitive ; and when I come to the root nnc^, to 
drink, in the section containing the Infinitive, I state 'See the root 
SsKf to eat, under the Infinitive.* The same is the case with the 
combined words niK'J^I IIDB^, to observe and to do, I give all the 
passages under the root toe^, to observe, and state, under the root ne^, 
to do, * See under the root ic^, to observe ;* as well as with nouns 
joined to verbs, or with verbs joined to nouns, I always adduce them 
under the root of the verbs, and do not give them again under the 
root of the nouns, provided the Massoretic annotations do not neces- 
sitate their being given a second time under the root of the nouns. 

** Before, however, I illustrate this by an example, you must 
notice that each book of the Hebrew Scriptures is divided into small 
sections, which the Christians call chapters. The same is the case 
with the Pentateuch, each book of which has been divided by 
the Massorites into sections. Thus, for instance, the book of 
Genesis, they divided into twelve sections. Exodus into eleven sections, 

Kf?» Tip ^33 iht: nrn^ ^rrnxn ^-m nnr iBon mns nmn^ nhv na nini ,n3p3n 
^pa ns^p» 103 nioipo nmhv^ w d»j»3 Kh^ nn« oipna pn ir» h^^ m dv airu^ 
niDipo nanna D»N»D3n D»f?pB ♦aef wanra ^noDon ph) n^in nhb^ n^xanpaipn ison 
vivfh p*:k»3"i h)yikh nanoa ^a« »^»a o^a n« aina« nincoi 7l3iO ma th* D*aiBo 
D^a aina« T\^^^^ iidk6 jai ,^ia«^ njnDa ^a« Bfira j^jr aina« ninr^ nanoa rmw 
i« n^^pen hn D'aiDon mD»n pi ,nD» en^a y^ aina« n»j; »i»ai inv w-»a 
♦EfiBfa mn« opo Dana« k^i d^^dh *»n»3 Ton oniH ain3« Dn*f?« D»aiDo n^^penr 
"1^ nt iKaH D1Q1 ,mD5^n »n»a »3w opa oniK ama^ miDon »:nnan h^ dk niD»n 
nn^ wnp ni3ep ni*»nD^ p^m npaiNm onrpn ^» neo ^a o yirw yix ^»oa 
^DD ji:a nvane^ idd ^a ip^ miDon ♦Dan» laa mm ♦»Din 'na ]ai ♦^io»D«p nnin 
'3^ n'^Kna 'd ipSn on njn ,|^a pi «*» vnr»nB mow 'o a** rnrefiD n^twna 

36 The author of the above-named first Hebrew Concordance is R. Isaac Nathan b. 
Kalonymos. He lived at Avignon, Montpellier, in the time of Peter de Lona, or the 
anti-popo Benedict XIII. R. Nathan devoted eight years of his life (1487-1445) to 
this Concordance, which was first printed by Romberg, Venice, 1528. Comp. Kittd't 
CifclopmUa nf Biblical Literature^ new ed. 8. v. Nathan. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



27 

tores in which ^^^ Eal pret. 8rd pers. sing. mas. occurs ; then all of 
^^^) Eal pret. 8rd pers. sing. mas. with the conjunct. ; then all 
of Pf^^^ Eal pret. 2nd pers. sing. mas. ; then all of ^(^^) Eal pret. 
2nd pers. sing. mas. with the conjunct. ; and so the whole of the 
praeterite. Then, ii., The present participle, beginning with ^?iK of 
which I say there are ten instances of plene, and give them all. I 
then state all the defectives, then follow all the instances of ^^^] ^3^^ 
73^n y &c., &c. The same method I pursue with all the conjugations, 
that is, giving all the passages of the Niphal, and of all the other 
conjugations. Then, iii., I give the nouns, beginning with those 
instances of ^3'K which are Milel ; then follow those with the forma- 
tive prefix Menif ex, gr, ^?MD , which occurs four times with Pattach 
under the Caph, all the others having Kametz ; then follow all the 
instances of the forms ^/^t^?* '^^^(^^ and in thia manner all the words 
which are alike in spelling and pronunciation are put together, and the 
whole of such a class is called a camp or rubric. And if there 
happens to be any word with Massoretic annotations, I divide the 
camp into two camps, as I have remarked above under the rubric 
73iKy where I put the ten instances of plene as one class, and the 
defectives into another, thus making two camps. You are moreover 
to observe that I give after every class the verbs with the suffixes of 
the same rubric. Thus, for instance, after the verb ^SM I give all the 
instances in which it occurs with the suffix, as 'l^^K Eal pret. Brd pers. 
sing, mas., with suff. 8rd pers. sing, mas., ^^^^!J pret. 8rd pers. sing, 
mas., suff. Ist. pers. sing. ; so also Q^^MI, and aftier eveiy rubric. The 
same is the case with nouns; aft«r ^bK I give all the instances of it 
with the pronominal suffixes, as D^pK '^^Dt^ and so all the ten pro- 
s'' rwi D^3 MM «»3«i n'nte '» ^31K ^*nnKi ♦iiraa VnnK z^-rm najrn h^ pi HpSKI 
h^rxrm^ ,yyin h^ \y\ o^a \^^ 73Kn s-nw ^3^^ a'rwi ^3X1 3*rwi ,DnDnn h^ K*aK 

PttD ^3 3in3« D'3*33n 1HW3 pi ^PD3 |»a33 "I31D1D KirtD3» nD ^31 ^3W ^DJ |'333 

D-D nDo>n3 3*n«) h^ho orw onw 7DK ^»nmi mD»3 ^nnw s'-nni ,i32do «3tD3» 
nnK ^pBfD 3"nKi n?3KD -tik ^pwd 3"nKi piDp n«»m |»nnD 'n 7DXD ^^rr-jDitn 
^3^ Ripni irr n»3t3ipD «03D3i 3n3D3 miBfn m^isn ^3 vn' ]Dwn nT3i n^DKD 
njnon rw f mt mioD hv i3n nm rriK nanoa rvrx* dki ,nn« nino nf?K3 m^D ynp 
vn» Dnonm nn« nyna nn d*k^oi '♦ ^DIK nanoa ^*j;^ ^nanaw id3 m:nD *n»^ K»nn 
D»H3so3n D«i33n 3in3« nanoi nana ^a ttik 'a pnn "npi ,ni3nD 'a nn mn« nsno^ 
^373K .17D« p|y«^n ma v*i33 *?a ain3« f?3K n3nD nrw ^cfom ,N*nn nsnnn ^w mte3 
,D?3N ^3 rm vn3»3 ainan ^ait njntD nn« mD»3 pi n3nD ^3 nn« pi ,D7N31 j3i 3Tn 
1 31 D*3nn pi np3 n3TD n3i3 11103 man ^ D»n33n mefp f?3 pi rp^^ nw ]nn «^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



26 

the verbs, nonns, and expressions which are to be found from this root 
in all the Hebrew Scriptures, and arrange them according to the order 
of the seven coi^ogations as classified in the paradigm of the grammar. 
Thns, for instance, I first give the Kal, then Niphal, then Piel, Pual^ 
Hiphily Hophaly and Hithpael, having already proved in the Book 
Bachur that the qnadriliteral conjugation has no real existence. I 
have then divided each conjugation into its six tenses, viz., Pneterite, 
Participle present, Past participle, Infinitive, Imperative, and Future. 

"Having enumerated all the conjugations in this manner, I give the 
nouns which occur from this root. I give first nouns-adjective, which 
are again subdivided according to their order ; that is, the singular 
masculine is separate, the plural masculine, the singular and plural 
feminine, as well as each construct and absolute state, are given sepa- 
rately. I also give separately each word which begins with one of the 
seven servile letters (nboi ntw), always giving first the Vav, which is 
the most frequent prefix, and then stating those with prefix Beth, and 
the rest in their alphabetical order. The same plan I pursue with 
the other nouns, always giving first those which have no formative 
additions from the letters *nODKn, as well as with the sundry proper 
names, ex, gr, names of men, countries, cities, deserts, pools, rivers, 
and seas. Of these I only adduce those which are found in the 
Massorah, and they are very numerous. Last of all follow the 
conjunctions. Of these, too, I only give those which occur in the 
Massorah, and which are very numerous. 

" Now let that which I have written on the root ^3k serve as an 
illustration. I have put together — ^i., All the passages of the Scrip- 

ontr 103 n»r3an npatr iio ^ dttoki .dhbd nuaiKi o^-wp ^33 wnn ^Twa 
^^pDpn ^jTDi }o^y^r\ ^di ^jtd: 3 hki ^pn p333 ^»nnK u'^m ,pnp'Tn m/3 ornioo 
,BfDD 13 pKi y'^p'^n ^3 jr3nDn |'33n »3 iin3n nDD3 »nn3in ^331 ,^j?Dnni ^om 
inw ,Tnpi ni*xi nipDi ^ipei »3ii*3i i3p i3"nT ,vni^ipB wh ]'33 ^3 p^rwi 
ipD' n3iwi3i .»T»n ini»3 D»K»D3n niDr3 f?»nnK jDwn nT3 D»3'33n f?3 ^nhmrw 
nnTrn ]3i n3^ o^sim n3^ n»Trrn wm ttdh ♦d^ 3*3 op^i onunn mor 
Dwms mwa»r)n nrniK p3r opi -rs^ D'aiDom ■r3^ irm ^3 hw D»m3iiDni /iianm 
TTOK 3*rwi ,1^130 nm' warn K»n *3 vin ni«3 tidti hrtuKx ,3V'3i n'tro 0323*0 
,niDB^n »3nD ii«w3 nwp» pi ji''*3 c)^*Hn iio *b^ t?ok i»wm tnown n*»3 npw dhik 
103 D^oncn D»D»pn niD» pj»i ,»n''30«n nmm nDoin >h^ orw onw d»»k n^nnsi 
ono «'3« K^ D3D« ,o'0'i o»03«i nnn3i nnaTOi nn»*pi niann men dtk *33 nior 
no ^3 npK ono D3i open mVo ipo* nsnrwi ,thd d'3t oni miooa onoi «3tD3w pn 
^3K r-w |0 vnoKBf no S30 Wom ,r«T ntpo^ lan on oai miooa onoi «]f03»r 
f?3 3*^1 nSan fe 3*nMi ^3K1 ^3 3''nKi Tn» d»-«» T'3 ^33 Ditxoan ^DK fe 3in3n 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



25 

and magnify the book, but its labour will praise it in the gated ; and I 
trust to God that every scholar like you, who reads it, and sees its 
excellence and usefulness, will be delighted with it, find in it what 
he wants, praise it, and put it as a crown on his head. Now you, my 
lord, will be praised in the mouths of all far more than the book 
and I. To you the highest praise is due, for the virtues which you 
have displayed in the faithful discharge of your duty, both towards 
God and man. Every one who sees you reveres you, and every one 
who hears of you speaks highly of you. Happy the sovereigns who 
have such learned and wise ambassadors and ministers as you are, 
and happy the learned and wise who have such masters and princes 
as you have," &c., &c. 

As to the plan, contents, and design of this Massoretic Concord- 
ance, these will be gathered from the following translation of the 
Introduction ** to it: — 

''Thus says Elias Levita. Having determined to compile this 
great and stupendous work, to put down therein some of the Massoretic 
annotations wherever required, and to arrange it grammatically, 
I must acquaint you with what I have done in this my book, and also 
explain to you the method which I followed, the good hand of the Lord 
helping me. Notice, in the first place, that this book is arranged 
according to the order of * The Book of Roots,* by David Eimchi of 
blessed memory ; but with this difierence, that whilst he only adduces 
under every root one or two examples of each conjugation and tense, or 
two examples of each of the difierent nouns, I give under every root all 

3»n» vi^yim wtD n« nMm 13 htv* "w« um -poa ab mn te© Vm^ mpm 'Vtam Dna ? »a 

Tvfw rv^TO riD may n«« mrr oipoai pwn y\pi trna© m moyi nma nw«a mTin^ n»3 "|^ »3 
rvw^ . vt<D"^yra Taw rfr nrwri nVna mMon yr bw rf^ mrcr "j^ Vnvi "pan -pai-w n«Di 
nwwi .pQDMm TTffuo ]we\ yrpn •p'w nn*n ^ tai .d>ovi te xsim vrfm ^r^i •wrnn imn 
rrarnw tan^ itt d» . u*y\m troari^ n«in . -poa D»anaai troan unm\ ta^mwo dp6 y*n dm n*:M} 
wna Ta3> rrrwi i-pSt "|^r» -oan .ny>« d^b« ^ai-wb mnrvoMi -npM *aan nm 'yia^ D^a-niDD^ 
•pTOpaai "yoDa ps^ /"pnwna rnonmi ' TnnVsn lya *jvh ttohi « "pvi'©^ ipyo Ton > Tnarwb 
.D»3«?a awi rroam p 'CratDpn ^aiTM nawa nrw rri'liD nwpai 
.naawH ^^in rrbw 

13 onr^i K^em h)ii Tiannm neon n« i^rh 'n-Mn -wr 'irw *l7n in^^K HDH » 
■w« n» MHR Hi j?mR pnpnn *d ^p irmoVi "|^^3t^ oipoa mioon 'tstd n^raj^ n»p 
mir»i . ♦^j? naion 'n Ta na ^Sk iw« -]-nn nw oaiw mwi ,ni neo^ nefip »3« 
mn ^aH ,^-1 pn*nn ^Bf onrne^n 'd ^^D ^jr ttidd 'vt nm tbdh 'a oaS 10 ijrn 
niiDBfn ♦ansD )nD ^aD 'a i» nSi^rsi j^aa ^ao o^pios 'a i« 'a pi viv ^aa H»an hS 
iH3fD3 "MfK mtem movpn D»^j?Dn ^a vi» ^aa K»a« ^aw oaw «inn r-wa D^Kitoan 

E 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



24 

and yon, my lord, are among ihe wise like the son among the stars. 
Yon know, my lord, that we one day happened to conyerse abont 
this work, and that yon asked me to show you the disordered portion 
of it which was still left to me. When you read it you were pleased 
to think highly of it, and of the advantage which it would be to those 
who study the Hebrew language. Yon urged me with all your might 
to undertake the labour of completing it, and you promised to pay 
the expenses of the amanuensis, punctuators, and aU the rest of them, 
to bring it to completion, and did it. All this devolved upon you. 
Thus was I encouraged to undertake this great labour, as well as 
great honour. I rested neither day nor night till, by the help of God, 
and by the munificence of you, ray lord, I have been permitted to 
complete it. 

" Now, since it is the general custom of the country for everyone 
who has written a book to dedicate it to one of the great princes of thQ 
earth, it is my bounden duty to inscribe this work to no one else but 
to you. I am, however, far from doing this simply because of the 
highly exalted position which you occupy, but because of your liberal 
hand and generous heart, since you, my lord, are the cause of my 
having completed it, and it is through you that we hope soon to see it 
printed, published, and fill the earth with its glory. Accept therefore, 
my lord, this work with the same benign countenance which you have 
always shown to me ; not as if it were mine, sent as a present from me 
to you, but as from a servant who has laboured for his master, and 
whose earnings are the earnings of the master. When you read it, 
you will gather therein some of the fruits of your generosity, and of 
the silver and gold you have spent on it, which exceeds all the labour 
and trouble I have spent on it. I cannot sufficiently commend, extol, 

."naTTf i3*ya ^3 -irw dv »3 »3Y7« nrr mm -crnsian p xoavn yoQ .anvm p »3"n« nm 
"prtpin -mMn t3 taw* ,Dn3TOn Dnynoaipn im>nnb ^y)ihk »3do rwpai .Tiann mo nrati 
miTon % bapwD ro? tea naoo niajpai mn p«bn ^mbrh 1200 raon in^n'^ wtq an mai 'la 
nM '^Tiabi ^yna itm ^itt^ yh9 ms* tbjm bai D*3Tp3rn onEnon "lat? nnb ivj'yi nrroam ' tiy^w^ 
a3« vt) nWai Di>a'< nrr Taan Vw brtsn rmiDa ^noaaai »rmwrn pai .wVa m ^ •«•«) 
ainan aronn nrm Tram .% naran 'anw t naia miyai 'n mwa la^Vcnb ♦rvai »3 ny 'a^ 
Trriinon ywa yoM trVnan nnwrro nrw uvh "^dtpVi id^tiV «in -cD narrw na te« p»a 
•vara laVa vh rrtn iaT3 niwwa *^ nWm -•wrr -f^w d» »a mn tddm rw orrb Donm Viyn p 
'3YTM TTW TDHa "pa^ arm jr n-^aia tiaya oa *a . «*rr nan o -jn^na rrwDn njn ^n'ma Tias 
irmi te vhfiom oownVi viwh mnoa laVa naia jv "wi v^n ^ ita^nbi ya'ra:^ nao n«n 
'^ «m ^frvo vfn .top "^ mrmo raa rw nrao Taoa rrm TBon rw 'a-tiw wa tepn p b» o-naa 
rwp TDp^ ia "pnpai ' "^an naip nay na ip® no ten ' ^'rf> ixcrwan lara dm o . 'aoo 1^ mbw pi-n 
-w^ Voown mTOH te laaa bipw >nm • naa !» nkcnn "w« "pm"? leoai naiann -wm pana no 
imb^rr "p^ ^h n^ro nm noon naw^ rw iMoy» WnVi naxD^ tew vh nam . -viin ^nbor'? Timrs ^aa^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



28 

Concordance. With snch princely aid, Leviia could devote himself 
more than ever to his darling work ; and after lahonring over it more 
than twenty years, and getting all the help he could obtain in the 
investigation of MSS., collating, copying, &c., &c., he completed 
his gigantic *^ Book of Bemembrance,'' as he called it, in 1586, and 
dedicated it to his friend and liberal patron, George de Selve, Bishop 
of Lavour. As this important work has never been printed, and 
moreover as its history and De Selve*s connection with it can only 
be seen from Levita's most simple and most beautiful Hebrew 
Dedication, we subjoin the following translation of it:** 

'* To his most exalted Eminence, my lord, Geoige de Selve, 
Bishop of Lavour, peace be multiplied! It is now some years 
since I began a work which appeared to me important and very 
useful to those who study the structure of the sacred language. 
The devastation of Rome, however, which took place shortly after 
it, was the cause of my not finishing it at that time and leaving 
it incomplete. And even the incomplete part was taken from me, 
and became a prey of spoil ; it was torn and shattered so that 
nothing but a small portion was left to me, which I brought 
with me here to Venice, and I gave up all thought of finishing 
the work any more. But God, who willed that I should complete 
it, and that the book should be published, stirred up your spirit, 
and put it into your heart, to study the sacred language under 
me, which you learned from me with great ease and in a very 
short time ; so that you are famed for your knowledge of the three 
classical languages — the sacred Hebrew, the rich Greek, and the 
elegant Latin tongues ; you have now acquired all accomplishments, 

M The only portions of this gigantic work which have been published are the 
Dedication and the Introduction. These the learned Frensdorff printed in Frankel's 
Monaischrift fur OeachicfUe und Wissentchaft dea Judcnthuma, vol. zii., pp. 9&-108; 
Breslau, 1863. Our transktion is made from the Hebrew text, which, with a few mani- 
fest errors, we also reprint below, as the periodical in which they are published is not 
possessed by every reader who might wish to be acquainted with Levita's text. 

ttM D»*an Vab i«d nVwo rfnyot mra Hnm 'a^ya Twnxi nn« rxMho^ Thrrrxn ror© 
rrrrabwn mVw mo rm nwi nrw -poo «an ^r\ V» pitnn ]'m rnn xcmpn pw^ o-n prhy 
tnotyiTDO') ynpD maVi *fyvh rrm ^x/o npib d^ *nb3n ffyn vn« fwn > mon rrrow >mn roa 
mn iDDTT D*!wr6 'nawio nrm mVi 'M^to*3*n tw mn *Dy I'mom oyo pn Ta Twvn rfn 
'ai-M rm n« TT t»pi tttw^ vcr mn tCDnwi moaa rpnn nKn rxMhcsfro Tr rvcra pit .tip 
o© 'p nm .THD "latp pm mVp '3oo vnoVi mn «mpn p«ta na? "ndh laata owi 
• nvQViDn Vaa dto rmrw n2 i msj 1 12' *aM^ pcVi rrrrrvr p* poVi • ttoitptt nay vnh > nviVua 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



iranslated into languages of the Christians, and are studied both by 
Jews and Christians, as their fame has travelled far and their excel- 
lence is known all over the world; they send forth an odour like 
precious ointment, on which account I congratulate myself. Now I 
speak the truth when I say that there is no author whom God has 
permitted to see in his lifetime, his works so much referred to and 
studied, and so many times reprinted as He has permitted me during 
my Ufetime.** This Eastern self-laudation is, according to the modem 
interpretation of some great and good men who have resorted to it in 
our days, simply giving the opinion of others about ourselves. 

With such a world-wide reputation, Levita had no difficulty in 
finding occupation at Venice. Indeed Bomberg, who was the great 
centre of Hebrew literature in this city, knew Levita personally, and 
published a poem of his in the second edition of the Rabbinic Bible 
(1525), two years before his arrival at Venice. He therefore at once 
employed him as corrector of the Hebrew Press, and editor of sundry 
Hebrew works. As the first instalment of his labours in connection 
with Bomberg*s printing office, is to be mentioned the new edition of 
David Eimchi's (116Q-1286) Hebrew Lexicon, commonly called " The 
Book of Roots " (D^KHB^n IBD), which, though corrected by Isaiah b. 
Eleazar Pamas, was revised by Levita, who also wrote a laudatory 
poem to it by way of Epilogue (1529). Beside? revising the works 
published by Bomberg, he devoted all his spare time to the elucidation 
of the Massorah, which, as we have seen, he had already begun when 
at Rome. The means for supporting his family he chiefly derived from 
tuition, as the salary which he got from Bomberg must have been 
exceedingly small. 

To the furtherance of Biblical literature, it happened that the 
erudite and liberally-minded George de Selve, afterwards bishop of 
Lavour, was then the French Ambassador of Francis I., at Venice. 
Though occupying a most distinguished position among the statesmen 
and scholars of the sixteenth century, he placed himself under the 
tuition of Levita, and made such marvellous progress in Hebrew, that 
he could express himself with the same facility in it as in Latin and 
Greek, which constituted the three literary languages of the day. Tba 
intimacy which arose between the distinguished pupil and the renowned 
teacher was the means both of enriching Biblical literature and of 
promoting the study thereof in France, for De Selve most gener- 
ously put him in a position to complete his stupendous Massorttio 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



with the desire to undertake this work, and I actually finished on6 
part. But the evil days came, and the city was captured, when 
this portion was either destroyed or taken away, since no one knows 
what has become of it.*' 

Deprived of his MSS., despoiled of his property, driven from his 
peaceful studies and from an influential circle of literary friends at 
Rome, Levita betook himself to Venice in a most destitute and 
deplorable condition, in 1627. Venice was then the chief seat of 
Hebrew learning, and had the chief printing establishment for Hebrew 
books. Here Daniel Bomberg, of Antwerp, established his celebrated 
printing office in 1516, which created a new epoch in Jewish typo- 
graphy. Within the ten years which intervened between its estab- 
lishment and the arrival of Levita at Venice (1616-1627), the 
indefatigable and enterprising Bomberg had already issued from his 
press the first two editions of the celebrated Rabbinic Bible, the 
one edited by Felix Pratensis (1616-17), a converted Jew, and the 
other by Jacob b. Chajim ^1624-26), who also embraced Christianity ; 
two beautiful editions of the Hebrew Scriptures without the Rabbinic 
commentaries (1618, 1621) ; the first complete edition of the Babylon 
Talmud, which is the model of all succeeding editions ; the editio 
princeps of the Jerusalem Talmud (1628) ; the editio princeps of the 
first Hebrew concordance to the Scriptures, by Isaac Nathan b. 
Kalonymos (1623) ; the elaborate Hebrew grammar by De Balmes 
{1628) ; and a host of other very important Biblical and Rabbinic 
works. It was this honourable distinction which Venice obtained as 
the seat of Hebrew literature, which made Levita decide to make it 
his future abiding place. 

Destitute and deplorable as his condition was on arriving with his 
wife and children at Venice in 1627, it was not as calamitous as his 
plight after the sacking of Padua in 1609, when he arrived at Rome. 
His four works on the grammar and structure of the Old Testament 
Hebrew, had now obtained for him a world-wide reputation. They 
had been reprinted, translated into Latin, circulated all over Europe, 
studied by the most distinguished scholars of Christendom, and were 
constantly appealed to as the highest authority. Levita himself in the 
truly Oriental manner, which was also the fashion among Occidental 
scholars at that time, naively recounts the glory of his own productions 
and success in the following words : '' The four works of mine, owiiq; 
to their wisdom and knowledge, have been published several tfAns, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



20 

tiine years on a Concordance to the Massorah, and making consi- 
derable progress in the Aramaic Gnunmar, he was again driven from 
his peaceful studies at the sacking of Rome by the Imperialists under 
€harles V. (May 6, 1527), when the greater part of his MSS. and 
property were destroyed. 

The plan which he adopted in compiling the Aramaic Grammar will 
best be gathered from his own words: ** Since the time when the Ghaldee 
Paraphrases were made," Levita says, in the Introduction to his Lexi- 
con on the Targumim, ** there has not been a wise and intelligent man 
in Israel who could make a Grammar to them, such as was made by 
Jehndah, who was the first Hebrew grammarian of blessed memory, 
and before whom there was no Grammar at all to the sacred language. 
Having found the twenty-four sacred books pointed, accented, and 
annotated by the Massorites, he set about to aid the Israelites, and to 
enlighten the eyes of the eidles in the grammar thereof. After him 
came B. Jonah, after him B. Saadia Gaon of blessed memory ,» and 
after them again grammarians without number. But there was no 
one engaged in the grammatical study of the Targum to correct its 
blunders ; every one turned his back to it. Hence came to pass the 
general confusion. I, therefore, submitted that there is a proper way 
for making a Grammar to the language of the Targum; that the 
Targum of Daniel and Ezra should be made the basis, and the 
conjugations should be founded upon it alone, and not upon the 
Targumim generally; and that the rules of grammar should be 
deduced therefrom, though they may not all be obtained from such 
scanty materials. Now, when I was at Bome, my heart was filled 

s> The above piece of literary histoiy fally iUastrates onr remark on page 1 about 
the ignorance which prevails respecting even the dates of the most distingnished Jewish 
literati. Even Levita, with all his learning, describes Jehndah Chajng as the oldest, 
Jonah Ibn Ganach as the next in age, and Saadia as the third in chronological order. 
Whereas Saadia was bom a.d. 892, Ibn Ganach about 995, and Jehndah Chajng about 
1020-1040. For notices of the lives and works of ihe5« eminent Hebraists we must 
refer to Eitto's Ci/clopcsdia of Biblical Literature^ new ed., and only add here, as 
supplementary to the article Jehudah Chajtjo in the Cyclopedia, that he also wrote 
a Commentary on the Song of Songs, which is referred to Ibn Aknin, as will be seen 
under the article Ibn Aknin in the Cycloprndia. He has, moreover, written Com- 
mentaries on the Pentateuch (quoted by Ibn Ezra on Oen. xli. 48 ; Exod vii. 5 ; x. 8 ; 
xxi. 8; Numb. x. 86; xxiii. 18; Deut. xxix. 29) : on Isaiah (quoted by Ibn Esra on 
Is. xiv. 20, xxvi. 20, xlix. 8, Ixi. 10) : on Habbakuk (quoted by Ibn Esra on Habak. 
ii. 19, iii. 2) : on the Psalms (quoted by Ibn Ezra on Ps. Ixviii. 14, Ixxxiv. 7, oii. 28, 
cxxxvii. 2, d. 6) : on J6b (quoted by Ibn Ezra on Job xxxvixi. 6) : on Ruth (comp. 
.Ibn Ezra on Bnth i. 20) : and on EedetioMtes (oomp. Ibn Ezra on Eocl. ix. 12, xii. 5). 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



19 

and Table of Contents, discoBses, in thirteen chapters, written in 
prose, the different parts of speech, and hence is called ** The Section 
on the Different Kinds of Words " (D^J^tDH pifi). The third section, 
which is preceded by an Introduction only, treats on the nnmbers 
and genders of the several parts of speech, seeing that some of them 
only occur as masculine, some only as feminine, some only in the 
singular, some only in the plural, some only in the singular and plural 
feminine, some only in the singular and plural masculine, and some 
as common genders. These words are here classified according to 
rules ; hence it is styled " The Section of Rules ** (nHDH fr©). The 
fourth section treats on the seven servile letters (yh^) n'W), and 
hence is denominated *^ the Section on the Serviles'* (D^fiTIDfi^n |rr&). The 
four dissertations were first published at Pesaro (1520), under the 
general title ** the Sections of Elijahu " (in^^K V"»B)- They also soon 
found their way into Germany, where they were re-published, with a 
Latin translation by Miinster, Basle, 1527. 

The four grammatical treatises which he composed at Rome, and 
his residence for thirteen years at the palace of Cardinal Egidio, where 
he constantly came into contact with the chief literary men of the 
day, extended Levita's fiEane over Europe, and he was appealed to from 
ha and wide for his opinion on matters of Hebrew literature. No 
allurements of society, however — no worldly pleasures or gain — could 
tempt him from his work. Whilst in the house of his friend the 
Cardinal, he not only devoted his time to the instruction of his eminent 
pupil, and writing the valuable grammatical treatises, but took lessons 
from Egidio in Greek, and made such rapid progress, that he could 
read with fluency the Septuagint and the Greek classics. 

There can be but little doubt that Levita's writings were intimately 
connected with the studies of his most distinguished and accom- 
plished pupils. Their rapid progress in Hebrew, their desire to 
master those portions of the Scriptures which are written in Chaldee, 
as well as to read the paraphrases, and their diving into Eabbalistic 
works, necessarily involved more extensive instruction, both in the 
higher branches of Biblical literature and in the special dialects in 
which the important documents of the esoteric doctrine are written. 
Hence it is that we now find him (1520) most industriously engaged 
upon two particular works : one a most gigantic work on the Mas- 
sorah, to which we shall have to recur when we arrive at the period of 
its completion ; and the other an Aramaic Grammar. After labouring 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



18 

will be best seen from bis own description of tbe plan of the work : 
"As my design in this treatise/' be says in tbe Introduction, " is to 
explain those words only which are anomalons in their grammatical 
stmctore, and since tbe principal grammarians advance different 
opinions about them, I bave stated all their various opinions, and 
sometimes also contributed my share, according to my limited under- 
standing.'* This work, too, was translated into Latin by Miinster, 
and published at Basle, 1625. It had such a wide circulation among 
Christian students, and especially among the early Reformers, that 
it was reprinted in the Latin version, Basle, 1586, and underwent 
several editions in the original Hebrew. 

His desire to explain every intricacy and anomaly in tbe Hebrew 
language, and yet the fear lest hampering his Grammar with too many 
digressions might preclude it from becoming a manual for the people 
at large, produced in him the conviction that those points which 
required lengthy and elaborate explanations would be more acceptable 
if appended to tbe book in the form of Dissertations. He therefore 
promised, in sundry parts of the Bachur, to discuss these subjects at 
the end of the Grammar. But, as is often the case, when he had 
finished the book, he found that untoward circumstances rendered it 
impossible for him to compile the promised Appendices, and had 
to publish it without them. This he tells us is tbe reason why he 
was obliged to publish the dissertations separately. As soon as he 
had carried through the press his '^Treatise on the Compounds^' he 
betook himself to the work of these dissertations, and succeeded in 
publishing them two .years after the appearance of the preceding 
treatise (1520). As tbe Grammar was the centre around which the 
sundry treatises clustered, he constituted it tbe model after which 
he formed these dissertations. Hence, like tbe Grammar, he divided 
them into four parts, consisting respectively of thirteen sections, 
according to the thirteen articles of tbe Jewish creed, whilst the 
sum total of the sections, namely, fifty-two, like that of the Grammar, 
represents the numerical value of tbe author's name (in^^K). The 
first section, or dissertation, which is preceded by a separate Intro- 
duction and Table of Contents, discusses, in thirteen stanzas or 
poems, the laws of the letters, the vowel points, and the accents; 
and in consequence of its being written in separate poems or stanzas 
it is denominated ** The Poetical Section or Dissertation " (m^B' p'TD). 
The second section, which is also preceded by a separate Introduction 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



17 

Hebrew verbs; the second the changes in the vowel-points of tha 
different conjugations ; the third the regular nouns ; and the fourth' 
the irregular nouns. The simple and beautiful Hebrew in which it is 
written, as well as the clearness and perspicuity with which it sets forth 
the structure of the sacred language, at once made the treatise a uni- 
versal favourite with Hebrew students, both Jewish and Gentile. Not 
even the very elaborate and masterly Grammar of Abraham de Balmes, 
which was pubUshed five years later (1528), could supersede it. The 
Badhur was the Gesenius of the time, whilst the Mikne Abraham 
(taniSK ly^p^), which is the name of De Balmes* Grammar, was the 
Ewald among Hebrew students. Miinster published it, with a Latin 
translation, for the use of Christians in Germany and elsewhere (1525). 
The revision of it will be discussed' when we arrive at that part of 
Levita's life when he engaged in it. 

In the same year in which Levita carried through the press in 
Rome (1518) his excellent Grammar, he also published <' Tables of 
Paradigmsy*' (D*3^33ni D^^ysn pnpna n)h), exhibiting in an elementary 
form the Hebrew conjugations. The design of these Paradigms, ^}nch 
he compiled from two different sections of the Bachury^ is to give to 
the tyro some notion of Hebrew Grammar. These Paradigms are 
of such extreme rarity, that no Hebrew copy of them has as yet been 
discovered, and they are only known from Miinster's translation. He 
moreover completed and printed a treatise on the Irregular Words 
in the Bible, the discussion of which he designedly excli}ded from 
his Grammar. This dissertation is entitled '* The Book on Com- 
pounds*' (nnsinn ISD), because it treats on words composed of 
different words and conjugations. It consists of two hundred and 
twelve articles, answering to the numerical value of Levita' s surname 
linn Bachur; so that the two numbers together, viz., of the 
sections in the grammar, and of the articles in this treatise, represent 
the complete name ninn wht^ Elijahu Bachur. The 216 words in 
this dissertation are not arranged according to their roots, because 
there is a great difference of opinion among grammarians and lexico- 
graphers respecting the etymology of some of them, but they are put 
down in alphabetical order. The manner in which he treated them 

onoMon 'awQ npb rpn - - pipia ron 'xnb nnb mn m^ »man 'iVn yrvbn »» «■ 

nVTin IDD *rO D'*ywo. Comp. SteinBclmeider, Catalogua Lihr. Hehr. in Bibliotheca 
Bodleianoy col. 2012, &c., ftnd by the same Aathor, Bibliograpkiachea Handbueh, p. 81, 
No. 1162. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



16 

help in such an undertaking, which must have been repugnant to 
his Jewish feelings. 

The intimacy of Levita with Egidio, however, was the means of 
producing works of far greater importance, and of more permanent 
utility to Biblical literature, than the De Arcanis CatholiccB Veritatis 
of Galatinus. The very year in which this assault on the Jews and 
Judaism appeared, Levita published his grammar (1518), entitled, 
The Book Bachur (ninin IBD). This grammar he wrote at the 
suggestion, and for the use, of Cardinal Egidio, to whom he dedicated 
it, as may be seen from the following words in the Introduction to the 
work in question : ** In the year 6277 a.m. [ = 1617 a.d.] the Lord 
stirred up the spirit of a wise man, conversant with all sciences, and 
of high dignity. Cardinal Egidio — may his glory be exalted ! He was 
anxious to find out the excellent words and the beautiful writing in the 
books of our sacred language. For this reason he called on me, his 
servant, Elijahu Levita, the German, the least of the grammarians, 
and said to me. What art thou doing, Elijahu? Arise now, and 
make a book which shall pleasantly set forth the grammar of the 
Hebrew language, since all the Hebrew grammars which I have seen 
do not satisfy me, nor do they quench my desire for granmiar; as 
some of them are too lengthy, multiplying useless rules, and some are 
too short in stating what is necessary. Gird up thy loins, therefore, 
like a man, and adopt the medium between the two extremes, pro- 
pound the science of grammar in rules not hitherto laid down, but 
necessary to be exhibited; make them into a book for the benefit of 
the multitude, so that it may be an ensign for the people, whereunto 
the Gentiles shall come, and find rest for their souls. When I heard 
his encouraging words, I at once determined to accede to his request, 
and compiled this little work on grammar.** 

Levita, as we have seen, called this granmiar Bachur (lin3), for 
three reasons, which are based upon the threefold meaning of the 
expression, as well as upon the design of the work. As the word 
nins denotes both youth and excellent, and is also his surname, he called 
it by this name, because, he naively tells us, it is designed for the 
young, it is excellent, and it is his proper name. The treatise is 
divided into four parts, each one of which is subdivided into thirteen 
sections, answering to the Thirteen Articles of the Jewish Creed, whilst 
the total number of all sections, being fifty-two, represents the numerical 
value of the name in^^K. The first part discusses the nature of the 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



15 

afterwards cardinal, who was engaged in studying Hebrew, and of 
course the esoteric doctrine. He therefore determined to call 
upon him. 

The first interview between the eminent Christian scholar and the 
famous Hebrew grammarian is thus described by the latter. ''When I 
heard of his fame, I waited upon him at his palace. On seeing me he 
enquired after my business; and when I told him that I am the 
grammarian from Germany, and that I devote my whole life to the 
study of Hebrew philology and the Scriptures, • . . he at once 
rose from his seat, came towards me> and embraced me, saying, 'Are 
you forsooth El^ahu, whose fame has travelled over countries, and 
whose books are circulated everywhere ? Blessed be the Lord of the 
Universe for bringing you here, and for our meeting. You must now 
remain with me ; you shall be my teacher, and I will be a father to 
you. I will maintain you and your family,* '* &c.^ 

Such a cordial reception could not fidl in its effect, and Levita at 
once accepted the offer of the generous Egidio. As Egidio*s chief 
object in learning Hebrew was to be able to fathom the mysteries of 
the Kabbalah, Levita had not only to instruct his pupil in the sacred 
tongue, but to aid him in his endeavours to acquire a knowledge of the 
esoteric doctrine. Hence we find that as early as 1516 — ^that is 
before Egidio was elevated to the dignity of Cardinal — ^Levita copied 
for him three Eabbalistic works, viz., i. A Commentary on the Book 
Jetzira (nn^^* IBD B^TB) ; ii. The Mystery of the Angel Raziel 
{hiVr\ *11D) ; and iii. The Book on the Wisdom of the Soul (nDD 
e^n ntD^n). It is also supposed that Levita supplied at this time the 
passages from the Sohar to the work entitled, ^^ On the Mysteries of 
the Catholic Truth,** by Petrus Galatinus, which was finished in 
September, 1516, and published in 1518, since its Gentile authors 
could not possibly, without the aid of a Jew, have dived into the 
Sohar. We do not, however, lay much stress on this, though the 
supposition proceeds from no less an authority than the celebrated 
historian. Dr. Graetz.*^ We have seen that there were plenty of 
converted Jews, Eabbalists, to aid Galatinus in a work, the 
express design of which was to convince the Jews of the truth of 
the Catholic religion, without being obliged to appeal to Levita for 

so See below, in the Second Introduction, where the whole of the interview is 
narrated. 

>i GeaehichU der Juden, ix, 99. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



14 

stndyiiig Hebrew to translate the Scriptures ; and was translated into 
Latin by Sebastian Munster (Basle, 1581; ibid, 1586). We shall 
have to recnr to this production when we come to the period of 
Levita's life when he thonght it his duty to claim the paternity of 
the annotations. 

The dry studies of grammar and philology did not deprive him of 
his hnmoor, for, three years after the publication of the annotations to 
M. Kimchi's work, Levita amused himself by writing, in German, a 
fiction, entitled Baha-Buch {^\2 Kll), purporting to be a history of 
the Prince of Baba. It was evidently intended to be a song, since he 
remarks in the rhythmical Preface — " Aber der \\y*^ (= Melody) der 
darauf wird gehen, Den kenn ieh nit geben zu versUhen, Denn einer 
kennt musiga oder (riD^liD). So wollt ich ihm wohl haben geholfen, Abet 
ich sing* es mil tinem welschen Oesang, Kann er drauf machen ein 
besaem so hab er Dank.** That he composed it in 1507, he most dis- 
tinctly declares at the end of the book in the following words — ^^Damit 
hat das Buck ein Enden. Dock will ich nennen vor . . Elia Bachur 
nennt er sich zwar, Ein ganz Jahr hat er driiber verschrieben, Und hat 
es gernacht das selbig Jar, Das man z'dhlt 267 [=1607], Er hot 
[lot = lost ?] es aus in Nisan und hob es an in Ijjar . . . soil uns 
fiihren ken Jerusalem hinein, Oder irgend ein Dor/el daneben n^Dn 
KJ1t33Kn K33 h^ KniDDM. Here endeth the history of Baba de Antona." 
This book was first printed in 1508." 

But Levita was not destined long to enjoy his peaceful studies and 
innocent recreations. Five years after the outbreak of the epidemic, 
and only twelve months after the publication of this fiction, the army 
of the league of Cambray took Padua (1509) and sacked it, when 
Levita lost every thing he possessed, and in a most destitute condition 
had to leave the place in which he had successfully taught fOr some 
years, and where he was held in high estimation, to seek a livelihood in 
the wide wide world. As the Kabbalah was a classical study at Rome, 
where the popes and cardinals looked upon it as an important auxiliary 
to Christianity, Hebrew teachers were in great requisition in the 
Eternal City. Knowing this, Levita at once betook himself to the 
capital. It was here that he heard of the scholarly and liberal 
minded Egidio de Viterbo, general of the Augustine order, and 

^ The above extract is made from Steinschneider's CatcdoguB Libr. Hebr. in 
Bibliotheca Bodleiana^ ool. 935, where an acoonnt is also given of the different 
editions of the Fiction in question, and the errors of biographers are corrected. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



18 

We have already seen that, np to his thirty-sixth year (1504), 
Levita delivered lectores on Hebrew grammar in the great Jewish 
academy at Padua to a large number of Jewish students, who came to 
be taught by him &om far and wide. As the text-book for these 
lectures he took B. Moses Eimohi's Outlines of Hebrew Grammar, 
entitled '' Journey on the Paths of Euowledge,^^ which most probably 
commended itself to him because of its conciseness, and because its 
author was the first who employed therein, as a paradigm of the 
regular verbs, the word *TpQ, instead of the less appropriate verb tnedia; 
gutter alts ^yfi, which, in imitation of the Arabic grammarians, had 
been used in all other grammars. Though Moses -Eimchi flourished 
about 1160-1170, and must have written this short grammar three 
hundred and fifty years before it was annotated by Levita, yet the 
manual was still in MS., and the copy which Levita used as the basis 
for his lectures must have been made by himself. His explanations 
were so acceptable, that he was requested by his pupils to publish 
them, together with the text book (1504). 

Unhappily, however, the plague broke out at Padua, and as 
Christians usually believed that the Jews were the cause of every 
epidemic and calamity, the Jewish quarter was blocked up, and the 
entrance to the street in which Levita resided was closed. When thus 
shut up in the house, his amanuensis escaped with the MS, to 
Pesaro, where he had the work printed without Levita*s name, but 
with an Introduction by Benjamin of Bome, who was, consequently, 
taken by eveiy body to be the author of the Commentaries to 
M. Eimchi's Grammar. The plagiarist also interpolated the anno- 
tations with excerpts from another work, and in this form Levita*s 
maiden production was most incorrectly printed in another name at 
Pesaro (1508). In this mutilated form, and under the surreptitious 
name, M. Kimchi*s *^ Journey on the Paths of Knowledge,'^ with 
Levita's Commentary, became the manual for students of the Hebrew 
language, both among Jews and Christians. It was speedily reprinted 
several times at Pesaro (1600-18, 1518-1619) ; it made its way to 
Germany and France, where it was reprinted (Hagenau, 1519 ; Paris, 
1520) ; and became the text book of the early Beformers, who were 

18 The full Hebrew title of this concise Grammar is rcrbo TOT^ nm '^XO ^frvo 
]r\n* rrD3n> the initials of which yield the anther's name, Trap rroo. Sometimes it 
is simply called '■prpon or pllpn nOD. For an account of the life and writings of Kimchi, 
we mnst refer to Eitto's Cydopcedia of Biblical Literature, new ed. «. v. Moses Eimchi. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



12 

Bearded (1482), m the capacity of private secretary and privy conncillor 
to this prince. From the eternal city he accompanied him to 
Florence, where he hecame acquainted with Mirandola, and caught the 
infection of the esoteric doctrine. The infection, however, proved 
innocuous for a little time, since, on his return to Germany (1484), he 
was appointed licentiate and assessor of the supreme court in Stutgard ; 
and, as the Dominicans elected him proctor of their order in the whole 
of Germany, it precluded the possibility of his entering at once upon 
the study of Hebrew and Aramaic. But the disease fully developed 
itself when he returned from his second journey to Home and Florence 
(1490), after having come into contact a second time with Mirandola, 
who told him of the wonderful mysteries concealed in the Kabbalah. 

The great influence of Beuchlin soon spread the desire for studying 
Hebrew and the Kabbalah among Christians in Germany. Every one 
who had any claim to literary attainments was now in search of a 
Jewish teacher. Beuchlin put himself under the tuition of B. Jacob 
b. Jechiel Loanz, physician to Frederick m., and made such extraor- 
dinary progress, that, within four years of beginning to study Hebrew, 
he published his first Kabbalistic Treatise, entitled, <* Concerning the 
Wonderful Wordy*' which he dedicated to Dalbei^, Bishop of 
Worms. It was this intense love for Hebrew and Hebrew literature 
which made Beuchlin espouse the cause of the Jews, and defend them 
and their writings against the misguided and malicious assaults of the 
fanatical Pfefferkom on his former co-religionists, and which kindled 
the fire of the Beformation. 

In Italy the Kabbalah and Hebrew were studied to a still greater 
extent. Here Abraham Saba, Jehudah b. Jacob Chajath, Joseph 
Shraga, Kana or Elkana, Jehudah Ibn Verga were the teachers of 
this theosophy among the Jews; whilst among the Christians the 
chief Jewish teachers were B. Jachanon Alleman, who initiated 
Mirandola into its mysteries, and Samuel Abravanel, in whose house 
Baruch of Benevent delivered lectures on the Kabbalah to most 
distinguished Christians. Baruch of Benevent also instructed Egidio 
de Yiterbo (afterwards cardinal) in this esoteric doctrme, and trans- 
lated the Sohar into Latin for him. It was this Egidio, as we shall 
see hereafter, who, in consequence of his being seized with the general 
desire to study the Kabbalah, was the means of calling forth Elias 
Levita, and of encouraging our author to write most of his works, thus 
constituting him the chief teacher of Hebrew among Christians. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



11 

declared by the celebrated scholastic metaphysician, Raymond Lolly 
(1236-1815), to be a diTine science, and a genuine revelation whose 
Hght is rey^Eded to a rational sonl, captivated the mind of John Pico 
della Mirandola (1468-1494). Mirandola, the marvellously gifted 
son of the sovereign of the small principality of Mirandola, in Italy, 
received his first lessons in Hebrew, as well as in Aristotelian Arabic 
philosophy, from Elias del Medigo, or Elias Cretensis, as he is some- 
times called, who was bom of Jewish parents in the same year as his 
distinguished pupil and faithful friend. But as Elias del Medigo was 
hostile to the Kabbalah, and could not, therefore, initiate Mirandola 
into its mysteries, the Count, who was the wonder of his days, had 
to put himself under the tuition of Jochanon AUemano, a Rabbi from 
Constantinople, who had settied down in Italy, and who was veiy 
profound in this theosophy. With his marvellous retentive faculties, 
extraordinary intellectual powers, and almost boundless knowledge, 
Mirandola soon overcame the difficulties and unravelled the secrets of 
the Kabbalah. To his amazement, he found that there is more 
Christianity than Judaism in the Kabbalah. For, according to his 
showing, he discovered therein proofs of the doctrine of the Trinity, 
the Incarnation, the divinity of Christ, original sin, the expiation 
thereof by Christ, the heavenly Jerusalem, the fall of the angels, the 
order of the angels, purgatory, and hell-fire ; in fact, the same Gospel 
which we find in St. Paul, Dionysius, St. Jerome, and St. Augustine. 

As the result of his Kabbalistic studies, he published in 1486, 
when only twenty-four years of age, nine hundred theses, which were 
placarded in Rome, and among which was the following : ** No science 
yields greater proof of the divinity of Christ than magic and the 
Kabbalah.'* So delighted was Pope Sixtus IV. with the discovery, that 
he wished to have Kabbalistic writings translated into Latin, for the 
use of divinity students ; and Mirandola, with the aid of his Jewish 
teacher, did not delay to gratify the wish of the supreme Pontiff.^^ 

The Kabbalah and Hebrew, as well as Aramaic, the clue to this 
esoteric doctrine, now became the favourite studies, to the neglect of 
the classics. Popes, cardinals, princes, statesmen, warriors, high and 
low, old and young, were in search for Jewish teachers. Whilst this 
Kabbalistic epidemic was ragiug in Italy, Reuchlin (1455-1521), the 
reviver of literature in Germany, arrived at Rome with Eberhard the 

17 For an aocount of the import and hlatoxy of this esoterio doctrine, see The Kabbalah^ 
&c.y by Qinsbnrg, Longmans, 1865. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



10 

famous statesman) philosopher, theologian, and commentator, who 
wrote copious commentaries on nearly the whole of the Hebrew 
Scriptures ; Messer Leon, or Jehudah b. Jechiel, as he is called in 
Hebrew (1480 -•1505), Babbi and physician at Mantua, who wrote a 
yeiy elaborate Hebrew Grammar, a masterly Treatise on Hebrew 
Ehetoric, after the manner of Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintilian, and 
a Treatise on Hebrew Logic, and who was called the Hebrew Cicero ; 
the two Aramas, Isaac, the father (1480-1494), and Meier, the son 
(1470-1556), both of whom wrote extensive expositions of sundry 
books of the Scriptures; Abraham Saccuto (1450-1520), the famous 
historian and lexicographer; Saadia Ibn Danan (1450-1502)^ poet, 
lexicographer, and commentator; Abraham de BaJmes (1450-1521), 
physician, philosopher, and grammarian ; Jacob Mantino, a distinguished 
Hebraist and physician; Abraham Farissol (1451-1525), the famous 
cosmographer and conmientator ; Levi b. Chabib, Isaac b. Joseph Caro, 
Jacob Berab Obediah Sefomo, Jacob b. Jechiel Loanz, Joseph Ibn 
Jachja, &e,f &c., all of whom contributed materially to the diffusion 
of Biblical knowledge in its sundry departments. None of these 
Hebraists, however, who were the contemporaries of Elias Levita, 
and with many of whom he had personal intercourse, surpassed, or 
even equalled, our author in his successful efforts, either in mastering 
the granmiatical structure of the Hebrew language,* or in diffusing 
the knowledge of this sacred tongue among Jews, but more espe- 
cially among Christians, than Levita. And it is not too much to 
say, that the revival of Hebrew learning and Biblical knowledge in 
Europe, towards the close of the fifteenth and the commencement of 
the sixteenth centuries, resulting in the Reformation, which was 
effected by the immortal Beuchlin, was the result of the tuition which 
this father of' the Reformation received from Jacob b. Jechiel Loanz, 
physician to the Emperor Frederick HI., Obadiah Sefomo, and 
from Levita. 

It was not, however, the wish to become more thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the import of the Scriptures which kindled the desire 
in Reuchlin, and in a number of other eminent Christians, to learn 
Hebrew, which made them seek the tuition of Loanz, Levita, Sefomo, 
and a host of other Hebraists, and which was the means of calling 
forth the energies and works of Levita. The Kabbalah was the 
primary cause of the rage among the Christian literati of those days 
to study Shemitio languages. This esoteric doctrine, which was 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



9 

ledge oi Hebrew and Biblical literature. These soon began to spread 
the inowledge of the sacred language among Christians, by the aid of 
the newly invented art of printing. And as many of the Jewish con- 
verts were Eabbalists, they also initiated their Gentile disciples into 
its mysteries, and made almost as large a number of converts among 
Christians to this esoteric doctrine as Christianity had gained among 
the Jews. 

Foremost in the ranks of Jewish converts who laboured in the 
department of BibHcal literature were Alphonso de Alcala, Paul 
Coronel, and Alphonso de Zamora, who were employed in editing 
the celebrated Complutensian Polyglott, the sixth volume of which 
is almost entirely the work of Zamora. To these are to be added 
Felix Pratensis, the famous editor of the editio princeps of Bomberg's 
Babbinic Bible, and Jacob b. Chajim, the editor of the second edition 
of Bomberg's Babbinic Bible, who immortalised his name by his 
elaborate Introduction to this Bible, and by compiling and editing 
for the first time the critical apparatus of the Old Testament, called 
the Massorah. As propounders of the Kabbalah, among the Jewish 
converts, are to be mentioned Paul de Heredia, the author and trans- 
lator of sundry Eabbalistic works, which he dedicated to Pope 
Innocent VIII. ; Paul Ricio, professor at Pavia, physician to the 
Emperor Maxinlilian I., who translated a large portion of Joseph 
Gikatilla*s Eabbalistic work, entitled '^ The Gates of Light,'* which 
he dedicated to Maximilian, and which Beuchlin used very largely ; 
Yidal de Saragossa de Arragon, Davila, &c.^ 

The Jews themselves had a still greater phalanx of literary and 
scientific men who laboured in the departments of Biblical exegesis, 
the traditional law, the Kabbalah, philosophy, astronomy, &c. These 
literati supplied those Christians who impugned the infallible decisions 
of the Pope and his conclave respecting matters of doctrine, and who 
appealed to the Word of God as their sole guide, with the means of 
understanding the original language in which the greater part of the 
Bible is written. At the head of those who were thus enriching Bib- 
lical literature were Don Isaac b. Jehudah Abravanel (1487-1509), the 

10 According to a statement bj Abraham Farissol, in his MS. work entitled the Shield 
of Abraham (nrrOM ]2D), twelve distingaished convertcHl Jews formed themselves into 
a literary society, and conjointly issaed works to prove the tmth of Christianify from 
the Sohar and other Kabbalistic writings. The passage from Farissol's MS. work, giving 
this account, has been printed by Graetz, Oeschickte der Jiicfen, ix. 195. 

c 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



8 

he heard of the ediet issued (December 20, 1496) bj Emannel, King 
of Portugal, that all the Jews and Moors of his dominions should 
submit to Christian baptism, or quit the country by October next 
(1497) on pain of death. He, moreover, heard that the king, 
disappointed at so few Jews embracing Christianity, issued a secret 
command from Estremo Castle (February 4, 1497), forcibly to take 
all Jewish children of his dominion, both boys and girls, up to fourteen 
years of age, from their parents, and to baptise them on Easter Sunday ; 
the heart-rending effects of which are described by an eye-witness to 
the scene in the following terms : — ''T have seen," relates Bishop Fer- 
dinando Couthin, of Algarve, who protested against this compulsory 
baptism, ^^how multitudes were dragged by the hair to the baptismal 
font, and how the afflicted fathers, with their veiled heads, and 
agonising cries, followed their children, and protested at the altar 
against this inhuman compulsory baptism. I have also seen other 
inexpressible barbarities which were heaped upon them."" And when 
at last the period fixed for their departure had arrived, and about 
20,000 Jews were again driven from their homes into the wide, wide 
world, to seek a resting-place, Levita again saw many of his wandering 
brethren, who filled his heart with their afflictions, more bitter than 
death. We shall hereafter see that it is necessary to bear these things 
in mind, in order to understand the charges against which Levita 
defends himself in the second introduction to this work. 

These sufferings and repeated expulsions of the Jews, however, were 
overruled by Him who makes the wrath of man to praise Him, for the 
advancement of Hebrew literature, for the extension of Biblical know- 
ledge, and for kindling the light of the Beformation, in which Elias 
Levita played an important part. Though the bulk of the Jewish 
population in Germany, 800,000 in Spain, and 20,000 in Portugal 
preferred to quit their homes and everything dear and near unto them; 
and though many of them submitted to the most cruel deaths rather 
than embrace the Christianity in the name of which these barbarities 
were perpetrated ; yet an immense number of them, not having a 
martyr's courage, or being reluctant to lose their children, who were 
snatched from them, embraced the Christian faith. Many of these 
Neophytes secretly remained Jews, whilst others sincerely believed the 
religion which they were at first forced to embrace. Among them 
were men of most distinguished attainments and extraordinary know- 

" Ometz, Oeichichte der Juden^ yiii., 890, &c. Leipzig, 1864. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



jou are obliged to walk about like beggars and in rags I All yonr days 
are gloomy, even yonr Sabbaths and festivals ; strangers ei\joy your 
possessions, and what use are treasures to a wealthy Jew ? He only 
keeps them to his own misfortune, and they are all lost in one day. 
You call them yours ; no ! they are theirs. They invent lying accusa- 
tions against you ; they regard neither age nor knowledge. And when 
they give you a promise, though sealed with sixty seals, they break it. 
They always inflict upon you double punishment, the most cruel death, 
and plunder. They prohibit the instruction in our schools, disturb our 
prayers forbid the Jews to work on Christian festivals, or to carry on 
business. And now, Israel 1 why sleepest thou ? Arise, and quit 
this cursed land I "" 

Such lessons of Christian persecution and Mahommedan protection 
did Levita learn when he was about fifteen years of age ; and there 
can be but little doubt that it was in consequence of the terrible 
sufferings which the Jews had to endure in Germany, and Isaac 
Zarphati's thrilling summons to his brethren to quit this hot-bed of 
suffering, that Levita*s family, and as many other Jews as could afford 
it, emigrated, and sought an asylum wherever it could be found. The 
fact that Levita had already acquired a very high reputation, and 
delivered lectures on Grammar, at Padua, in the thirty-sixth year of 
his age, shews that his family must have settled in this town some 
years before, to allow sufficient time for the acquisition of his learning 
and influence in a place which was then the chief seat of Jewish learn- 
ing in Italy. His flight into Yenetia, however, did not place him 
beyond the reach of the agonising cry of his suffering brethren. 
Whilst diligently engaged in the study of Grammar and the Massorah, 
at the age of twenty-four (1492), Levita heard of the harrowing scenes 
enacted in Spain, where the whole Jewish population, about 800,000 
in number, were expelled,— a calamity which, in Jewish history, is 
only equalled in magnitude by the destruction of the Temple and 
the dispersion of the Israelites by Titus. Many of these broken- 
hearted wanderers who sought refuge in Italy, Levita must have seen. 
But the cup of bitterness was not yet full. In his twenty-eighth year, 

^* This interesting Address to the Jews of Germany by Isaao Zarphati, wYdch. is to be 
fotmd in the Imperial Library of Farisi {aneien foncU No. 291), has been published by 
Dr. Jellinek, in his work entitled Y'3nn rmu umTlp Conirihution to the Hutory qf the 
Cruaades, p. 14, &c. Leipzig, 1854. For a thorough and most masterly critique on the 
Epistle, ve must refer to Graetz, {Oetehichte der Jttdeny yiii., pp. 288 and 446, &e, 
Leipzig, 1864,) whose translation we have followed. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



tion firom their dominions (1477-1480) when he was about twelve 
years of age. 

The awful suffenngs which the Jews had to endure in Germany, 
from those whose Saviour was a Jew, and whose Apostles and 
Prophets were Jews, strangely contrasted with the kind treatment 
which they experienced in Turkey, from the infidels, the followers of 
the false prophet, and must have produced an extraordinary and 
indelible impression upon so shrewd a mind as that of Levita. When 
he was about fifteen years of age, Isaac Zarphati (1475-1485), one of 
the numerous Jews who fled from the fiery persecutions under the 
Gross to seek safety under the Crescent, addressed the following epistle 
to his brethren in Germany: — '*! have been informed of the calamities, 
more bitter than death, which have befallen our brethren in Germany ; 
of the tyrannical laws, the compulsory baptisms, and the banishments 
which take place daily. And if they fly from one place, greater mis- 
fortunes befall them in another place. I hear an impudent nation 
lifting up its raging voice against the faithful, and see its hand 
swinging over them. There are woes within and woes without ; daily 
edicts and taskmasters to extort money. The spiritual guides and the 
monks, the false priests, rise up against the unhappy people, and say, 
< We will persecute them to destruction, the name of Israel shall no 
more be remembered.* They imagine that their religion is in danger, 
because the Jews in Jerusalem may, peradventure, purchase the 
church of the sepulchre. For this reason, they have issued a decree that 
every Jew who is found on a Christian ship sailing for the East is to be 
thrown into the sea. How are the holy German community treated ; 
how are their energies weakened ! The Christians not only drive them 
from place to place, but lurk after their lives, brandish over them the 
sharpened sword, cast them into the flaming fire, into surging waters, 
or into stinking swamps. My brethren and teachers, friends and 
acquaintances, I, Isaac Zarphati, who come from France, was bom in 
Germany, and there sat at the feet of masters, proclaim to you, that 
Turkey is a land in which nothing is wanted. If ye are willing, it will 
be well with you. You will be able safely to go from Turkey to the 
Holy Land. Is it not better to live among Mahonunedans than among 
Christians? Here, we are allowed to dress in the finest materials; 
here, every one sits under his own fig-tree and vines; whilst in 
Christian countries, you are not even permitted to dress your children 
in red or blue without exposing them to be beaten red or blue. Hence 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



me, the son of a man who k called Asher Levi, a German, a man of 
valour and distinction," in the Epilogue to the book now edited with 
an English translation, the erudite Frensdorff ingeniously conjectures 
that B. Asher, Levita's father, was a military man, perhaps holding 
the office of a commissary in the German army, since the phrase 
^^n (^K ''vien of valour also denotes a military man, and the expression 
*mDN is used in later Hebrew for rank, Frensdorff moreover submits 
that this will explain the origin of Levita's surname, Bachur, inasmuch 
as, the son of a military man, he could legitimately substitute for 
^^n t5^K military man, and ^niBK officer y the word "nnn in allusion 
to Exod. xiv. 7 ; Judg. x. 15 ; 1 Sam. xiiv. 8 ; Jerem. xlix. 19 ; 
&c., &c." 

From the day of his birth to his thirty-sixth year (1468-1504) we 
hear nothing either of him or his family. The state of the Jews in 
Germany was too deplorable to admit of any record being kept about 
the personal circumstances and doings of private individuals. Lideed, 
it may well be questioned whether, since the advent of Christ, the 
destruction of Jerusalem, and the dispersion of the Jews, there was a 
period in the history of the world pregnant with greater events for the 
Christian nations, and fraught with more terrible results for the Jew- 
ish people, than that in which Levita spent his youth. When he 
was two years of age, all his brethren were expelled from Mayence and 
the Bheingau by Adolph of Nassau (October 29, 1470), after being 
recognised Archbishop of electoral Mayence by the Pope, on the 
deposition of Diether of Isenburg, the rival Archbishop, who converted 
the ancient synagogue into a church. When he was seven years of 
age, his youthful heart was afflicted with the horrible tidings that 
Bishop Hinderbach had the whole Jewish community at Trent burned 
(1475), in consequence of a base calumny that they had killed for their 
Passover a Christian boy named Simon. The infamous calumny about 
the murder of this boy rapidly spread through Christendom, and every- 
where kindled the fires of persecution, so much so that, notwithstand- 
ing the prohibition of Pope Sixtus IV. (October 10, 1475) to worship 
Simon of Trent as saint till the charge had been properly investigated, 
the Jews in Germany were massacred whenever they quitted their 
quarters. The Bishop of Nassau nearly exterminated all the Jews 
under his jurisdiction ; and the magnates of Ratisbon, in the very 
neighbourhood of Levita's birth-place, expelled all the Jewish popula- 
is In FrankerB Monatachriftt xiii. p. 99. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Exceedingly little is kno^m of Elias Levita's family. From his 
own signature we learn that his father's name was Asher, and that he 
was horn in Germany. The celebrated Sebastian Munster, in ^hose 
house Levita lived for some time, who translated many of his 
books into Latin, and who ought therefore to be regarded as the 
highest authority on this subject, distinctly tells us that the place 
where his parents resided, and where he was bom, is Neustadt, on the 
Aisch, near Nurmburg.^*^ Minister's statement is fully borne out by 
Levita's own remarks in his different works, in which he always 
includes himself when speaking of the Germans. Thus, in his Expo- 
sition of 712 words from Jewish literature, he says, on the expression 
tD^pfi^ ''it denotes small writing ; that is, when the writing is not in 
square characters it is tD^pC^. It is now many years ago that I was 
told that it is an Arabic expression, signifying thirif attenuated ; but 
I afterwards got to know that it is not Arabic at all. I have asked 
many Jews from Italy, France, Spain, Greece, and Arabia, all of whom 
pronounce it in this way, but none of them knew its derivation. We 
Gemiansj however, pronounce it lO^K'yD, and we too do not know 
whence it is derived."^ To the same effect is Levita's remark in the 
Introduction to his Massoretical work, entitled Uie Book of Remembrance : 
** I shall put down in the explanation of each word its signification in 
German, which w the language of my countrymen.* '^^ From the words, 
** to those who ask thee who made thee, say the hands of Elias made 

w Comp. Wolf, BiblioihecaHebrcBa, i. 163; iii. 97. 

D»ai omrrb »nbj«yi :V^3 u^Ty piD^ ^^'•wo "b ma "p nmn .rronroi rm «t« 'itq? ]n«b vkto 
m33w«n ian3*o ' vnn rro innrt xrv «y» p n^ pip oViat c^itn o^ain omDoi o^ntnai o^ian^ 

jtf\'n no layr mti td*wo dtt!? pip 
See also the Tishbi under the expression nnD. pip 1\ ]pn and other places, in all of 
which he classes himself with the Germans, saying D^33ia3Mn lansM toe Oermans. The 
passage qnoted from Levita's Epilogue to his p:inino, where he says, "WZM ^S*1M ^M ^ *1^ 
n:pTn ^xdh d» m?n moni M^y^ni nrio mtt .d«jd »rtt«*. / shall now return to my 
country^ which I have left^ namely^ to the city of Venice^ and die in my town toith my 
aged wife^ to prove that he was bom at Venice, is both at variance with his other 
remarks and inconclnsive. For it will be seen that he does not call Venice his native 
place (^ni!7lO "ITT), which he would undoubtedly have done had he been bom in it, but 
simply styles it ^^ my town" (n"V), ^*the town which I left'* (d©D ^n«3' TB^*), which 
any one would do who had lived in a town many years, and left there his wife and family. 

" Tjy m ]i«b NTTO \iysM piD^i nainnc nfei nbo ^D tm»3 te ^ iinDM oa. See 
Frankel's MonaUchrift fur Gcschichte und Wiseenschafl dee Judenthume, zii. 96 — 108. 
Breslan, 1863, where the learned Frensdorff has printed the Introduction to this 
unpublished work. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



8 

<^ Ab excellent work is the 'Grates of Dnren/ by Isaac Babbi of 
Duren. 
Therein are described all proscribed meats ; there is nothing 

like it in propounding the laws. 
Therein, too, are exhibited the laws of purification, with most 

of the opinions of the learned in the law. 
Pubhshed Shehat 8, 808 [= Decemb. 18, 1548], of the short 

era of the creation. 
The writer of this poem is Elijahu Bachnr, aged fonr-score 
years by reason of strength.**^ 
To understand the dates of this epilogue, it is necessary to remark 
that the Israelites reckon from the creation of the world, and that their 
chronology is 280 years shorter than ours. Thus, for instance, whilst 
this year, i.e. 1866 A.D., is with us 5856 a.m., it is with the Jews 
5626 A.M. Moreover, it is to be noted that in Hebrew MSS., as well 
as in printed books, two modes are adopted of expressing the date. 
The one is by writing the full numbering : that is, 5626 a.m. = 1866 
A.D., which is called the Great or FuU era (^Hi DIB) ; and the other 
is by omitting the thousands, and leaving them to be understood as 
626, instead of 5626, which is called the Short era (pp tDne^ abbreviated 
P'sb), and which is more generally used for the sake of brevity. 
Accordingly, 808 stands for 5808 = 1548, and if Elias Levita, as he 
tells us himself, was eighty years old in 1548, he must have been bom 
in 1468.^ 

: MTiTo a^ prw d«»^, Min nw?. trra noD s 
.rmn D»an. imoD yn, V3«d nan te tidm m 
,rrnn no\b. nxffn Tn oy, ma Tvchm rmojn la 
rrr^n ^ pop tcdd p, B"awD V'o'a xrsh oma 
— rmaa^ 'd ]pt nim itt^m vrm '\ymoin 
' With Ellas Levita's oim statement before ns, the reader will be surprised at the 
following difference of opinion abont the date of oar author's birth : — 

Dr. Holmes {KUto'8 Cyelopadia, new ed. «. t*. Elias) . . . a.d. 1470. 

Fiirst {Bibliotheca Judaica, i., 239) „ 1471. 

EaliBch (Hebrew Grammar, ii., 88) „ 1474. 

Oanz {Zcmach David, i., Anno. 277), Jechiel {Seder JIa-Dorolh 

i. Sfta, ed. Lemberg 1858), &c., <fcc „ 1477. 

Landau {Nathan's Aruch, i., 38, Gennan Introd. Prague, 1819) „ 1509. 
We are surprised at Dr. Ealisch's error, since this learned scholar quotes in the foot 
note on p. 84 of his Hebrew Grammar, the life of Levita, by Buber, in which it is proved 
to demonstration that Levita was bom in 1468, and since Jost, who was also formerly in 
error upon this subject, has corrected his mistake in his Oeschiehie dee Judenthumsy 
(iii., 119, Leipzig 1859,) four years before the appearance of the Hebrew Grammar. 
(Longman, 1868). Comp. also Graetz, Gesckkhte der Juden, ix., 28i, Leipzig 1866. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



2 

Elijahu Bachuvy the German (n33B^ l\n2 in^Sw)' Now Landau,^ 
Steinschneider,* Dr. Holmes," and others, mamtam that he obtained 
the appellation Bachur from his Hebrew Grammar, which he 
designated by this title. But Levita himself tells us the very 
reverse, that he called the work in question by his own surname, 
which he had from his youth. Thus, in the Introduction to the 
Book Bachur, he says, "Behold, I have called this book Bachur, 
for three reasons : — i. Because the book itself is choice and excellent 
[in allusion to Is. vii. 15, 16], being entirely pure meal without any 
chaff, ii. Because it has been compiled for every young man to study 
therein in the days of his youth, so that his heart might be improved 
in his later days ; and, iii. Because it is my surname I have founded it 
upon the name Bachur.*'^ To the same effect is his remark at thS 
end of the book : << To those who ask thee, whose book art thou ? say 
Elijahu's, whose surname is Bachur;"^ as well as the poem to the second 
edition : '' Because it is usefdl for the young, as well as excellent, and 
my own name is Bachur, I called it Bachur. "« This is moreover 
corroborated by the fact, that he calls himself Bachur in the Fiction 
entitled Baba-Buchy which he wrote el^^en years be/ore he published 
the Grammar in question, {vide infra, p. 14). 

He was bom in 1468, as is evident from the poem which he 
appended to his edition of B. Isaac Duren's^ work on the Ceremonial 
Law, published at Venice, 1548, and which is as follows : — 

1 In his edition of B. NatHan b. Jechiers Aramaie Lexicon, caUed yrc^T^, vol. i., p. 
88. German Introduction. Fragne 1819. For an account of the life of R. Nathan and 
his celebrated Lexicon, we must refer to Eitto's Cyd^tpadia of Biblical Literature, 
Alexander's edition, a. v. Nathan. 

> CattUoffues, Libr. Hebr,, in Bibliotheca Bodleiana, col. 084. 
* Kitto's Cyclopcedia qf Biblical LitertUure, «. t'. Elias. 

.aiBi Tim mri nsjorr nima nnun, mao xcrM) rm. tinan ibd vitn iDon dw ^rwnp nam i 
yib non ini-TO 'TD^m -nob^ iina tabu latno imm -tiara ivawn jiMdo ia ]*«. nVio iViai 
•miaM Tina nwai. txswo naa mm Tiaa^x rp^r^n .vnnMa 

.Tina yam naa tn^ lokr .nnM nab noD 'bMitA « 
.vrnMnp nina Tina na«? »3mi Tina ur\ ym win iina bab pr « 
7 R. Isaac b. Meier flourished a.d. 1820-1880, at Diiren on the Boer, where he was 
Rabbi of the Jewish community, and whence he deriyed his surname. His work on the 
Ceremonial Law he entitled trWD Gates, because it discusses the laws of legal and 
illegal meats (-vnTn "ITD^M niabn) in ninety-six gates or sections. It is, howeyer, com- 
monly called (tnil "fy^) the Gates of or by Duren, which some haye erroneously 
translated porta habitationis. It was first published at Cracow, 1684. The edition to 
which Elias Levita wrote the poems is either the second or third. Comp. Fiirst, 
Biblioiheca Judcaca, i., 218; Stoinschneider, Catalogua Libr. JTebr. in BibUoiheca 
Bodleiana, col. 1104-8. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



LIFE OF ELIAS LEVITA. 



The perpetual expulsions and wanderings to which the Jews have 
heen subjected, ever since their dispersion, have not been favourable 
to the writing of Biographical Dictionaries. Though they may have 
had enterprising compilers, who were ready to issue ** The Men of 
the Time,'* the fact that the children of the same parents were 
often bom and brought up in different countries, wasting their youth 
in journeys often, in perils of waters, in perils of robbers, in perils 
*by their own countrymen, in perils by the Christians, would have 
almost precluded the possibility of such an undertaking. Hence it is 
that the very names, as well as the mere dates and birth-places, of 
some of the most distinguished Jewish literati^ are matters of dispute, 
and that next to nothing is known of their private history and domestic 
life. But for the Oriental custom of giving some scraps of autobio.- 
graphy in the Introductions and Appendices, in the Prologues and 
Epilogues, of their works, many of the Jewish authors, to whom 
political economy, medicine, astronomy, philosophy, philology, 
exegesis, and poetry owe an immense debt of gratitude, would have 
been, to the honest historian and grateful student, like Melchisedec, 
without father, without mother, without descent, having neither 
beginning of days nor end of life. 

The history of the author of the famous Massoreth Ha-Massorethy 
now published with an English translation, and of many other works, 
fully illustrates these remarks. The year of his birth, his proper 
name, and the incidents of his life are only to be gathered by piecing 
together the autobiographical fragments scattered through his different 
works. Inattention to this fEict has caused the greatest divergence 
of opinion among scholars on almost every point of his life. 

His name among Christians is Elias Levita. Elias, or more 
correctly Elijahu (ih^'^k), was the name given to him by his parents on 
the eighth day of his birth, when he was dedicated to the Lord and 
made a member of the Jewish community by the sign of the covenant 
enjoined in Gen. xvii. 10-14 ; whilst Levita = Ha-Levi (^iSn) simply 
denotes that he belonged to the tribe of Levi. His name among the 
Jews, which is given by himself in sundry places of his writings, is 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



VUl. 

point, those words only which are" the subject of Massoretic 
annotation, so as to enable the student to see which word 
is selected for discussion ; since in the original, where chapter 
and verse are not specified, several words of a passage had to 
be quoted to indicate the section from which it was taken. 

By comparing every allusion to the Massoretic registers 
with the Massorah itself, and by giving every such rubric in 
full, I have not only been enabled to correct many errors 
in the text of the Treatise, which had arisen either from a 
slip of tha pen on the part of the author, or through mis- 
prints, but have supplied the student with the most important 
part of the Massorah, as will be seen from the extensive Index 
of the Massoretically annotated passages and the Index of 
parallels between the Massoretic lists and the Ochla Ve-Ochla 
appended to the work. 

The order of the passages of Scripture, in any of the rubrics 
quoted in the notes, is that of the Massorah, and it is to be 
hoped that the trouble and labour which I have expended in 
appending book, chapter, and verse to every expression, in 
every list, will help the Biblical student to prosecute his 
Massoretic studies. The edition of the Massorah referred to 
throughout the work is that contained in Frankfurter's 
Great Eabbinic Bible, Amsterdam, 1724-27. 

I take this opportunity to express my hearty thanks to the 
learned Dr. Steinschneider and the Abate Pietro Perreau, 
Librarian of the Bibliotheque at Parma, for information duly 
acknowledged in the proper place. 

Bbooklea, Aiobubth Road, 

LrvEBPOOL, December, 1866. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



PREFACE. 



The work now submitted to the public in the original Hebrew, 
with an English translation, is an explanation of the origin 
and import of the Massorah. Those who are acquainted with 
the fact that our Hebrew Bibles abound with marginal and 
textual glosses, — to which even the Bibles issued by the Bible 
Society, which boasts that it circulates the pure word of God 
without note or comment, form no exception, — and who know 
that there is no guide in our language, or in any modern 
language, to these enigmatical notes, will welcome this 
Treatise, written by the first, and almost the only, Massoretic 
expositor. For be it remembered that Buxtobf*s Latin 
Dissertation, entitled, Clavis Masoretictis, published in 1620 
and 1665, is to a great extent made up of Lb vita's work, 
interspersed with notions utterly at variance with those of 
Levita, and without giving his explanation of the plan of 
the Massorah. 

For an account of Levita himself, and the extraordinary 
controversy to which this Treatise gave rise almost all over 
Europe during the time of the Reformation, we must refer 
to the Life prefixed to this volume. 

The text of the Work is that of the editio pnnceps, 1538, 
carefully collated with the only two other editions of it, 
Basel, 1539, and Sulzbach, 1771. The results of the colla- 
tion have been duly given in the notes. 

All that I have ventured to do with the text has been to 
divide it into paragraphs, and to print in larger type, or to 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Digitized by 



Google 



IBD 



riTiDton miDto 



inan 



,DJD»Di ornTni ,D3i»f? iij'pa ,miDDn ♦^a -jin ^minn ^vmh ,nntn*?i i^an*? 
:]ip*n rwp oSa^ ,ppnBi3ai ma»n ♦fcf«na 

•H!'7pn nycoi -jwasrt'naai iD"n nawa V^ttoa n"2n nawa rrcrania dbi: 

P'DDo ii«aa 3^DNn n«u»i 



^nwo 



ininxj^j nin iN^toona 






Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



THE 



MASSOKETH HA-MASSOEETH 



OF 



ELIAS LEVITA, 



BEING AN EXPOSITION OF THE MASSORETIC NOTES 
ON THE HEBREW BIBLE, 



THE ANCIENT CRITIOAL APPARATUS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT 

IN HEBREW, WITH AN ENGLISH TBANSLATION, 

AND 
CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY NOTES, 



CHEISTIAN D. GINSBURG, LL. D. 



LONDON : 
LONGMANS, GREEN, READER & DYER. 

1867, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



LIVERPOOL: 

pRxirrED BY D. iiarpt.es, 

6Qb, lord rtrbbt. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google